Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways

How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Heather Looy,Florence V. Dunkel,John R. Wood

 

Agriculture and Human ValuesJune 2013
Jacques Mignon's insight:

Part abstract: "Negative attitudes toward invertebrates are a deep-seated, visceral response among Western peoples. These internalized aversions toward insects and other terrestrial arthropods, both in general and specifically as a food source, subtly and systemically contribute to unsustainable global foodways. Insect cuisine is, for Westerners, emblematic of the alien, a threat to our psychological and cultural identity."

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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
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Identification of Species and the Traditional Uses of Edible Insects by Indigenous Communities Awajún in Peruvian Amazon

Currently, insects are a resource exploited as food by indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon as important source of protein for these populations.The proposed study was conducted in four Awajun communities of the district of Cenepa in Northwest of the Peruvian Amazon. The main objective was to document the traditional knowledge on usage and collection patterns of edible insects in Awajum communities. Secondary objectives were to determine species/taxonomic of edible insects. Samples of insects used as food were collected and preserved in vials with 70% alcohol. For the identification and characterisation of the collected insects published keys were used. A consolidated list of edible insects used in the four indigenous communities Awajún has been prepared. The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 44 informants of each communities.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "At least 10 insect species, belonging to two orders were considered edible. Coleoptera (05) Metamasius hemipterus (Picudo Rojo), Rhynchophorus palmarum (Suri), Rhinostomus barbirostris (Suri blanco) of the Curculionidae family; Stenagostus rhombeus (Chuu) of the family Elateridae; Megaceras crassum (Papaso) of the Scarabaeidae family and Hymenoptera (05) Cephalotes atratus (Dakerae), Crematogaster sordidula (Hormiga), Atta cephalotes (Siquisapa), Agalaia pallipes (Avispa amarilla), Mischocyttratus spp. (Huayranga) of the Formicidae family. As far as usage and collection of insects are concerned, food insects are chosen by members of the communities according to taste, as well as regional and seasonal availability. Depending on the species, only certain, but sometimes all, developmental stages are consumed. The preparation of the food insects for consumption involves mainly roasting, boiling or covering these with leaves."
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EVALUATION OF INSECT-BASED FOOD ACCEPTANCE BY REPRESENTATIVES OF POLISH CONSUMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROCESSING RETARDATION

EVALUATION OF INSECT-BASED FOOD ACCEPTANCE BY REPRESENTATIVES OF POLISH CONSUMERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NATURAL RESOURCES PROCESSING RETARDATION | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Food production, based on intensive farming, contributes to high and constantly increasing pollution of soils and other environmental resources. Given this, search for non-conventional sources of animal protein seems justified. The present study was designed to examine opinions of selected Polish consumers related to their acceptance of insect-based food as an alternative source of nutrients. The assessment of attitudes towards alternative sources of nutrients was based on the survey developed at the Faculty of Science, University of Porto in Portugal. Representatives of Polish consumers in the region of Podkarpackie generally did not show open-mindedness towards incorporating insect-based food into their diet.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Majority of the respondents, however, recognized the importance of food sector operation based on respect for natural resources. Therefore, it seems important that consumers be informed about the advantages of production or use of insect biomass originating from natural ecosystems. This may contribute to increased acceptance for alternative sources of protein, which consequently may lead to reduced environmental pressure of traditional livestock farming and to retardation of ecosystems transformation and loss of biological diversity."
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Edible Insects in China: Utilization and Prospects

