Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
Curated by Jacques Mignon
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Edible insects and the future of food

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "We used the methods of Foresight to explore the potential of insect-eating within four different future scenarios. Interestingly, edible insects featured as a plausible part of all four imagined futures. This suggests that eating insects might become mainstream in a few decades. However, questions remain about the economic viability and food safety of insect-based foods. Research into these questions is necessary and justified."
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IMPROVING UTILISATION OF Raphia hookeri  THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED CONSERVATION IN THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The two main specific uses of R. hookeri in Niger Delta are palm wine and edible insect larvae ( Rynchophorus phoenicis ) from stem sap and wood (trunk). "
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North American entomophagy: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: Vol 0, No 0

North American entomophagy: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: Vol 0, No 0 | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Eating insects is not a common Northern American practice today. However, in the past a variety of insect species was consumed in Northern America (north of Mexico including Greenland). The aim of this literature review is to provide an historical overview of North American entomophagy based upon both peer and non-peer reviewed sources on this topic.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract : "We show that North American Natives, and in certain cases colonists, collected and consumed a large variety of edible insects. These are categorized per order and where available, information on how these species were collected and processed is provided. Lastly, we mention reasons for the renewed interest in edible insects and make suggestions for future studies."
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The use of Hermetia illucens and Chrysomya chloropyga larvae and
pre-pupae meal in ruminant nutrition

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Pierre Haasbroek
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Sensibilisation allergénique croisée entre criquets et arthropodes dans la communauté urbaine de Niamey

Discussion

Cette étude préliminaire a permis de montrer l’existence probable d’une sensibilisation croisée entre les criquets et les autres arthropodes. La littérature décrit divers pan-allergènes tels que la tropomyosine ou l’arginine kinase communs aux insectes, aux crustacés, aux acariens… et qui seraient à l’origine de ces réactions croisées.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Hamidou: "Cette étude a pour but d’évaluer la sensibilisation croisée entre les criquets largement consommés au Niger et les autres arthropodes..."
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Identification de l’alpha-amylase comme allergène du ver de farine chez des patients professionnellement exposés

Conclusion

L’exposition professionnelle à TM et AD peut induire une allergie. Nous identifions pour la première fois l’AA comme allergène potentiel de TM.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"Les allergies aux insectes sont également connues en occident dans le cadre d’allergies professionnelles ou de loisir. Depuis peu les vers de farine (larves de Tenebrio molitor [TM]) et grillons (Acheta domesticus [AD]) sont distribués sous formes comestibles dans plusieurs pays européens."
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Entomophagy in the area surrounding LuiKotale, Salonga
National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Information was gathered using interviews and first-hand observations. A total of 31 edible insects are identified by their local names, and of these 10 are identified to species level. Collection methods are recorded for seven commonly consumed spe - cies. This article contributes to the scarce body of research detailing entomophagy in the DRC."
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Presentation: Edible Insects, New Future Food: Threats and Opportunity (IAFP's 12th European Symposium on Food Safety)

Presentation: Edible Insects, New Future Food: Threats and Opportunity (IAFP's 12th European Symposium on Food Safety) | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Significance: "Edible insects could be a promising alternative for the conventional production of meat, either for direct human consumption or for indirect use as feedstock. Eating insects is not only good for health, it is good for the planet."
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Emotional and sensory profiling of insect-, plant- and meat-based burgers under blind, expected and informed conditions

Schoutelen et al.
Food Quality and Preference

Available online 25 March 2016
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The use of edible insects as a potential component of food products is gathering interest among scientists, policy makers and the food industry. Although recent research suggests that a growing number of Western consumers might be willing to consume food products containing edible insects or insect-based protein, little is known about the influence of ingredient information on product evaluation. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the overall liking, perceived quality and nutritiousness, and (ii) the emotional and sensory profiling of three commercially available burgers (insect-based, plant-based and meat-based), under blind, expected and informed conditions. "
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Bioconversion of organic wastes into biodiesel and animal feed via insect farming

