Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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Les ténébrions et leurs larves : allergènes alimentaires du futur ?

Tenebrio Spp. and their mealworms: Food allergy of the futureG. Dutau Revue Française d'Allergologie

Volume 54, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 1–3

Jacques Mignon's insight:

Début du texte de l'Editorial :

"Dans le présent numéro, Van der Brempt et Moneret-Vautrin et al.attirent notre attention sur le « Risque allergique de Tenebrio molitor pour la consommation humaine ». En effet, la proposition de « nouveaux aliments » comme les insectes ou leurs larves n’est pas sans poser non seulement des problèmes d’acceptabilité liés aux habitudes culturelles alimentaires, mais aussi des questions sanitaires, en particulier allergiques. Prenant l’exemple des vers de farine, larves de T. molitor, les auteurs soulignent à juste titre l’importance d’études préalables sur le risque allergique de ces protéines même si, à leur connaissance, un seul cas d’anaphylaxie a été décrit, ce qui est peut-être très en dessous de la réalité, car l’analyse de la littérature est toujours limitée aux publications effectuées et aux allergènes reconnus. Or les allergènes des insectes sont très souvent des allergènes masqués."

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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
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Livestock production to feed the planet. Animal Protein: A Forecast of Global Demand Over the Next Years

The world population will significantly increase by 2050, from the current seven million to more than nine million inhabitants and the highest rate of increase is expected in developing countries. The demand for animal products will follow the population growth and increase between 50 and 70%, although with differences between all regions. According nutritional recommendations, at least one third of the daily protein requirement should derived from animal proteins. Meat, fish, milk or eggs, rich essential amino acids, micronutrients and vitamins, should provide about 20g of 60g of total protein; however, the current level of intake should be reduced. In the next future, livestock sector will increase the productivity, without compromising the quality and the nutritional safety of the products, as well as the environmental protection and animal welfare.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Farming edible insect could be a possible solution to overcome the future population growth, the global demand for food, specifically for protein sources and the food waste reduction."
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Insect Larvae Fed Mycotoxin-Contaminated Wheat – a Possible Safe, Sustainable Protein Source for Animal Feed?

Demand for increased food production, particularly protein, is increasing with the world’s growing population. Alternative and sustainable sources of animal protein will be required to reduce environmental impacts of conventional livestock production. Historically, insects have been typical dietary components within eastern countries, and their nutritional value is proportionally comparable to conventional meat. The yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) is an edible insect, rich in crude protein and crude fat. Moreover, there is evidence that mealworms are able to utilize mycotoxin-contaminated wheat as a food source without accumulating the mycotoxins, thus providing a value for low-grade wheat along with a more sustainable and cheaper source of crude protein for animal feed. The aim of this study was to measure production traits, survivability, and determine whether mealworms can detoxify mycotoxins (specifically deoxynivalenol, DON) when fed Fusarium-damaged, high mycotoxin wheat.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" From our research, Tenebrio molitor does not appear to accumulate harmful mycotoxins when fed highly contaminated grain, and with further research, could conceivably be used as a sustainable, safe protein source in animal feed."

(2017 ASAS-CSAS Annual Meeting & Trade Show)
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Fish meal replacement by Cirina butyrospermi caterpillar's meal in practical diets for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

Fish meal replacement by Cirina butyrospermi caterpillar's meal in practical diets for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Fifty-six days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of Cirina butyrospermi caterpillar meal (CBM) as protein source in replacement of fish meal (FM) for Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Six hundred African catfish (initial mean weight = 2.42 ± 0.01 g) were fed with four approximate isonitrogenous (48.97% crude protein), isolipidic (15.85% crude lipid) and isocaloric (21.10 kJg−1) formulated diets, in which CBM progressively replaced FM at 0 (D1), 50 (D2), 75 (D3), 100% (D4) levels. At the end of the trial period, the best growth performance and nutritional utilization were observed in the group of fish fed with D2 and was not significantly different from those fed with D1 (the control diet). The survival rates, which ranged from 85.33% to 90.33%, were not significantly different among fish from the four diet treatments.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The proximate whole-body composition of C. gariepinus fingerlings fed the different diets showed similar moisture and protein contents. However, in contrary to ash which decreased, whole-body lipid increased significantly when fish fed with diet containing CBM inclusion superior or equal to 75% (D3 and D4). The higher gross profit was obtained with D2 (16.73$), while the lowest was observed with D4 (10.16$). This study demonstrates that 50% of fish meal can successfully be replaced with CBM in C. gariepinus fingerlings diet without a negative impact on growth or feed utilization. This will yield a cheaper feeding for profitable production of African catfish fingerlings."
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Outbreak of insect diseases in domestic insect farms