Edible Insects in China: Utilization and Prospects | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The use of edible insects has a long history in China, where they have been consumed for more than two thousand years. In general, the level of acceptance is high for the consumption of insects in China. Many studies on edible insects have been conducted in the last twenty years, and the scope of the research includes the culture of entomophagy and the identification, nutritional value, farming and breeding of edible insects, in addition to food production and safety. Currently, 324 species of insects from 11 orders are documented that are either edible or associated with entomophagy in China, which include the common edible species, some less commonly consumed species, and some medicinal insects. However, only approximately 10 to 20 types of insects are consumed regularly. The nutritional values for 174 species are available in China, including edible, feed and medicinal species. Although the nutritional values vary among species, all the insects examined contain protein, fat, vitamins and minerals at levels that meet human nutritional requirements.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Although limited, the data on the food safety of insects indicate that insects are safe for food or feed. Incidences of allergic reactions after consuming silkworm pupae, cicades and crickets have been reported in China. Insect farming is a unique breeding industry in rural China and is a source of income for local people. Insects are reared and bred for human food, medicine and animal feed using two approaches in China: the insects are either fully domesticated and reared completely in captivity or are partially raised in captivity, and the insect habitat is manipulated to increase production. Depending on the type of relationship the insect has with humans, plants, and the environment, different farming strategies are used. The social and scientific communities must work together to promote the use of insects as food and feed."
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Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal as partial or total replacement of marine fish meal in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

•  Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) meal has shown promise as a fish meal (FM) replacement.
•  Six isonitrogenous (35% crude protein, as fed) diets containing graded levels of BSFL as replacements for protein from menhaden FM were fed to juvenile Pacific white shrimp.
•  Diets 2-6 were formulated that progressively replaced protein from menhaden FM with BSFL meal at inclusion rates of 7%, 14%, 21%, 28%, and 36% of diet.
•  Generally, 95% to 100% of most growth responses could be obtained if replacement of FM by BSFL meal was limited to less than 25% of the diet.
•  Similarly, 95% or greater of maximum whole-body protein and lipid content could be achieved when BSFL inclusion was restricted to less than 29% and 15%, respectively.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Generally, without modification of the ingredient or replacement diet nutrient profiles, 95% to 100% of most growth responses, i.e., shrimp final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and food conversion, could be obtained if replacement of FM by BSFL meal was limited to < 25% of the diet, depending on performance measure. Similarly, 95% or greater of maximum whole-body protein and lipid content could be achieved when BSFL inclusion was restricted to < 29% and 15%, respectively. Comparison of amino acid profiles in the test diets with recent requirement estimates for limiting amino acids in BSFL meal also suggest future strategies for increasing dietary substitution of FM with BSFL."
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Mass Production of Biocontrol Agents of Insect Pests

With the increased need and awareness of integrated pest management concept among the farmers, there is increased emphasis on the utilization of biocontrol agents for the management of pests. Though their demand is increasing, yet their availability is far from sufficient. The biocontrol agents, particularly parasitoids and predators, have short life span and they cannot be stored for long. Their transportation also requires certain specific conditions which are difficult and expensive. These are some of the important reasons that private sectors are not much interested in them. Of late, there have been quite a few inventions for the automation in the mass production of biocontrol agents which have removed bottlenecks for their economic and efficient production and have facilitated the mass production of biocontrol agents.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Chapter

Part abstract: "Now, the biocontrol agents can be mass produced at a small scale/cottage industries just on the lines of sericulture or apiculture. Simple, low cost and down to earth technology can be used for their mass production. They can be marketed in the region where they are produced. The simple methods suitable for their transportation have been developed. The production of biological control in cottage industries is also likely to increase their acceptabilities in the rural areas."
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Determinants of honey production in Kenya: Case of Baringo County

Beekeeping and honey production is an important source of livelihood for small-scale farmers in Baringo County. However, despite the enormous potential and significance of the beekeeping industry in the County, there is a lot of untapped potential for apiculture development. The County does not meet its own demand for hive products. The livelihoods of people of Baringo are mainly agro-based. However, due to frequent and prolonged drought, crop and livestock production has been very low, leaving honey production as the only viable alternative for smallholder farmers since it is less affected by climatic variations and is not resource intensive. The general objective of the study is to assess factors influencing honey production in Baringo County; assessing the social, physical and institutional specific factors influencing honey production. This study is based on the theory of the firm and utilized cross sectional survey of 357 smallholder beekeeping farmers.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The study established that the number of hives, education level of the farmer, producer price of honey, sex of the farmer, access to credit, visit by extension, membership to a group and honey harvesting method made a statistically significant contribution to the prediction of honey output (P˂0.05). The model adopted had a good fit as a production function, the independent variables accounted for 56.1% of the variation in honey output. The study concludes that beekeepers in Baringo County have the potential of realizing more honey output and improving their earnings than the current situation if farmers are capacity built on bee colony management and apiculture development in general, encouraged to join a group or cooperative society and if honey marketing is well coordinated. This research further recommends that Baringo County Government needs to develop a policy that would promote and regulate the honey value chain "
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Entomophagie: Mikrobiologische Untersuchung von Mehlwürmern als Lebensmittel