Bioconversion of organic wastes into biodiesel and animal feed via insect farming | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
In this study, black soldier fly (BSF) (Hermetia illucens) larvae were grown on food wastes to produce fat and protein-rich BSF prepupae as a novel strategy for efficient organic waste management.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Surendra et al.
Part abstract: " BSF (prepupae, pressed cake, and meal) has feed value comparable to commercial feed sources. Thus, the bioconversion of organic waste into BSF prepupae has significant potential in generating high-value products with simultaneous waste valorization."
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Edible insects in Latin America: old challenges, new opportunities

Edible insects in Latin America: old challenges, new opportunities | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Editorial

E.M. Costa-Neto

"Costa-Neto (2015) has already said that ‘considering the use of insects as human food throughout Latin America, there is no representation of the geographical distribution of edible insects in relation to the numbers of species or individuals by country’."
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: Vol 2, No 1
SPECIAL ISSUE : LOS INSECTOS COMESTIBLES – EDIBLE INSECTS IN LATIN AMERICA

"With an increasing human population and environmental dilapidation, many Latin Americans face a major problem in obtaining satisfactory protein levels in their diet. It is time for considering insects as a source of food for humans in a manner that acknowledges both the role of entomophagy in indigenous societies and the need for Westernised societies to diminish the size of their environmental footprint with regard to food production, in part by replacing vertebrate livestock with insects wherever and whenever possible. As Costa-Neto and Dunkel (in press) have stressed, ‘There is a need to eradicate or greatly reduce the Western-driven stigma over the use of insects as food’. This will help to provide increased opportunities for research on large- and small-scale mass production as well as optimisation of ecological benefits and the nutritional benefits of insects. In our global society, entomophagy must play a role in decision making and policies related to agriculture, nutrition, and food security.’"
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Matt Anderson's curator insight, March 29, 12:11 PM
With an increasing human population and environmental dilapidation, many Latin Americans face a major problem in obtaining satisfactory protein levels in their diet. It is time for considering insects as a source of food for humans in a manner that acknowledges both the role of entomophagy in indigenous societies and the need for Westernised societies to diminish the size of their environmental footprint with regard to food production, in part by replacing vertebrate livestock with insects wherever and whenever possible. As Costa-Neto and Dunkel (in press) have stressed, ‘There is a need to eradicate or greatly reduce the Western-driven stigma over the use of insects as food’. This will help to provide increased opportunities for research on large- and small-scale mass production as well as optimisation of ecological benefits and the nutritional benefits of insects. In our global society, entomophagy must play a role in decision making and policies related to agriculture, nutrition, and food security.
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Anthropo-entomophagy in Guaycurú linguistic groups from Argentina: past and present

Anthropo-entomophagy in Guaycurú linguistic groups from Argentina: past and present | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
This work is a brief outline of the consumption and use of several insect taxa and products taking into account historical sources of the 18th century for the Gran Chaco region and more recent ethnographic data.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Loiácono et al.

Part abstract: "The report focuses on the Guaycurú groups to illustrate the diversity of insects significantly involved in their cultural practices, which have been sustained over time up to the present, and are presumably oldest. Jesuit chroniclers have provided abundant evidence about Guaycurú groups from the Argentine Chaco region. They fostered Catholic missions in the region and lived in reductions with the Guaycurú populations. The relationship of Chaco indigenous groups with insects and other species is a reflection of their deep identification with the environment. The relationship with the territory goes beyond the idea of a land where to settle. Rather, it refers to feeding and using the land conceived as an organic structure full of energy, the same energy that forms part of the entities of nature and, naturally, of insects as well."

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The evaluation of the potential of Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio,
Naophoeta cinerea, Blaptica dubia, Gromphardhina portentosa,
Periplaneta americana, Blatta lateralis, Oxyhalao duesta and Hermet...

