Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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House dust mite (Derp 10) and crustacean allergic patients may be at risk when consuming food containing mealworm proteins

Jacques Mignon's insight:

From :

http://www.allergique.org/spip.php?breve928&lang=fr

 

"L’étude met en évidence une réactivité croisée avec l’extrait protéique de ténébrions. Qui plus est, cette réactivité croisée est fonctionnelle car les tests d’activation des basophiles de ces sujets sont positifs vis-à-vis de l’extrait protéique de ténébrions. La stabilité des allergènes est étudiée dans un modèle de digestion in vitro : ils sont assez stables."

 

 

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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
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Survival and Development of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae): A Biodegradation Agent of Organic Waste

The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), was reared on artificial diet (wheat bran and chicken feed) in the laboratory at 28°C (immature stages) and under a greenhouse set at 28°C (adults). Data were collected and analyzed based on an age-stage, two-sex life table.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The maximum reproductive value of females occurred at 54 d. Only six females out of 21 were able to successfully oviposit. The number of eggs laid per female ranged from 236 to a maximum of 1,088 eggs. We demonstrated that first-instar larvae of H. illucens are more susceptible to perishing when reared under artificial diet than are later instars."
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A Consuming Passion for Entomophagy

A Consuming Passion for Entomophagy | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
If, however, you're among those who feel that the evidence indicates that global temperatures are increasing as a result of anthropogenic inputs into the atmosphere, you might want to make a small lifestyle change for the good of the planet—cut down on your daily vertebrate intake and start eating insects.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"Admittedly, convincing Americans to eat insects is a tougher sell than convincing them to, say, install a programmable thermostat. The argument for entomophagy, though, is pretty compelling, at least on sustainability grounds (van Huis et al 2013, 2015)."
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Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products

Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Importance of combining product-specific attributes with contextual attributes.
• Incorporating attitudinal data in choice models to assess consumer preferences.
• Consumers are heterogeneous in their preferences for TBFPs.
• Nutritional value and official recommendation are important for consumers’ choice.
• Introducing the processed TBFPs require further information and quality assurances.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This paper provides a first insight into consumers’ preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal."
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evolution of entomophagy in the Yucatan Peninsula: a food cultures perspective

Insect consumption has existed for a long time, it is a traditional alimentary habit that originated in the Paleolithic era (7000 years ago). Mexico is a country were insect collecting is an old practice, notable and typical of many rural areas. Many of the insects currently used have been consumed since pre-Hispanic times; there are more than 504 species of edible insects in Mexico.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Open Access
Part abstract:
"Considering the fact that insects have recently become a worldwide topic as a possibility of fighting food insecurity, this research focuses in the importance to understand why people in a country that has traditionally consumed insects for many centuries have ceased this activity."
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Influence of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae oil on growth performance, body composition, tissue fatty acid composition and lipid deposition in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var....

Highlights

• Black soldier fly larvae oil significantly increased the content of lauric acid fatty acid in hepatopancreas, intraperitoneal fat and muscle.
• Black soldier fly larvae oil reduced the intraperitoneal fat deposition of fish.
• Black soldier fly larvae oil reduced the size of intraperitoneal adipose cells.
• Black soldier fly larvae oil significantly increased the level of PPAR α in intraperitoneal adipose cells.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Black soldier fly larvae oil (BSO) is a potential fat source in aquaculture feeds, which is high in lauric acid (21.4%–49.3%). In order to investigate the effects of dietary BSO on growth performance, fatty acid composition and lipid deposition in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian), five experimental diets were formulated by substitution of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% soybean oil (SO) with BSO."
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Promotion and Utilization of Niche Foods for Food and Nutrition Security

Food and nutrition security exist when there is availability and accessibility of food in terms of quality and quantity. Each environment has foods adapted to the region and culturally acceptable to the inhabitants. Niche foods have in the recent past been neglected yet they have a great potential of solving the food and nutrition security issues among communities.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"This paper takes particular interest in traditional vegetables and insects that were popularly used in the past but are being viewed by the current generation as 'overtaken by time' hence being neglected. African Leafy Vegetables like black night shade, amaranth, cowpeas, and many others are quite nutritious apart from possessing some medicinal qualities. Insects like grasshoppers, termites, caterpillars are a good source of protein of high biological value. Food Agriculture Organization (FAO) has in the recent passed advocated for the utilization of insects as a way of combating food insecurity in the world. The purpose of this paper was to review the importance of niche foods as used in parts of the world with an aim of promoting their use in Kenya."
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Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Halloran et al.

