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Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Two Edible Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) - A Search for New Food Alternative

Assessment of Nutritional Quality and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Two Edible Grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) - A Search for New Food Alternative | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

See Art 59. 3-5

 

Mousumi Das Suman Kalyan Mandal

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Abstract : "Edible insects are a natural renewable resource of food that could solve the problem of food scarcity. The level of some nutrients and anti-nutrients of two grasshoppers were determined in order to ascertain their suitability as a food and feed source. Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum contained the highest crude protein content of 65.15% while Chrotogonus trachypterus trachypterus had the lowest value of 59.63%. Crude fat and crude fibre content was highest in C. trachypterus trachypterus. Compared with the amino acid profile recommended by FAO/WHO, the grasshopper protein of studies species were of high quality due to its high content of essential amino acids. In fatty acid profile lenolenic acid was the most abundant followed by lenoleic acid. Moisture and energy contents were significantly higher in S. prasiniferum prasiniferum. A higher value of ash content was recorded in S. prasiniferum prasiniferum, corresponding to contain high proportions of sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium and iron. S. prasiniferum prasiniferum gave higher value for Retinol, Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin. The anti-nutrients of the two studied species were generally low and far below the toxic level of human.Both the grasshoppers could serve as an alternative source of nutrient supplements in human diet."

 

Link : http://www.tjprc.org/download.php?fname=--1386077945-5.%20Assessment%20of%20nutritional.full.pdf

 

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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
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Apparent Digestibility Coefficients and Amino Acid Availability of Cricket Meal, Gryllus bimaculatus, and Fishmeal in African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus

A study was conducted on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, to examine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein, dry matter, lipid, and energy, and the apparent availability coefficient (AAC) of essential amino acid (EAA) for a cricket meal (CM) diet, Gryllus bimaculatus, and fishmeal (FM). Both diets consisted of 30% isonitrogenous levels with a 70:30 ratio of basal diet to test ingredient. Chromic oxide (0.5%) was added to the diet as an inert marker.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The ADCs of crude protein (CP) in CM (81.21%), lipid (89.82%), gross energy (64.42%), and dry matter (73.97%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the value of CP (78.22%), lipid (82.03%), gross energy (56.52%), and dry matter (62.26%) in FM. All EAAs were present in both diets. The AACs for both diets ranged from 0.906 to 0.961 and 0.812 to 0.938 for the CM and FM diets, respectively. The growth performance of fish fed with CM exhibited significantly higher (P < 0.05) weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio compared with FM. Overall, the results suggest that CM could be included in the African catfish diet without affecting their nutrient and amino acid digestibility as well as growth performance."
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Edible Insects as tribal food among the Rabhas of Assam | Rabha | IRA-International Journal of Management & Social Sciences (ISSN 2455-2267)

"Tribal people especially Rabha people of Assam have chosen to take entomophagy as a sustainable source of food as it has been using since ancient times, a knowledge which has been passed down from generation to generation through word of mouth. The Rabhas are a tribe belonging to the great Bodo family and scattered in parts of lower Assam, Kamrup district, Goalpara district, parts of West Bengal and Meghalaya. Some edible insects consumed by Rabha people in lower Assam in India are cricket, grasshoppers, water giant bug (Bellostoma) termites, red ants, beetle larvae, pupa of insects, water skater (Gerridaec) etc."

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Edible insects, among the Rabhas, are not used as emergency during food shortages, but are included as a planned part of the diet throughout the year or when seasonally available. Insects can be accepted favourably in the future by processing and mixing them with other foodstuffs."
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Cricket as Food: The perceptions and barriers to entomophagy and the potential for widespread incorporation of cricket flour in American Diets