In consideration of population growth and thus limited global resources, entomophagy attracts notice to western countries. Insects can be taken into account as a food and protein source to ensure global food supply. Despite this growing importance there is still very little known of the microbiological quality of edible insects. Distribution into the German market is restricted. For that it is necessary to provide complete safety of the product. One aspect of this assessment is evaluating the microbiological status of processed mealworms, by using standardized analytical methods. Therefore, the total via-ble aerobic count in general as well as the total count of yeasts and moulds is determined quantitatively.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Langolf, Natalja : Hochschulschriftenserver der HAW Hamburg

Part abstract : "A qualitative evaluation concerning Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus is also carried out. On the basis of these results the microbiological risk is captured and therefore the eligibility of mealworms, representing the group of edible insects, as safe food gets evaluated. The mealworms used for this research are specially cultured and processed for human consumption. Results show that neither Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. nor Staphylococcus aureus are present in the samples. There are aerobic mesophilic bacterial count present as well as yeasts and moulds in less than half of the samples. Analysed mealworms show little contamination with microorganisms and no pathogenic bacteria. The result of the microbiological analysis suggests that consumption of mealworms cannot harm human health in any way. The small number of samples, evaluation of only one species of insects obtained from one producer limit the representativeness of these results. To draw conclusions from edible insects at large more research needs to be done in the future. "
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Evaluation of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae as an alternative protein source in pig creep diets in relation to production, blood and manure microbiology parameters

Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae, grown on kitchen waste, as an alternative protein source in pig creep diets. The current trial included two treatment diets, i.e. a control diet containing no black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) and an inclusion diet containing 3.5% BSFLM of the total diet. These diets were fed to 315 pure bred Large White and Landrace piglets from 10 to 28 days of age in a four week phase-over feeding scheme.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "However, due to the unintended administration of antibiotics which had a significant (P<0.05) influence on both treatments’ second collection, the results could not provide for valid conclusions. Therefore, further research is required to discover any possible effects associated with the inclusion of BSFLM on piglet manure matter. Although there were no beneficial effects on the blood and manure parameters, the fact that similar results were achieved between the control and inclusion diets leads to the conclusion that BSFLM could be regarded as a safe protein source that can be utilized to partially replace other traditional sources in the ability to sustain piglet performance, with no adverse effects. However, due to the fact that antibiotics were administered, the negative effects may have been neutralised."
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ROLE OF CARBOHYDRATES AND PROTEINS IN MAXIMIZING PRODUCTIVITY IN ALPHITOBIUS DIAPERINUS (COLEOPTERA TENEBRIONIDAE)

Among all Tenebrionidae beetles Alphitobius diaperinus is considered a good choice for high-scale facility production of feed and food. It is widely considered that studies regarding the impact of the different dietary components on growth performances are very few and focused only on certain aspects, e.g. problems connected to the harmfulness of this species for stored products (rearing to test insecticides, studies about dietary preferences regarding different cereals).
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part absytract: "The real role of the different dietary components was never evaluated in order to better comprehend how to project diets that maximize productivity (maximum number of specimen as function of time). Research on the role of proteins and carbohydrates ascertained that a high protein content is required to obtain the best growth performances for this species. Carbohydrates also play a key role, though secondary to proteins. The diets thus obtained establish an important starting point for future formulations aimed at obtaining useful insects for feed and also for human consumption, soon to be legalized worldwide. "
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Eating novel foods: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict the consumption of an insect-based product