In Jeolla-do, both fungal and bacterial diseases occurred in June. Generally, bacterial diseases occurred mainly from June to October, while the frugal diseases occurred from January to March. It was concluded that the entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae, tended to cause diseases during late-winter and early spring and bacteria, uncertain, was prone to cause diseases during summer. Therefore, it necessary to adequately control depending on the type of the entomopathogen.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The frequency and time of the outbreak of insect diseases were investigated among the insect-rearing farms by regional groups. The purpose of this study was to predict the insect diseases and reduce the spread of diseases. From February to October 2016, 87 of diseased insects were collected in seven regions. It turned out that the pathogens for fungal diseases were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae. But in case of bacterial diseases, the pathogenicity of the bacteria isolated from the diseased insects were not confirmed. Bacterial diseases occurred mainly in June and August in Gyeonggi-do and Gangwon-do, while in Chungcheong-do, bacterial and viral disease raged."
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Insekten als Nahrungsmittel der Zukunft

Insekten als Nahrungsmittel der Zukunft | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insects as a sustainable food of the future

In Germany insects are still relatively unknown as foodstuff. However, in many countries of the world insects have been valued as foodstuff for a long time. This article examines the sustainability potential of entomophagy. Based on legal and psychological barriers it tries to explain why insects are not on the menu in Germany. Research in the fields of nutritional psychology and biodidactics is essential for the successful introduction of insects as foodstuff in Germany.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"In Deutschland sind Insekten als Nahrungsmittel noch relativ unbekannt. In vielen Ländern der Welt hingegen werden Insekten schon seit langer Zeit als Nahrungsmittel geschätzt. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet das Nachhaltigkeitspotenzial von Entomophagie und versucht anhand rechtlicher und psychologischer Barrieren zu erklären, warum Insekten in Deutschland noch nicht auf dem Speiseplan stehen. Forschung in den Bereichen der Ernährungspsychologie und Biologiedidaktik ist essenziell für die erfolgreiche Einführung von Insekten als Nahrungsmittel in Deutschland."
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Ecological diversity of edible insects and their potential contribution to household food security in Haut‐Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo

Ecological diversity of edible insects and their potential contribution to household food security in Haut‐Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The caterpillars Elaphrodes lactea Gaede, Lobobunaea saturnus Fabricius and Cinabra hyperbius (Westwood) as well as the termites Macrotermes falciger Gerstäcker were the most dominant species of edible insects preferred and consumed among the different communities. Our study demonstrates that entomophagy is a common practice among the ethnic populations with married, tertiary and university-level individuals recording significantly higher consumption of edible caterpillars. Populations between the ages of 18 and 45 years as well as the Bemba tribe were also more actively involved in entomophagy. Further research would be necessary to exploit edible insect biodiversity and ethno-entomophagy and initiate actions for food plant conservation in DR Congo.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The aim of this study was to give the first insight into the food plant range, seasonal availability of edible insects, community preference and willingness to consume them. The study revealed a list of eleven edible insect species belonging to four families. Twenty-six plant species were recorded as food plants of nine edible caterpillar species. Seasonal availability of these insects coincided with the rainy season and was strongly linked to relatively high level of consumption."
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Acceptability of biscuits containing 10% cricket (Acheta domesticus) compared to milk biscuits among 5-10-year-old Kenyan schoolchildren