Cricket as Food: The perceptions and barriers to entomophagy and the potential for widespread incorporation of cricket flour in American Diets | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Entomophagy, or the consumption of insects, is widely practiced on a global level, but is uncommon in the United States. There has been promising research on the nutrition, safety, and sustainability of crickets as food, as well as research on cultural perceptions of entomophagy in Western countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, and Australia. This paper addresses the question: What are the current perceptions of and deterrents to entomophagy in America, and what should be the next steps to encourage a greater acceptance and consumption of food products made with cricket flour?
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Lacey : "This research found that entomophagy within the context of cricket flour was more appealing than entomophagy in general. The survey also showed relationships between respondents’ gender and ethnicity and their views of entomophagy and cricket flour, as well as respective value placed on nutrition, taste, the environment, and familiarity while food shopping. The most common concerns about cricket flour were the taste and “it just grosses me out,” followed by concerns about the cleanliness and potential disease of crickets. The biggest determinants of subjects’ willingness to consider entomophagy and cricket flour were their levels of neophobia and food neophobia, and their previous knowledge or experience with entomophagy."

http://sites.lsa.umich.edu/sustainablefoodsystems/wp-content/uploads/sites/139/2016/05/Rachael-Lacey_Thesis.pdf

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Microbiology of cooked and dried edible Mediterranean field crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) and superworms (Zophobas atratus) submitted to four different heating treatments

To increase the shelf life of edible insects, modern techniques (e.g. freeze-drying) add to the traditional methods (degutting, boiling, sun-drying or roasting). However, microorganisms become inactivated rather than being killed, and when rehydrated, many return to vegetative stadia.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"In conclusion, species-specific drying procedures should be devised to ensure food safety."

http://fst.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/05/28/1082013216652994.full.pdf+html


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Determination of the shelf life of cricket powder and effects of storage on its quality characteristics

Determination of the shelf life of cricket powder and effects of storage on its quality characteristics | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
This study was carried out to determine the shelf-life of cricket powder and investigate the changes in its quality during storage. To determine the shelf-life, cricket powder was stored at temperatures of 25, 35, and 40℃ for 6 months. The changes in quality parameters of the cricket powder, such as moisture content, color, acid value, volatile base nitrogen (VBN), fatty acid, growth of microorganisms, and sensory appeal were investigated.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Cricket powder stored at 25℃ and 35℃ showed similar scores in sensory evaluation, but it storaged at 40℃ showed the significant difference (p<0.05). Moisture content, acid value, oleic acid, and flavor were selected as the criteria for shelf-life establishment of cricket powder. Based on these parameters, especially the moisture content, the shelf life of cricket powder was likely to be 18 months when stored at 25℃."
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Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

Antioxidant Potential of  Vespa affinis  L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Introduction

Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology.
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Conclusion: "The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders."
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Assessment of Fatty Acid Profile, Protein, and Micronutrient Bioavailability of Winged Termites (Macrotermes bellicosus) Using Albino Rats

Dried Marcrotermes bellicosus was reported to be a good source of dietary protein, fat, and micronutrients. This study investigated the fatty acid profile, protein, and essential micronutrient bioavailability in M. bellicosus using albino rats.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Adepoju

Conclusion: "M. bellicosus protein supported rat growth at a 15% inclusion level. The calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A in M. bellicosus were bioavailable in rats. M. Bellicosus could be a potential novel food for humans."

http://nutriweb.org.my/publications/mjn0022_1/P153-162%20Oladejo.pdf

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Nutritional Composition and Microbiology of Some Edible Insects Commonly Eaten in Africa, Hurdles and Future Prospects: A Critical Review

A review of the diversity and nutritional status of insects used as food in Nigeria was given by Alamu et al. [10] but it did not cover their microbial load, a critically important consideration when used as food. Insects are eaten in their adult or larval form. For instance, in Nigeria, the larvae and the adult Rhynchophorus phoenicis are eaten. In Indonesia larvae of rhinoceros beetle is a delicacy and the larvae of Anaphe venata is preferred in some parts of Nigeria. A major barrier for the use of insects as human food is repulsion, particularly strong among consumers in most Western countries. This may reflect their view of insects as pests and not as a human food source [11-13].
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"An overview of the microbiology and nutritional composition of eight (8) insects, Bunaea alcinoe , Rhynchophorus phoenicis , Gonimbrasia belina, Gryllotalpa africana , Cirina forda, Brachytrupes membranaceus , Macrotermes natalensis , and Anaphe venata used as food is presented. All the edible insects whose microbiological flora is known have mixed population of bacteria with Bacillus and Staphylococcus persistently occurring."
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Safety evaluation of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