Highlights

• The TPB explains 78% and 19% of the variance in eating insects-based food intention and behaviour.
• Attitude predicts intention, and intention is the main predictor of eating insects-based food.
• Beliefs on positive effects on health and environment affect intention of eating insects-based food.
• Gender and background studies correlate with intention to eat insects-based food.
• Attitude and intention improved after tasting the insect-based food product.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: " The main barriers preventing the intention of eating food products containing insect flour are the sense of disgust arising from seeing insects around, the incompatibility with local food culture and the lack of products in the supermarket. Interventions may consider targeting behavioural control, developing food products close to the Western dietary pattern, such as bakery products containing insect flour, and signalling the positive effects on health and the environment."

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Geographic distribution of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina

Geographic distribution of the weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) are conspicuous arboreal ants, which build distinctive nests in trees. In many regions, people use weaver ants for food, medicine, and/or as biological control agents. There are two recognized species of weaver ants: Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille, 1802) in Africa and Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius, 1775) in Asia, Australia, and the Western Pacific. Here, I mapped the geographic distribution of O. smaragdina based on >2700 site records from 21 countries: Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Timor Leste, and Vietnam.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The vast majority of O. smaragdina records come from areas with Tropical (Group A) climates according to the Köppen-Geiger system: rainforest (Af), monsoon (Am), and savanna (Aw). However, >250 records come from areas classified on the map as having a Subtropical (Group C) climates, mostly in the Himalayan foothills of India and Nepal, southern China, northern Vietnam, and the southern coast of Queensland, Australia. Almost all these sites are classified as dry winter subtropical climate (Cwa). A few O. smaragdina sites are classified as having Arid (Group B) climates, all from warm semi-arid (BSh) areas. This range map based on site records corrects inaccuracies in earlier published range maps. "
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Indian Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) on termites: Eco-friendly approaches to sustainable management

Despite playing significant role as agricultural pests, termites attracted less attention of researchers in India; on both fronts - traditional and frontier techniques. Present paper is an attempt to collect and compile Indian Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) from various sources on termite management aspects in light of various key-components
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Review analysis revealed that in some places of India, termites are being used as indicator of various environmental aspects, viz. anticipated rainfall, soil fertility, etc., soil of termite mounds were reported to be used in low risk farming strategies. Use of locally available plants for termite control was a common practice in Indian subcontinent since ages. No doubt ITK have strong potential, but are yet unexplored because of their limitation in scientific scrutiny and authenticity. Even though Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) included many such farmers’ ITK, lack of critical scientific validation has limited their use in wider scale. "

http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/40087/3/IJTK%2016%282%29%20333-340.pdf

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Cultural significance of termites in sub-Saharan Africa

Background

The number of termite species in the world is more than 2500, and Africa with more than 1000 species has the richest intercontinental diversity. The family Termitidae contains builders of great mounds up to 5 m high. Colonies are composed of casts: a queen, a king, soldiers and workers. Some species of termite cultivate specialised fungi to digest cellulose. Termites constitute 10% of all animal biomass in the tropics. The purpose of the study was to make an overview of how termites are utilized, perceived and experienced in daily life across sub-Saharan Africa.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusion :  The following characteristics make termites so appealing: the dominance in the landscape, the social organization, the destructive power, and the provision of food. The study shows that termites play a major role in peoples’ lives, in physical as well as spiritual aspects.