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Agriculture (Animal Sciences) at Stellenbosch University

Davina Hopley
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Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège

Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Les criquets représentent une part importante des insectes consommés dans le monde. Diverses études s’intéressent à la composition nutritive, minérale et en vitamines, ainsi qu’aux profils en acides aminés et en acides gras de certaines espèces de criquets et suggèrent que ces dernières auraient une bonne qualité nutritionnelle. De plus, dans cette synthèse bibliographique, les intérêts environnementaux et sanitaires liés à la consommation humaine de criquets sont discutés. Enfin, certains facteurs associés à leur consommation, tels des facteurs religieux, sociaux ou économiques, sont résumés du fait qu’ils peuvent influencer l’intérêt porté à ces insectes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusions: "Le succès de l’introduction des criquets comme aliment, dans des régions où ils ne sont généralement pas consommés, dépend de la capacité du consommateur à modifier son comportement alimentaire. C’est pourquoi, pour le moment, il est essentiel de (1) mettre en évidence les qualités nutritionnelles d’espèces natives, (2) mettre au point des protocoles d’élevages et (3) développer des produits dérivés, afin qu’ils soient mieux acceptés par les consommateurs."
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COMPARISONS OF GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS FED DIFFERENT INCLUSION LEVELS OF BLACK SOLDIER FLY (Hermetia illucens) LARVAE MEAL DIETS

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The results showed that water quality parameters fluctuated within the acceptable range for African catfish and did not compromise the growth of fish between treatments. The growth of fish that received the control diet and 10% BSF diet were not significantly different (P >0.05); however, both were significantly different (P < 0.05) from fish that received BSF 30% larvae meal diet. The fish fed BSF 10% and BSF 20% larvae meal diets were not significantly different from each other. No significant difference in feed utilisation between treatments in terms of average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in dressing percentages between treatments. The proximate composition of the catfish showed no difference (P > 0.05) in percentage moisture, protein, lipids and ash between treatments. This study shows that BSF larvae meal did not affect the proximate body composition of the African catfish at any tested inclusion levels compared to the control diet."
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Nutritional composition, quality, and shelf stability of processed Ruspolia nitidula (edible grasshoppers)

The nutritional and commercial potential of the edible grasshopper (Ruspolia nitidula, nsenene in Luganda), a delicacy in Uganda and many East African tribes, is limited by a short shelf life and unverified nutritional value. This research established that R. nitidula is nutritious with 36–40% protein, 41–43% fat, 2.5–3.2% carbohydrate, 2.6–3.9% ash, 11.0–14.5% dietary fiber, and 900–2300 μg/100 g total carotenoids on a dry matter basis.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Ssepuuya - 2016
Food Science & Nutrition
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El impacto de los artrópodos sobre la mente humana

Jacques Mignon's insight:
S ummary : "The influences of arthropods on the p syche are designated, from the traces of the Paleolithic era to the present day. The action of their main families on the mind human, about its myths, legends and fables, the presence of entomophagy in different cultures and the maximum degree of influence represented by phobias, Ekbom syndrome and some cases of “delirium tremens” are describing"
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Les allergènes croissants des insectes comestibles

Introduction

Traditionnellement confinée à différents pays d’Asie, d’Afrique et d’Amérique du Sud, la consommation d’insectes (entomophagie) commence à s’étendre en Europe. Des cas d’allergie ont été rapportés et plusieurs allergènes communs aux arthropodes (acariens, insectes, crustacés), pourraient intervenir dans ces cas d’anaphylaxie.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Rougé :
"Conclusion: Malgré leur intérêt nutritionnel, il paraît nécessaire d’apprécier le risque allergique que les insectes comestibles peuvent représenter pour des sujets allergiques aux crustacés, aux acariens ou aux mollusques. Divers allergènes croissants pourraient être responsables d’allergies croisées entre ces organismes d’origine différente."
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Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
(2016). Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. CyTA - Journal of Food: Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 169-175. doi: 10.1080/19476337.2015.1076521
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part introduction :
"Insect tea is a special kind of tea drink which is different from the more common variants. It is prepared by gathering fresh tender leaves of various wild plants such as Kuding tea leaves and platycarya leaves, then removing astringencies from the blades after cooking and drying the leaves (Li & Zhou, 2005). The leaves are then layered and stacked in wooden or bamboo baskets after sprinkling with rice water; they then emit a light fragrance after natural fermentation. The fragrance can attract insects such as Hydrillodes repugnalis to lay eggs on the blades. The hatched larvae excrete fecula particles after eating the leaves. Through exposure and stir-frying, collected fecula particles are turned into insect tea products (Feng, Luo, & Zhao, 2013)."
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Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