Hedonic ratings were significantly lower in cricket biscuits for looks (P=0.006), smell (P=0.04), texture (P=0.02), and overall (P=0.01) compared to milk biscuits, but all ratings were above average (2.5). The biscuits contribute with macro- and micronutrients important for a child in Western Kenya. The acceptability of the cricket biscuits was high and long-term based on set criteria (>75% eaten >75% of the study days). Organoleptic properties were rated above average for cricket biscuits but lower than milk biscuits in most aspects.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The objective of the study was to develop a recipe for cricket biscuits suitable for school feeding programmes and test acceptability of the biscuits in Kenyan schoolchildren, in comparison with a similar biscuit with milk. The study was randomised and parallel. Fifty-four children aged 5-10 years were served 100 g (range 98-102 g) biscuits containing either 10% cricket powder or 10% milk powder during school days for four weeks. At baseline anthropometry (weight, height, mid upper arm circumference) was measured and information on insect consumption and allergies collected. Daily, weight of biscuits eaten and hesitation and refusal to eat were noted. Weekly, hedonic ratings were performed."
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Chemical evaluation of the Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae fed on different substrates as human food source

Conversely, the weevil larvae did not represent a good source of α-tocopherol (14.17–26.22 mg/kg based on dry matter). The ability of the protein extracts obtained from the weevil larvae to inhibit in vitro the angiotensin-converting enzyme, the main enzyme involved in blood pressure regulation, was also investigated. To simulate gastrointestinal digestion process, protein extracts were hydrolyzed by the gastrointestinal enzymes. A significantly lower IC50 (0.588–0.623 mg/ml) was measured in all the protein extracts after enzymatic hydrolysis versus the corresponding crude protein extracts (3.270–3.752 mg/ml). Given that the weevil larvae are able to provide interesting benefits for human health, this study supports their use as human food not just in the native countries where they are traditionally consumed and farmed but also throughout the world.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"We investigated the chemical composition of the weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae, traditionally used as human food in Asia and known worldwide as one of the most significant pest for palm trees. Total fat content and fatty acid composition were analyzed using standard methodologies in (1) weevil larvae reared on apple fruit slices and wild specimens collected from attacked (2) Phoenix canariensis and (3) Syagrus romanzoffiana palm trees. Total fat content was extremely high in all the specimens (ranged between 57.62 and 60.03% based on dry weight). Despite sharing the same prevalent fatty acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, α-linoleic acid, and α-linolenic acid), fatty acid composition of the wild weevil larvae significantly differed from that of the specimens raised on apple fruit, due to the presence of other minor compounds."
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Insects as food: perception and acceptance

The production of animal protein is linked to high resource consumption, requiring a lot of agricultural land, water and energy. Traditional livestock farming and meat production are also morally questionable. Interest in alternative protein sources which can be produced using fewer resources has rapidly increased in recent years. Due to a report by the FAO [1] and the commitment of individual scientists, public interest in insects as an alternative protein source has increased.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This systematic literature review reveals the extent to which people are willing to eat insects in Europe, as well as which influencial factors have already been examined and which strategies to increase acceptance are promising. Further research is required to better understand how insects could be made more attractive to the Western market. However, it remains to be seen whether insects will find a place in the diet of Western consumers."
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Antiageing activities of water-soluble chitosan from Clanis bilineata larvae

Antiageing activities of water-soluble chitosan from Clanis bilineata larvae | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Water extracts were prepared using water-soluble chitosan from Clanis bilineata larva skin. This study also investigated antioxidant and antiageing activities of water-soluble chitosan. Water-soluble chitosan of Clanis bilineata larva skin (CBLSWSC) showed considerable scavenging activities on superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals and reducing capacity. Different doses of CBLSWSC were intragastrically administered on a d-galactose-induced-aged mouse model over a period of six weeks.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Intragastric CBLSWSC administration significantly increased activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and inhibited formation of malondialdehyde in brains and sera of mice in a dose-dependent manner. Results suggest that CBLSWSC exhibits high antioxidant activity and can be developed as potential dietary supplement to retard ageing in humans."
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Allergie et sensibilisation aux criquets Ornithacris turbida cavroisi dans la communauté urbaine de Niamey : à propos de 27 cas