Mais quel dommage d'avoir à nouveau ignoré les travaux du Prof. François Malaisse !
https://scholar.google.be/citations?user=wLdzZWgAAAAJ&hl=fr
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Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age

Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio in hens but lay percentage, feed intake, average egg weight, and egg mass were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed the SBM diet. Hens fed insect meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P < 0.01) than SBM, while the SBM group had a higher percentage of eggs from the large (L) class (P < 0.01). The levels of globulin and albumin to globulin ratio were, respectively, higher and lower (P < 0.05) in HILM than the SBM group. Cholesterol and triglycerides were higher (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) in hens from SBM than in the HILM group. Blood levels of Ca were higher (P < 0.01) in hens fed insect meal, while creatinine was higher (P < 0.01) in blood of hens fed SBM. Hermetia illucens larvae meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake."
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NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES MADE
FROM WHEAT AND PALM WEEVIL LARVAE FLOUR BLEND

The study developed cookies using wheat flour supplemented with varying proportions of palm weevil larvae flour with the view to introducing novel forms of palm weevil larvae consumption as against the usual. The larvae were cleaned, gutted and oven dried before being milled into flour. The palm weevil larvae flour was then mixed with wheat flour in proportions of 10 - 50% before being made into cookies. The cookies were subjected to proximate content determination and sensory evaluation.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Amongst t he blend s, cookies containing 10% palm weevil larvae flour had the highest energy content and the protein content also increased by 86.7% as compared with cookies made from 100% wheat flour. The carbohydrate content of the enriched cookies decreased while crude fibre content increased. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in the taste, appearance , texture and overall acceptability of cookies made from 100% wheat flour and 10% palm weevil larvae substitution. The study concluded that wheat flour can be supplemented with at most 10% palm weevil larvae flour to give an enriched snack of good quality and acceptability."

http://www.afst.valahia.ro/docs/issues/2016/issue2/full/w37_full.pdf


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Insect Meal as a Source of Protein in Animal Diet

The increasing, worldwide demand for fishmeal due to the development and expansion of the poultry industry raises the market price of fishmeal. Insects can be a perfect alternative as a source of protein in poultry diets due to the high percentage of protein (55–70%) they contain, along with a highquality profile of amino acids. In addition, insects greatly improve chicken meat quality and decrease the cost of production. However, the use of insects as a source of protein in animal diets is still prohibited due to different feed safety and quality laws.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Insect protein is only allowed in fish or shellfish feed in Europe; however, the purified fat extracted from larvae is allowed to be used in animal diets. In conclusion, insects have proven to be a sustainable source of protein, are of an attractive quantity and quality, and have acceptable nutritive properties. The use of insects as a potential protein-rich feed ingredient in diets is practical and creates new perspectives in mono-gastric animal feeding."
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Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review

Ecosystem Services from Edible Insects in Agricultural Systems: A Review | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Many of the most nutritionally and economically important edible insects are those that are harvested from existing agricultural systems. Current strategies of agricultural intensification focus predominantly on increasing crop yields, with no or little consideration of the repercussions this may have for the additional harvest and ecology of accompanying food insects. Yet such insects provide many valuable ecosystem services, and their sustainable management could be crucial to ensuring future food security. This review considers the multiple ecosystem services provided by edible insects in existing agricultural systems worldwide.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Directly and indirectly, edible insects contribute to all four categories of ecosystem services as outlined by the Millennium Ecosystem Services definition: provisioning, regulating, maintaining, and cultural services. They are also responsible for ecosystem disservices, most notably significant crop damage. We argue that it is crucial for decision-makers to evaluate the costs and benefits of the presence of food insects in agricultural systems. We recommend that a key priority for further research is the quantification of the economic and environmental contribution of services and disservices from edible insects in agricultural systems."
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Insects as Food

As the world population increases, and the already stressed land gets additionally burdened, the axe will eventually fall on the quality as well as quantity of food being produced. With increased numbers of mouths to feed, there is need to search for viable options. Insects can form one such excellent source of nutrition, which is superior to many existing sources.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Chapter ...