Part abstract:
"This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how cricket farming contributes to rural livelihoods. This exploratory study investigates the following research questions: What are the characteristics of Thai cricket farmers and their farms? How do crickets contribute to the lives of rural farmers in Thailand? What role has social and human capital played in cricket farming communities? And what can be learned from the experience of cricket farming in Thailand? Findings suggest that cricket farming has improved the lives of many rural farmers in Thailand not only through the provision of an alternative income source, but through strengthening human and social capital. As such, further empirical data and case study analyses are needed in order to advance our understanding of this particular livelihood strategy."
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The effect of replacing fish meal with fermented meal mixture of silkworm pupae, rapeseed and wheat on growth, body composition and health of mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Specularis)

To investigate the effect of fermented meal mixture of silkworm pupae, rapeseed and wheat (FMM) on growth and health of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis), fish meal (FM) was replaced with FMM where FMM was increasingly added in the diets by 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 g kg−1 and FM decreased accordingly to form five isonitrogenous (365 g kg−1 crude protein) and isolipidic (60 g kg−1 crude lipid) diets, being FM, T1, T2, T3 and T4 groups. 270 mirror carp (9.70 ± 1.02 g) were randomly divided into five groups (each group having three replicates) and fed for 58 days. Following termination of the experiment, the fish growth, body composition and health status were analysed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"In conclusion, 40 g kg−1 FMM can be included into diets of juvenile mirror carp, while 80–160 g kg−1 FMM inclusion adversely affects the growth and health status of the fish."
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Effects of agricultural byproducts, DDG and MSG, on the larval development of mealworms

Distillers dried grain (DDG) and makgeolli spent grain (MSG) are agricultural byproducts to produce alcoholic beverage. However, they are known to contain enough nutrients. Mealworm is a promising insect resource for an animal feed ingredient as well as alternative human food. With low cost, DDG and MSG were investigated as a feed ingredient for rearing high quality mealworms.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"When compared to the control, larval survivorship for the 70% MSG group was low, but the 50% and 70% MSG groups were high during the seventh and eighth weeks because of delayed development. After the eighth week, larvae with 70% MSG showed the highest larval weight increase as 9~18% compared to the control group. Except 70% MSG group, all of MSG groups showed more than 90% pupation rates. We confirmed that adding 30~50% of DDG or MSG to conventional wheat bran have a strong potential to replace the conventional wheat bran insect feed for quality insect production."
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Valorisation of Reutealis Trisperma Seed from Papua for the Production of Non-Edible Oil and Protein-Rich Biomass

The endosperm of ripe Reutealis trisperma fruit contains about 54-59 wt%, d.b. non-edible oil whereas the mesocarp contains only 3-9 wt%, d.b. oil. The cake obtained after the extraction of oil from the endosperm was mixed with the endocarp (20 wt% cake and 80 wt% endocarp) and used as feed (50 mg/larva/d) for the cultivation of Hermetia illucens larvae in a rearing container.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The estimated efficiency of black solider fly larvae in converting digested food was 21.6% with an assimilation efficiency of 27.7%. The prepupae of Hermetia illucens contains approximately 37.6 wt%, d.b. protein and 33.2 wt%, d.b. fat. As such indicates that the remaining biomass from Reutealis trisperma seed after the oil extraction has the potential to be used as feed for the production of protein-rich biomass."
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Consumer approach to insects as food: barriers and potential for consumption in Italy

The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitude of Italian consumers towards insect consumption. The use of insects as alternative protein source is claimed to be a solution to the environmental concerns over the production of animal proteins and to food security issues.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The paper is a first attempt of exploring the topic of entomophagy in the Italian context. Most of the results were consistent with previous research carried out in other countries. However, some barriers to insect consumption seem to be stronger in Italy than elsewhere."
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Nutritional and sensory quality of edible insects

Insects are for many nations and ethnic groups an indispensable part of the diet. From a nutritional point of view, insects have significant protein content. It varies from 20 to 76% of dry matter depending on the type and development stage of the insect. Fat content variability is large (2–50% of dry matter) and depends on many factors. Total polyunsaturated fatty acids' content may be up to 70% of total fatty acids. Carbohydrates are represented mainly by chitin, whose content ranges between 2.7 mg and 49.8 mg per kg of fresh matter.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part conclusion:
"Insects are a nutritionally interesting material, and may be included among the common diet of consumers in EU countries in the future. They could also be used as a nutritional supplement for special diets for example for athletes."
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La biodiversité entomologique comme source d’aliments à Kinshasa (République démocratique du Congo)