Deux espèces d’insectes sont essentiellement consommées au Niger, les criquets Ornithacris turbida cavroisi et les éphémères. Le but de cette étude est d’apprécier la sensibilisation et les allergies aux criquets comestibles qui, à notre connaissance, n’ont pas été explorées à ce jour.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"La consommation de criquets constitue un apport nutritif certain. Cependant, l’entomophagie comporte un risque allergique qui demande à être exploré afin de mieux connaître les substrats moléculaires à l’origine de ces réactions allergiques."
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Entomophagy: Insects as Food

Entomophagy: Insects as Food | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Due to the increasing cost of animal proteins, food and feed insecurity, population growth, and increasing need for protein-rich food in the developed and less developed countries, alternative sources of protein-rich food are highly needed. Scientific research has shown that edible insects are a very rich source of proteins and other nutrients. Hence, insect consumption might help revolutionaries’ food and feed insecurity and thus replace the conventional animal source. This work assesses the potential of insects as food for humans and feed for animals and gathers existing information and research on edible insects.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Considering the nutritional, economic, and ecological advantages of edible insects over conventional livestock, much attention should therefore be given to their method of collection as this will help improve their availability. This could be achieved by improved conservation or by raising them as a minilivestock. Considering the economic, nutritional, and ecological advantages of this traditional food source, its promotion deserves more attention both from national governments and assistance programs."
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New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity

New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of ‘yes, provided that’ its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle ‘no, unless’. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects."
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Product Development Considerations for a Nutrient Rich Bar Using Cricket Acheta domesticus Protein

Texture, appearance, aroma, and flavor were all significantly associated (p<0.0 5) with overall acceptability. The majority (61%) of subjects preferred the market bar to the insect alternative. Additionally, 84% of the subjects were able to distinguish the cricket bar from the market alternative. This suggests that products developed using cricket protein powder will need to modify the sensory attributes accordingly to successfully integrate edible insects in the diet of the western society.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Insect protein has recently gained attention as an alternate protein source for humans as it is regarded as a sustainable source of protein that is nutritionally comparable to traditional livestock. The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of a protein bar supplemented with cricket protein. "

Thesis
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Effect of total replacement of fishmeal by earthworm and Azolla filiculoides meals in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) reared in concrete tanks

In order to eliminate use of fishmeal in aquafeeds, we evaluated the effect of total replacement of fish meal by a mixture of earthworm (Eisenia foetida) and aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). The experiment was conducted in O. niloticus fingerlings (initial mean weight = 5.6±0.2 g) for a period of 60 days.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "On termination of the experiment, the final mean weights in the test diets (10.79 to 11.94 g) were lower than 14.9 g obtained in group fed control diet (p<0.05). The best growth performance and feed utilisation were obtained in fish fed test diets A1 and A4 (SGR = 1.25 and 1.26% day-1; FCR = 2.37 and 2.31 respectively). Excess of lysine in test diets was found to affect the feed utilisation."
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Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal as a fish meal replacement in diets for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

Highlights
•Black soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal (HM) can replace up to 19.5% of fish meal (FM) in diets for European seabass.
•Growth performance and feed utilization were not affect by the dietary inclusion of 19.5% of HM.
•Apparent digestibility coefficients and digestive enzymes activities were not affect by the dietary inclusion of 19.5% of HM.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
""A feeding trial was carried out to assess the effect of partially replacing fish meal (FM) by Black soldier fly pre-pupae meal (HM) in diets for European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. A FM-based diet was used as a control and three other diets were formulated to include 6.5%, 13%, and 19.5% of HM, replacing 15%, 30% and 45% of FM respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 50 g) for 62 days. At the end of the trial, there were no differences among groups in growth performance or feed utilization."
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Termite in the diet of people of Benishangul Gumuz zone, Ethiopia