Recently, research investment in the improvement of food safety as a food source and specializing of nutritional source of edible insects is being actively conducted. Cricket especially has been attracting considerable interest in entomophagy; however, research on the safety assessment of cricket is limited. This study investigated the effects of cricket ethanol extract when orally administrated in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The results showed that there were no systemic toxicological effects related with the cricket ethanol extract in the 4 wk oral repeated dose toxicity study. It is considered that NOAEL of cricket ethanol extract is greater than 1,000 mg/kg/d and there was no target organ detected. "
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Insect biodiversity: underutilized bioresource for sustainable applications in life sciences - Online First - Springer

Insect biodiversity: underutilized bioresource for sustainable applications in life sciences - Online First - Springer | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Due to the growing world population and changing eating habits, there is an increasing demand in sustainable alternative protein sources, whereas the available land for the production of plant and animal protein decreases owing to desertification and urbanization. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing resources of fossil fuels necessitate more sustainable production cycles combined with well-conceived land use. This includes the establishment of novel utilization pathways for hitherto not or insufficiently used biomass. In this context, insects offer prospective alternatives, since they represent highly efficient and, due to evolutionary processes, highly optimized bioreactors that have the ability to effectively and autonomously convert biomass into biochemical compounds such as proteins, fat, and chitin by combined mechanical, chemical, and microbiological degradation.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Furthermore, insects are a vastly underutilized bioresource and need to be exploited for the bioconversion and valorization also of hitherto not usable organic residues to food, feed, chemicals, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds. Mentionable is here also the production of attractants, repellants, defensive, and other chemicals such as antimicrobial peptides that open up new opportunities for therapeutical and biotechnological applications, for example regarding plant pest management."
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Il grillo domestico : Analisi della Food Neophobia Scale e la sua accettabilità da intero e sfarinato.

Il grillo domestico : Analisi della Food Neophobia Scale e la sua accettabilità da intero e sfarinato. | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Unconventionalfood e i suoi prodotti sono stati lo spunto per un approfondimento che si è concluso con una tesi sperimentale. Ad oggi la Food Neophobia si riscontra in tutti i paesi e in tutte le culture, specialmente nei confronti di alimenti e prodotti esteri o non facenti parte della propria cultura di appartenenza. Il disgusto è forse il fattore/barriera più difficile da superare, soprattutto dopo la vista del fattore scatenante, in questo caso il grillo intero.
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Edible insects and the future of food

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "We used the methods of Foresight to explore the potential of insect-eating within four different future scenarios. Interestingly, edible insects featured as a plausible part of all four imagined futures. This suggests that eating insects might become mainstream in a few decades. However, questions remain about the economic viability and food safety of insect-based foods. Research into these questions is necessary and justified."
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IMPROVING UTILISATION OF Raphia hookeri  THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED CONSERVATION IN THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The two main specific uses of R. hookeri in Niger Delta are palm wine and edible insect larvae ( Rynchophorus phoenicis ) from stem sap and wood (trunk). "
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Lower temperature threshold of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) development

Currently, little is known about the thermal tolerance limits of black soldier fly eggs and immatures. The objective of this study was to determine the lower temperature threshold for black soldier fly development.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Development time, egg eclosion and adult emergence success were measured at 12, 16 and 19 °C. We determined that the lower threshold for egg hatch was between 12 and 16 °C, taking 15 days to hatch. Furthermore, we determined that the lower temperature threshold for larvae is between 16 and 19 °C with egg hatch in 7.75 days at 19 °C. Mean development time from egg to adult at 19 °C was 72 days."
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Insects as food and feed: European perspectives on recent research and future priorities (Forthcoming)