L’exploitation des produits forestiers non ligneux dont notamment les insectes comestibles jouent un rôle important dans les habitudes alimentaires et économies locales des populations autochtones du bassin du Congo. Bien que la consommation d’insectes en République Démocratique du Congo soit une pratique ancienne, l’inventaire et l’identification taxonomique des espèces consommées ainsi que la caractérisation de la filière « entomophagie » sont encore mal maitrisés. Toutefois, nos études axées sur la ville de Kinshasa ont permis d’inventorier 14 espèces comestibles régulièrement consommées.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Fin du résumé: "De façon générale, 80% de la population de Kinshasa consomment au minimum une espèce d’insecte 5 jours par mois avec des quantités variant de 66,4 à 154 g d’insectes par personne par jour en fonction des différents ordres. Les acteurs de la filière sont majoritairement des femmes. Les revenus générés par l’activité concourent au bien-être des ménages, à la réduction de la pauvreté et de l’insécurité alimentaire dans de la capitale Kinshasa."
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Determination of the shelf life of cricket powder and effects of storage on its quality characteristics


This study was carried out to determine the shelf-life of cricket powder and investigate the changes in its quality during storage. To determine the shelf-life, cricket powder was stored at temperatures of 25, 35, and 40°C for 6 months. The changes in quality parameters of the cricket powder, such as moisture content, color, acid value, volatile base nitrogen (VBN), fatty acid, growth of microorganisms, and sensory appeal were investigated.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The moisture content of the cricket powder increased during storage but did not show any significant difference at 6 months of storage. L value was increased at storage but decreased at 35 and . However, there were no significant different in a and b values. The acid value decreased more rapidly at higher temperatures, while the VBN content was not changed. The major composition of fatty acids of cricket powder were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Their content was not changed at various the storage temperatures."
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Gummi Candy as a Realistic Representation of a Rhinoceros Beetle Larva

In the study of insects in human dietary culture, many scholars and entomologists have focused on entomophagy for human survival in traditional societies from the viewpoint of ethnoentomology
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"A new field of study named cultural entomology (in a narrow sense), which examines the influence of insects on cultural phenomena for the nourishment of the mind and soul in human societies (Hogue 1980, Hogue 1987, Takada 2013a), has made us aware of the use of insect imagery in food. Based on this perspective, a few Japanese cultural entomologists have investigated insect-shaped foods (such as candies, buns, and other easily molded confections) in Japanese society."
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KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"Based on industry KIBO is postulated in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo entomocole industry is the first production company in Europe to human food, it aims to become the world leader by 2020."
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Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures

Demographic comparison and population projection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) reared on sugarcane at different temperatures | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
" Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species."
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Edible Insects of Northeast India

Edible Insects of Northeast India | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insects play an important role in the dietary system of various ethnic groups of northeastern states of India. They provide nutritional security and cure various body ailments. The number of edible insects eaten in a state varies with the land and tribes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The ethnic people of Arunachal Pradesh consume about 158 species of insects, whereas tribes of Nagaland consume only 42 species of insects. The members of various tribes choose the edible insects on the basis of their traditional belief, taste and regional and seasonal availability. This chapter outlines various insect species eaten by various tribes, the association of these insects with social and cultural belief and their importance in medicine and economy of these states."
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The meat of affliction: Insects and the future of food as seen in Expo 2015

Highlights

• Expo 2015 in Milan was food culture and future themed, and included insects.
• Belgium and the Netherlands promoted entomophagy to fight hunger.
• Only Angola mentioned traditional use of insects as food.
• Edible insect products were absent until Belgium was later allowed to import some.
• Legal and cultural barriers exist to entomophagy worldwide.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Scope and approach: "The presence and absence of entomophagy in all the national and themed pavilions of Expo 2015 and the way developing and developed nations differed in their presentation of insects were analyzed as a microcosm of global attitudes to insects as food and the barriers towards its wider adoption."
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Cricket Lollipops and Mealworm Chocolate: Investigating Receptivity to Radically Creative
Products

This study aims to develop a deeper understanding of the factors at play behind consumer’s receptivity to a radically creative product, and whether their personalities, specifically their openness to experience, moderates their intentions to try said product. Creativity research has already established the link between radically creative ideas and the novelty and familiarity dichotomy.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Shreya Zaveri
Part abstract: "For this study, a survey of 77 participants generated observations on intention to try edible insect products of varying familiarities, and information about the participants own resistance to change and openness to experience. A regression analysing the interaction between familiarity and intention to try found significant interactions between the two variables for unprimed populations, and also found significant interactions for the effect of openness on the relationship between familiarity and intention to try . Finally, a theory was posited to explain the results, and suggestions were given for further exploration of the nexus between radical creativity, novelty, intention-to-try, and personality factors."
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IDENTIFICACIÓN DE CARBOHIDRATOS Y LÍPIDOS Y CUANTIFICACIÓN DE ÁCIDOS GRASOS DE LA LARVA DE ANCOGNATHA USTULATA (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE)