Fat supplement could be a possible reason behind the human consumption of termites. Beside the bio-prospection of termite as food or oil source, termite foraging would have important evolutionary biology due to their significant amount of energy-yielding nutrients which could presumably be critical resource for development of larger brained hominines.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Swarming alates of termite Macrotermes sp. has been accepted as food among people of Benishangul Gumuz zone in west Ethiopia bordering with Sudan. The preference seems to be for the reproductive caste. We assessed the nutritional composition of nymph and alate of Macrotermes sp. of Ethiopia. The adult contained higher amino acids (31%) compared to nymph (21%). However, the distribution of amino acids in the protein was similar (ap. 4:6 essential to non-essential amino acids). Both stages tend to have high fat contents (50%)."
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An investigation into the farms rearing edible insects in Korea

The various feed additives are blended with each farm’s own recipes. It seems that larval weight was correlated with the rearing density and duration of the larval period. The heavy metal contents were analyzed after 48 hour starvation and they were very small amount or not detected. We believe that the present data will contribute to develop and standardize the safe rearing techniques of edible insects in Korea.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstraxct:
"Recently, Gryllus bimaculatus and the larva of Tenebrio molitor, Protaetia brevitarsis, and Allomyrina dichotoma were enlisted as general food ingredients by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. As the interest in these insects is growing, the detailed investigation is needed for the standardization of suitable and safe rearing techniques. This survey was conducted via personal interviews about edible insect rearing farms in Korea. The basic feed is fermented oak sawdust for P. brevitarsis and A. dichotoma and wheat bran for T. molitor."
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Bug Ideas: Assessing the market potential and regulation of insects

Insects can be grown at industrial scale using low energy, low water and high waste inputs. They have the correct nutritional makeup of protein, fat and omega-3s to supplement fishmeal when fed to fish, pigs and chickens. Furthermore, the ability to control the insect rearing conditions means the cost and output of insect meal can be more stable than fishmeal, which has dramatic price fluctuations. This leaves opportunity for a new feedstock to capitalize upon the increased demand for feed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" This project will provide clarity and guidance in the emerging insect-based feedstock market. The two areas of focus are regulatory status and market potential. The primary geographical scope of this project will be the United States of America. However, given the global nature of feed, relevant tangential international implications will be presented as well."
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Defatted black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal in diets for juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian): Growth performance, antioxidant enzyme activities, digestive enzyme activitie...

Highlights

• DBSFLM boosted antioxidant status of fish by higher CAT activity.
• Defatted black soldier fly larvae meal significantly decreased the hepatopancreas lipid and serum cholesterol content of fish.
• It is practical to replace 50% of the Jian carp dietary fishmeal protein with defatted black soldier fly larvae meal.
• High levels of substitution of fishmeal with defatted black soldier fly larvae meal resulted in stress and intestinal histopathological damage of fish.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The histological examination of intestine showed that when 75% or more FM protein was replaced, apparent pathological changes for example tissue disruption were observed in intestine, and relative gene expression of HSP70 in hepatopancreas significantly increased (P < 0.05). The histological examination of hepatopancreas sections showed less vacuolated with lipid deposits in treatment groups compared with control group. These results suggested that the growth of Jian carp was not affected by dietary DBSFLM, while it boosted antioxidant status of Jian carp by higher CAT activity. However, dietary stress and intestinal histopathological damage was observed when the replacement levels exceeded 75%. The study demonstrates that it is suitable to replace up to 50% of dietary FM protein with DBSFLM."
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Is Insect Protein a Sustainable Alternative to Soy and Fishmeal in Poultry Feed ?

Healthy growth was observed among all chickens, suggesting that Black Soldier Fly larvae can effectively replace soy and fishmeal in poultry feed. This confirmation of alternative feed has the potential to influence approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of insect based protein once analysis is conducted throughout the chicken’s lifetime for the next 2-6 weeks.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
By Madeline Gaffigan

Part abstract:
"This thesis describes a research experiment examining the potential of Black Soldier Fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) (Diptera: Stratidomyidae) reared on local food waste to effectively feed poultry. Significantly less water and land is required to raise Black Soldier Fly larvae and fewer greenhouse gas emissions are generated, relative to the production of soy and fishmeal for animal feed industry. In order to account for the environmental pressure meat production puts on our environment, chickens were raised on Black Cat Farm in Longmont, CO using a more sustainable, insect-based, feed."