Part abstract: "Not only insects are historically and culturally a major part of human diets, they are also nutritionally richer, easier to rear, and better for the environment. They are the easiest source of food for us in the future, a realization that is increasingly becoming imminent. This chapter is a step in the direction of creating awareness of how entomophagy is essential and needs to be encouraged."
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Mulberry Sericulture

Sericulture is agro based industry with its industrial super structure and low gestation period. It has rural base with equal opportunity to all age, gender, education and economic status human society. This industry is environmental ecofriendly and does not interfere with any agricultural activity; rather it provides supports to agriculture, dairy, fisheries, live stock culture, organic farming in rural area. This is an attempt to provide information on sericulture industry, silk production, history of silk filament and all related components like silkworm rearing, host plant culture, extraction of silk and management of diseases to ensure quality production of silk.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract :
"The global mulberry raw silk production largely depends on superior silkworm hybrids, improved rearing technology, nutritious mulberry leaf (feed to silkworm), disease free environment for rearing and improved cocoon reeling system for higher quality raw silk production. Cocoon quality contributes to a great extent in cocoon productivity and raw silk production. Various chapters under the article deal with techniques related to qualitative and quantitative improvement in silk cocoons production, besides scientific principles behind the sericulture in general and silkworm in particular. Recently, biotechnology has opened up new dimension in sericulture industry in general and silkworm breeding in particular. Synthesis of disease resistant silkworm genotypes through gene manipulation has been attempted in recent past."
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Potential use of mealworms as an alternative protein source for Pacific white shrimp: Digestibility and performance

Highlights

• Mealworm was evaluated for its potential as a future alternative protein source to fishmeal.
• This study compares the digestibility of mealworm at different inclusion levels for Pacific white shrimp.
• Methionine was the first limiting amino acid in mealworm for the Pacific white shrimp.
• Performance was not affected when fishmeal was totally replaced by mealworm.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Methionine was the first limiting amino acid in MM. Weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion, survival and protein retention were not affected when fishmeal was replaced by MM (P > 0.05). The protein content of the shrimp body showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) between the treatments. However, lipid content of the shrimp body increased from 1.13% to 1.88% when fishmeal was replaced by MM. These results suggest that mealworm meal can be utilized as an alternative protein source for L. vannamei juveniles, although methionine should be added as a supplement."
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Minced meat-like products from mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor and Alphitobius diaperinus): microbial dynamics during production and storage

Minced meat-like products from mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor and Alphitobius diaperinus): microbial dynamics during production and storage | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Two new products were developed, being minced meat from different mealworm larvae.
• The dynamics of the microbiota during production and storage were monitored.
• A relation between production processes and survival of microbial counts was found.
• The effect of the production methods on the microbiota was extended during storage.
• The insect-based products have a shelf life attractive to retailers and consumers.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Abstract:
"The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the production process as well as the storage conditions (air, 60% CO2/40% N2) on the microbial counts and the bacterial community composition of a minced meat-like product from yellow mealworm larvae (YM) and from lesser mealworm larvae (LM). It was necessary to design a different production process for each larva type in order to obtain a minced meat-like product. Both production methods had an effect on the microbiota of the finished products, and that effect was extended during storage. Immediately after production, YM and LM showed aerobic counts between 1.4 and 2.3 log cfu/g and between 2.0 and 3.6 log cfu/g, respectively. The bacterial community composition differed between both products. The use of modified atmosphere during storage reduced bacterial growth compared to storage in air. In conclusion, the study points out that for the two insect types considered, it is possible to obtain a minced meat-like product with low microbial numbers and a potential shelf life that is attractive to retailers and consumers."
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Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to geography, not agriculture

Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to geography, not agriculture | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Objectives

Insects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusions :
Results suggest that insect consumption represents a dynamic human-environment interaction, whereby insects are utilized in some of the world's lushest environments as well as areas where people have had great impact on the ecosystem. The concept that insects are a fallback food is an oversimplification that is likely rooted in Western bias against this food source.
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Process development, sensory and nutritional evaluation of honey spread enriched with edible insects flour