Chemical Composition and Food Potential of  Pachymerus nucleorum  Larvae Parasitizing  Acrocomia aculeata  Kernels | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit ( Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P . nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P . nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Ariana Vieira Alves et al. 2016
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Getting insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in specimens of marketed edible insects

Getting insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in specimens of marketed edible insects | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The presence of antibiotic resistance genes on marketed edible insects was assessed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Milanovic et al.
Short communication
International Journal of Food Microbiology

Part abstract:
"This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of 11 transferable antibiotic resistance (AR) genes [erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), vanA, vanB, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), mecA, blaZ] in 11 species of marketed edible insects (small crickets powder, small crickets, locusts, mealworm larvae, giant waterbugs, black ants, winged termite alates, rhino beetles, mole crickets, silkworm pupae, and black scorpions) in order to provide a first baseline for risk assessment."
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Ugly but tasty: a systematic review of possible human and animal health risks related to entomophagy

Ugly but tasty: a systematic review of possible human and animal health risks related to entomophagy | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Testa et al.

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The ghost moth (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as food of indigenous people in Mexico

The ghost moth (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) as food of indigenous people in Mexico | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Gomez et al.
"Bromatological studies show that Phassus and Schausiana represent a significant source of nutrients for some indigenous communities."
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Part abstract :
"We review the anthroentomophagy of Hepialidae with respect to the culinary practice of various indigenous groups in Mexico. The principal genera involved in human consumption are Phassus and Schausiana. Similarities in the morphology and ecology of these insects have led to confusion among those who have made ethnobiological studies of this group. We clarify the taxonomy, life cycle, traditional knowledge, consumption and other uses made of Hepialidae by rural and indigenous communities in Mexico."


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Utilisation and trade of edible grasshoppers in the western region of the state of Morelos, Mexico

Utilisation and trade of edible grasshoppers in the western region of the state of Morelos, Mexico | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
This article presents a taxonomic analysis of the grasshoppers utilised as food sources in several municipalities of the state of Morelos, Mexico; three families, four genera, and ten species were documented.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed
Pino Moreno et al. : "The representative genus, Sphenarium, consists of seven different species. Various aspects regarding the host plants and collection and trade of these organisms are discussed. In addition, the importance of these organisms as a renewable natural food resource for rural communities in the state of Morelos is discussed."


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Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal inclusion in free-range chickens

This study has had the aim of evaluating the effects of dietary TM inclusion on the performance, welfare, intestinal morphology and histological features of free-range chickens.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Biasato, 2016
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition

Part abstract: "The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens, thus confirming that TM can be used safely in poultry diets."
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Matt Anderson's curator insight, March 29, 12:13 PM
Part abstract: "The inclusion of TM did not affect the growth performance, haematological or serum parameters. The morphometric and histological features were not significantly affected either, thus suggesting no influence on nutrient metabolization, performance or animal health. Glandular stomach alterations (chronic flogosis with epithelial squamous metaplasia) were considered paraphysiological in relation to free-range farming. The observed chronic intestinal flogosis, with concomitant activation of the lymphoid tissue, was probably due to previous parasitic infections, which are very frequently detected in free-range chickens. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that yellow mealworm inclusion does not affect the welfare, productive performances or morphological features of free-range chickens, thus confirming that TM can be used safely in poultry diets.