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ACRIDOFAGI: MANGIATORI DI CAVALLETTE E DISGUSTO IN ETÀ MODERNA.

It is important to pay attention to the Acridophages' phenomenon, because there are ongoing attempts in order to extend the use of locusts as worldwide food, as showed by the Fao documents or by the initiatives organized by the 2015 Expo about food. The essay retraces the history of locust-eaters in the relationship with Western civilization, starting from the studies of the sixteenth-century scientists; according to these scholars locusts were good just for medical purposes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This survey dates back till the origin of the knowledge of the Acridophages thanks to Herodotus and Diodorus of Sicily, and then examines in depth its "identification" during Modern Age and in several regions of the world."
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Les grandes familles d’allergènes communes aux arthropodes (acariens, insectes, crustacés), mollusques et nématodes

Les allergies alimentaires causées par les aliments d’origine animale proviennent essentiellement de la consommation de crustacés et de mollusques, voire d’insectes comestibles. L’allergénicité de ces aliments dépend de quelques familles d’allergènes communes aux arthropodes, aux mollusques et aux nématodes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Globalement, les allergènes des insectes et des crustacés paraissent les plus proches tandis que les allergènes des mollusques s’écartent le plus des allergènes des autres groupes. Le risque de réaction allergique associé à la consommation d’insectes comestibles (entomophagie) par des patients allergiques aux crustacés doit être envisagé."
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Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications

Potential of Insect-Derived Ingredients for Food Applications | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insects are a sustainable and efficient protein and lipid source, compared with conventional livestock. Moreover, insect proteins and lipids are highly nutritional. Therefore, insect proteins and lipids can find its place as food ingredients. The use of insect proteins and lipids as food ingredients requires a deep understanding on the chemical and physical characteristics of these ingredients, as well as its functionality. Information on the chemical and physical characteristics of insect proteins and oils will help to assess the possibilities of its use on different food applications.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"In this chapter, we briefly review the nutritional aspects of insect proteins and lipids, insect processing, protein and lipid extraction as well as the perspectives of food applications of insect protein and lipids. Future studies should delve into extraction methods and into intrinsic properties of insect ingredients. This knowledge will be useful to introduce insect ingredients into various food preparations. Also valuable will be the study of other insect species with perspectives for its commercial rearing."
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Improving feeding efficiencies of black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) through manipulation of feeding conditions for industrial mass rearing

Improving feeding efficiencies of black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) through manipulation of feeding conditions for industrial mass rearing | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The human population is rapidly expanding and raises several concerns in terms of food security and waste management. To feed the human population, we need to start expanding our horizons in terms of what we eat. Insects may be the answer to this. But due to our many other problems, it helps to create multiple solutions from single ideas that promote green industry and help ‘heal’ our planet rather than only taking from it. This is where the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L., 1758) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Hermetiinae) may offer such a solution.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This thesis answers questions about the feeding environment and density of H. illucens larvae in an industrial setting (i.e. food waste, and larger population sizes). By investigating how feed depth and particle size, feed provisioning rations (i.e. larval densities), and population sizes effect the ability of larvae to develop, survive and feed. The results of this thesis were finding the optimal feed depths (i.e. 5-10 cm), provisioning rations (125 mg/larva/day) and population sizes (5 000-50 000 larvae per container) of H. illucens larvae when fed kitchen wastes. Additionally, two new measures of feeding efficiencies were described (i.e. provisioning ration change and optimal bioconversion deficit) and values for larval aggregation heat were also recorded for the first time. Future recommendations and research that came up during this study is also given to continue furthering an industry capitalising on US$ 750 million lost annually in all waste streams worldwide."
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