This paper discusses the current state and priorities of Europe-based research on insects as food and feed, based on presentations at a workshop held in December 2015, and discussions that followed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" Recent research is not concordant when trying to identify social and psychological barriers to insects as food in Europe, indicating the complexity of the issue of consumer acceptance. Innovative means of marketing insects as food include 3D printing, scientific comics, and the promotion of rural food culture in an urban setting. Edible insects are intimately connected to strong cultural and regional values, and their increasing commercialisation may empower and/or disenfranchise those who hold such values. "
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Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food

Quality and safety aspects of mealworms as human food | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

van Broekhoven, Sarah

Wageningen University


PhD Thesis


"This thesis focuses on three species of edible mealworms. The possibility to produce mealworms on organic by-products was explored and effects on growth, feed conversion efficiency and nutritional value were determined. In addition, food safety risks associated with edible mealworms, such as mycotoxin contamination and possible allergenicity were explored. "

Jacques Mignon's insight:
"This thesis contributes to the research field of insects as food by demonstrating plasticity in growth and development, as well as nutritional composition of three mealworm species when grown on different diets. Furthermore, this thesis adds to the increasingly available data on food safety aspects associated with edible insect consumption."
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Insects: a Protein Revolution for the Western Human Diet

There are historical traces of the use of insects as food in the world, from prehistory to the present traditional use in the Third Wold and the novel use in Developed countries. Now the current regulations are trying to arrange a framework for their reintroduction because their nutritional and nutritive value makes them a considerable food for human consumption, as a source of important nutrients such as high quality protein, unsaturated fat, fibres and minearals
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Dublin Gastronomy Symposium

Conclusion:
"Insects have an extraordinary high content of good quality protein, with all the essential amino acids. They also contain unsaturated fatty acids, minerals, vitamins and fibres. Due to their extremely low impact on the environment and use of resources, they have the potential to be the protein of the future. Much research is still required in terms of characterization, rearing, safety and product development, but the biggest hurdle remains consumers’ perception. Researchers have many challenges to address these issues, however entomophagy is not only possible but also a necessary revolution in our food habits, in order to meet future food demand and to overcome the 21st century protein crisis."

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Entomophagy: a literature review of sustainable and nutritional properties

Many people groups have been eating insects around the world for centuries to supplement their daily nutrition needs. There is a negative stigma in developed countries towards the consumption of insect. Insects are full of protein, fiber, healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals. The use of insects over other protein sources could decrease damage to ecosystems while providing a more sustainable and nutritious food source.
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Comments on human eurytremiasis in Brazil

Eurytremiasis is an important parasitic disease of cattle that was recently suggested to be a neglected and emerging human disease in Brazil. Based on a misinterpretation of the life cycle of the parasite, it was suggested that a great number of people could be infected with this fluke in the country. In the present letter, aspects of the life cycle of Eurytrema spp. are revisited and clarified. The mechanism of transmission previously reported for the few accidental human cases involved the ingestion of raw or undercooked insects (grasshoppers and crickets) harboring the infective metacercariae.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Core tip: "In the present letter, the life cycles of species of Eurytrema, pancreatic flukes of ruminants, are revised. Given the transmission of the parasite by the ingestion of infected insects, we suggest that human eurytremiasis is not a zoonotic disease in countries where entomophagy is not a food habit. Therefore, eurytremiasis should not be considered a neglected or emerging disease in Brazil."
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Integrating sensory evaluations in incentivized discrete choice experiments to assess consumer demand for cricket flour buns in Kenya

In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of potential consumer demand for an insect based food product. We assess the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts of cricket flour. The novel feature of the study is that it uses an incentivized discrete choice experiment method integrated with sensory experiments intended to reduce any hypothetical bias and to allow participants to acquire experience in terms of tasting the different buns before they make their choices in the choice tasks.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"We find significant and positive preferences for buns wich contain cricket flour."
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Effects of Brewer`s spent grain (BSG) on larval growth of mealworms, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Mealworms, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), are widely used as food source for animal rearing as well as human diet. Conventionally, mealworms raised on wheat bran. In this study, we investigated the effects of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) on the growth of mealworm larvae to reduce the rearing cost. We prepared five different diets with various BSG content, 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% of heated air dried BSG with wheat bran.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Especially, the group with 30% of BSG showed highest pupation rate among the five groups. Wheat bran with 30~50% of BSG was the optimal diet for successive insect rearing among the five diet treatments. Based on this study, we concluded that adding BSG to wheat bran helps to improve the quality of T. molitor and to reduce the rearing period. "
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Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

•Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC).
•Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae.
•Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC.
•No bioaccumulation in larvae detected.
•FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. "
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Consumer acceptance of insect-based alternative meat products in Western countries

Highlights

•Possible integration of insect in Western culture in ready-to-eat preparation.
•Previous knowledge and experiences with edible insect influenced burger evaluation.
•Gender influence participants’ overall liking of the burgers but also burger appearance and taste.
•Men seem less neophobic than women as they were less influenced by the burger appearance.
•Mealworm and beef burger taste was rated between the fully meat burger and the fully veggie burger.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Nouvelle contribution de mes collègues :
Part abstract:
"Results also showed that people with previous entomophagy experience was limited but that they gave globally higher ratings to all preparations. In conclusion, insect tasting sessions are important to decrease food neophobia, as they encourage people to “take the first step” and become acquainted with entomophagy. Nevertheless, insect integration into Western food culture will involve a transitional phase with minced or powdered insects incorporated into ready-to-eat preparations, as people are not ready to add insects to their diets in “whole form.”

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Evaluation of dietary inclusion of housefly maggot (Musca domestica) meal on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses for barramundi, Lates calcarifer

Evaluation of dietary inclusion of housefly maggot (Musca domestica) meal on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses for barramundi, Lates calcarifer | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Introduction : "The major protein ingredients of aquaculture are largely dependent on fish meal. The best quality fish meals are expensive, and according to some projections, their availability is expected to decline and the price will dramatically increase (NRC, 2011). Therefore, there is a need to identify and utilize less expensive and more sustainable protein sources within aquafeeds. Insects, which are part of the natural diet of fish, leave a small ecological footprint and have a limited need for arable land, may represent a good candidate (Henry et al., 2015). "
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Lin - 2016
Aquaculture Research

Part abstract:
"The study was to evaluate the effects of dietary fish meal (FM) partially replaced by housefly maggot meal (HMM) on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifera. HMM at 100, 150, 200 and 300 g kg−1 was supplemented in the basal diet to replace dietary FM protein. Basal diet without HMM supplementation was used as control. Total of five experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile barramundi (initial weight: 9.66 ± 0.22 g) in a flow-through rearing system for 8 weeks.
...
The results indicated that up to 300 g kg−1 HMM can be used to substitute dietary FM protein without negative effect on growth. Although physiological responses were also considered, up to 100 g kg−1 HMM in barramundi diet was recommended."


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Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège

Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Les criquets représentent une part importante des insectes consommés dans le monde. Diverses études s’intéressent à la composition nutritive, minérale et en vitamines, ainsi qu’aux profils en acides aminés et en acides gras de certaines espèces de criquets et suggèrent que ces dernières auraient une bonne qualité nutritionnelle. De plus, dans cette synthèse bibliographique, les intérêts environnementaux et sanitaires liés à la consommation humaine de criquets sont discutés. Enfin, certains facteurs associés à leur consommation, tels des facteurs religieux, sociaux ou économiques, sont résumés du fait qu’ils peuvent influencer l’intérêt porté à ces insectes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusions: "Le succès de l’introduction des criquets comme aliment, dans des régions où ils ne sont généralement pas consommés, dépend de la capacité du consommateur à modifier son comportement alimentaire. C’est pourquoi, pour le moment, il est essentiel de (1) mettre en évidence les qualités nutritionnelles d’espèces natives, (2) mettre au point des protocoles d’élevages et (3) développer des produits dérivés, afin qu’ils soient mieux acceptés par les consommateurs."
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