The study was aimed at improving existing methods of processing of, commonly consumed insects in Lango sub region of Northern Uganda to enhance consumption and improve the nutrition of the people. Insects (crickets, soldier and winged termites) flour processed by either pan frying or boiling followed by sun drying was substituted into honey. The resulting spreads were evaluated by fifty panelists to screen for acceptability by insect species and their processing methods in stage one. Subsequently, the insect and processing method combination most preferred by panelist for spread enrichment was used to determine; the effect of insect flour inclusion level (8, 16 and 24%) and processing temperature (80, 90 and 100°C) on acceptability and nutritional quality.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Honey spread enriched with soldier termite flour processed by pan frying was most preferred. Increased substitution level decreased acceptability; nutrient content increased significantly (p<0.05) with increased insect proportion while processing temperature had a significant (P<0.05) effect on the nutritional quality. Protein digestibility decreased with increase in processing temperature from 59.19 to 45.28%, Fe and Zn solubility increased from 14.09 to 42.89%; 3.06 to 27.17% at 80 and 100°C, respectively. Spreads enriched with 8% soldier termite flour processed by pan frying at 100°C had good nutritional and sensory qualities. The study signifies the potential of termite flour in fortifying food products with acceptable sensory and nutritional qualities."
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Therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparative survey and review

Therapeutic arthropods and other, largely terrestrial, folk-medicinally important invertebrates: a comparative survey and review | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Traditional healing methods involving hundreds of insect and other invertebrate species are reviewed. Some of the uses are based on the tenet of “similia similibus” (let likes be cured by likes), but not all non-conventional health promoting practices should be dismissed as superstition or wishful thinking, for they have stood the test of time. Two questions are addressed: how can totally different organ systems in a human possibly benefit from extracts, potions, powders, secretions, ashes, etc. of a single species and how can different target organs, e.g. bronchi, lungs, the urinary bladder, kidneys, etc. apparently respond to a range of taxonomically not even closely related species?
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"But how, for example, can there be remedies for breathing and other problems, involving earthworms, molluscs, termites, beetles, cockroaches, bugs, and dragonflies? Since invertebrates themselves can suffer from infections and cancers, common defence reactions are likely to have evolved in all invertebrates, which is why it would be far more surprising to find that each species had evolved its own unique disease fighting system. To obtain a more comprehensive picture, however, we still need information on folk medicinal uses of insects and other invertebrates from a wider range of regions and ethnic groups, but this task is hampered by western-based medicines becoming increasingly dominant and traditional healers being unable and sometimes even unwilling to transmit their knowledge to the younger generation. However, collecting and uncontrolled uses of therapeutic invertebrates can put undue pressure on certain highly sought after species and this is something that has to be borne in mind as well."
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Mopane worm use, livelihoods and environmental change in Limpopo Province, South Africa

For centuries, nontimber forest products have been key aspects of household diets throughout the world. In southern Africa, mopane worms are widely harvested for household consumption and traded for income generation. This study investigated the contribution of mopane worm harvesting to rural livelihoods, and the effects of environmental change on mopane worm harvesting in rural households in order to understand how households attain sustainable livelihoods under different tenure types in rural areas in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Specific objectives were to determine the current significance and contribution of mopane worm harvesting and trading to rural livelihoods; to gauge the perceptions of harvesters and traders on forms of environmental change which have affected mopane worm availability and how consumption and trade patterns have changed in the last 20 years; to assess access and management of mopane resources under different tenure types; and, to explore mopane worm use in the context of the sustainable livelihoods framework.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Pat abstract:
"The limited availability of mopane worms presented a key constraint for the households and traders. The high availability of labour from family of the harvesters suggests human capital is strong. Furthermore, the strong social links and networks which resulted from family-level and community-wide participation strengthened the social capital opportunities. Physical and financial capital were found to have greatest threat to the attainment of sustainable livelihood. Households suffer poverty and are not easily able to access financial resources. This served as a hindrance for households and limited their income earning potential. In respect of these findings the following recommendations are made: further empirical investigations should be undertaken to determine the status of mopane worm populations; improved cooperation between traditional leaders, harvesters and local government is suggested as an option for management of the communal harvesting areas; the interplay between access, land tenure and harvesting requires further research."

Sekonya Master Dissertation PDF: https://open.uct.ac.za/bitstream/handle/11427/23027/thesis_sci_2016_sekonya_james_george.pdf?sequence=1

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