The availability of conventional foods fo r consumption is increasingl y difficult worldwide, which has led to increased mal- nutrition in countries with scarce res ources and rapid demographic growth, so entomophagy has been proposed, both as a way to meet the population’s nutritional needs and as a strategy to counter crop pests, such as the larvae of Ancognatha ustulata (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae), which affect crops Solanum tuberosum in Colombia.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The aim of this study was a qualitative identifica- tion of the carbohydrates and lipids and a quantitfication of the fatty acids present in A. ustulata . Using techniques like thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass, carbohydrat es such as glucose, fructose, xylose, maltose, trehalose and phospholipids, monoacyl, diacyl and triacylglycerols, choleste rol and cholesterol esters were found. In the quantification of fatty acids palmitic, oleic, linoleic and stear ic were identified. The larvae of A. ustulata can be an important source of fatty acids and other essential nutrients."
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A Semiotic Approach to Entomophagy| The Language, Localization, and Reimagining of Insects as Foodstuffs in America

A Semiotic Approach to Entomophagy|  The Language, Localization, and Reimagining of Insects as Foodstuffs in America | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
While there has been a growing interest in entomophagy in the US, the idea of eating insects is still taboo among the majority of Americans. Many studies have successfully established that, even after being informed about the numerous benefits of entomophagy, most people in the Western world continue to shun the idea of eating insects for a variety of reasons. However, few studies have considered the role that sociolinguistic meanings embedded within semiotic systems play in influencing Western perceptions of insects as foodstuffs.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
AE Ali
Part abstract: "This study elaborates on the means through which the practice of entomophagy can be made more appealing to Americans. Drawing on information acquired through the analysis of a completed survey study that explores food neophobia as it relates to entomophagy, I use anthropological methods to semiotically approach food and insects in order to better understand how these signs shape American perceptions of the consumption of insects. The survey results work to demonstrate that positive applications of language, when paired with food localization techniques, can weaken food neophobia in American consumers who are averse to entomophagy."
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Potential utilization of edible insects in extruded rice products to address malnutrition issues in developing countries

Accordingly, the main objective was to investigate the feasibility of incorporating an edible insect ingredient in an extruded brown rice product. Four formulations were developed, including cricket or locust flours at either 10% or 15% addition levels. A second objective was to determine the physicochemical and nutritional differences between the novel insect rice products and market brown rice.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "Nutritionally, the insect rice offered an excellent source of protein and 10-12% of the daily value of fat which are both at greater quantities than typical rice products. The products were also suggested to contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber and iron, although these quantities require further investigation. To determine consumer acceptance, the third objective of the study, sensory evaluations involving a 120 untrained panel was conducted. Results suggested cricket formulations were well accepted and worth continuing research and development, while 15% locust formulation was the least preferred of the four formulations."
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Consumer acceptance of insect-based foods in the Netherlands: Academic and commercial implications

This paper outlines empirical work, theoretically and methodologically informed by a critical appraisal of previous research, with consumers of insect-based convenience foods in the Netherlands.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Research should shift from attempts to forecast acceptance and engage with ‘actual’ examples of insect consumption; social, practical and contextual factors affecting food consumption should be emphasised; and – following work on the establishment of other novel foods – early adopters, rather than general populations, should receive greater analytic attention."
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Nutrient Composition and Adequacy of two Locally Formulated Winged Termite (Macrotermes bellicosus) Enriched Complementary Foods

Nutrient Composition and Adequacy of two Locally Formulated Winged Termite (Macrotermes Bellicosus) Enriched Complementary Foods
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The period from birth to two years of age constitute critical window of opportunity for promoting optimal growth and development of a child. Inadequate food intake and poor feeding practices are causes of malnutrition among Nigerian children, as many locally formulated complementary foods are deficient in protein and micronutrients. Roasted Macrotermes bellicosus (MB) is nutritious and relished as snack by people living the traditional lifestyle. This study was carried out to investigate possible use of MB in formulating nutrient-dense complementary foods from maize and sorghum. Macrotermes bellicosus was collected in Ibadan, Nigeria during their swarming, roasted, de-winged, powdered and added to fermented corn (CF) and sorghum (SF) flour in the ratio 100%flour, 90%flour+10%MB, 85%flour+15%MB, and 80%flour+20%MB to give eight complementary foods, which were analysed for proximate, mineral, vitamin and antinutrient composition using AOAC methods."
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