Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
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Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma
L'entomophagie et l'usage d'insectes dans l'alimentation animale, en pharmacopée et comme source d'énergie
Curated by Jacques Mignon
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Integrating sensory evaluations in incentivized discrete choice experiments to assess consumer demand for cricket flour buns in Kenya

In this study, we present one of the first thorough assessments of potential consumer demand for an insect based food product. We assess the demand in terms of Kenyan consumer preferences and willingness to pay for buns containing varying amounts of cricket flour. The novel feature of the study is that it uses an incentivized discrete choice experiment method integrated with sensory experiments intended to reduce any hypothetical bias and to allow participants to acquire experience in terms of tasting the different buns before they make their choices in the choice tasks.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"We find significant and positive preferences for buns wich contain cricket flour."
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Effects of Brewer`s spent grain (BSG) on larval growth of mealworms, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

Mealworms, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), are widely used as food source for animal rearing as well as human diet. Conventionally, mealworms raised on wheat bran. In this study, we investigated the effects of brewer’s spent grain (BSG) on the growth of mealworm larvae to reduce the rearing cost. We prepared five different diets with various BSG content, 0, 10, 30, 50, and 70% of heated air dried BSG with wheat bran.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Especially, the group with 30% of BSG showed highest pupation rate among the five groups. Wheat bran with 30~50% of BSG was the optimal diet for successive insect rearing among the five diet treatments. Based on this study, we concluded that adding BSG to wheat bran helps to improve the quality of T. molitor and to reduce the rearing period. "
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Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it

Highlights

•Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC).
•Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae.
•Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC.
•No bioaccumulation in larvae detected.
•FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. "
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Consumer acceptance of insect-based alternative meat products in Western countries

Highlights

•Possible integration of insect in Western culture in ready-to-eat preparation.
•Previous knowledge and experiences with edible insect influenced burger evaluation.
•Gender influence participants’ overall liking of the burgers but also burger appearance and taste.
•Men seem less neophobic than women as they were less influenced by the burger appearance.
•Mealworm and beef burger taste was rated between the fully meat burger and the fully veggie burger.

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Nouvelle contribution de mes collègues :
Part abstract:
"Results also showed that people with previous entomophagy experience was limited but that they gave globally higher ratings to all preparations. In conclusion, insect tasting sessions are important to decrease food neophobia, as they encourage people to “take the first step” and become acquainted with entomophagy. Nevertheless, insect integration into Western food culture will involve a transitional phase with minced or powdered insects incorporated into ready-to-eat preparations, as people are not ready to add insects to their diets in “whole form.”

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Evaluation of dietary inclusion of housefly maggot (Musca domestica) meal on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses for barramundi, Lates calcarifer

Evaluation of dietary inclusion of housefly maggot (Musca domestica) meal on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses for barramundi, Lates calcarifer | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Introduction : "The major protein ingredients of aquaculture are largely dependent on fish meal. The best quality fish meals are expensive, and according to some projections, their availability is expected to decline and the price will dramatically increase (NRC, 2011). Therefore, there is a need to identify and utilize less expensive and more sustainable protein sources within aquafeeds. Insects, which are part of the natural diet of fish, leave a small ecological footprint and have a limited need for arable land, may represent a good candidate (Henry et al., 2015). "
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Lin - 2016
Aquaculture Research

Part abstract:
"The study was to evaluate the effects of dietary fish meal (FM) partially replaced by housefly maggot meal (HMM) on growth, fillet composition and physiological responses of juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifera. HMM at 100, 150, 200 and 300 g kg−1 was supplemented in the basal diet to replace dietary FM protein. Basal diet without HMM supplementation was used as control. Total of five experimental diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile barramundi (initial weight: 9.66 ± 0.22 g) in a flow-through rearing system for 8 weeks.
...
The results indicated that up to 300 g kg−1 HMM can be used to substitute dietary FM protein without negative effect on growth. Although physiological responses were also considered, up to 100 g kg−1 HMM in barramundi diet was recommended."


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Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège

Grasshoppers as a food source? A review |  Université de Liège | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Les criquets représentent une part importante des insectes consommés dans le monde. Diverses études s’intéressent à la composition nutritive, minérale et en vitamines, ainsi qu’aux profils en acides aminés et en acides gras de certaines espèces de criquets et suggèrent que ces dernières auraient une bonne qualité nutritionnelle. De plus, dans cette synthèse bibliographique, les intérêts environnementaux et sanitaires liés à la consommation humaine de criquets sont discutés. Enfin, certains facteurs associés à leur consommation, tels des facteurs religieux, sociaux ou économiques, sont résumés du fait qu’ils peuvent influencer l’intérêt porté à ces insectes.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Conclusions: "Le succès de l’introduction des criquets comme aliment, dans des régions où ils ne sont généralement pas consommés, dépend de la capacité du consommateur à modifier son comportement alimentaire. C’est pourquoi, pour le moment, il est essentiel de (1) mettre en évidence les qualités nutritionnelles d’espèces natives, (2) mettre au point des protocoles d’élevages et (3) développer des produits dérivés, afin qu’ils soient mieux acceptés par les consommateurs."
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COMPARISONS OF GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF AFRICAN CATFISH (Clarias gariepinus BURCHELL, 1822) FINGERLINGS FED DIFFERENT INCLUSION LEVELS OF BLACK SOLDIER FLY (Hermetia illucens) LARVAE MEAL DIETS

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The results showed that water quality parameters fluctuated within the acceptable range for African catfish and did not compromise the growth of fish between treatments. The growth of fish that received the control diet and 10% BSF diet were not significantly different (P >0.05); however, both were significantly different (P < 0.05) from fish that received BSF 30% larvae meal diet. The fish fed BSF 10% and BSF 20% larvae meal diets were not significantly different from each other. No significant difference in feed utilisation between treatments in terms of average daily gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate were observed. No differences (P > 0.05) were found in dressing percentages between treatments. The proximate composition of the catfish showed no difference (P > 0.05) in percentage moisture, protein, lipids and ash between treatments. This study shows that BSF larvae meal did not affect the proximate body composition of the African catfish at any tested inclusion levels compared to the control diet."
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Nutritional composition, quality, and shelf stability of processed Ruspolia nitidula (edible grasshoppers)

The nutritional and commercial potential of the edible grasshopper (Ruspolia nitidula, nsenene in Luganda), a delicacy in Uganda and many East African tribes, is limited by a short shelf life and unverified nutritional value. This research established that R. nitidula is nutritious with 36–40% protein, 41–43% fat, 2.5–3.2% carbohydrate, 2.6–3.9% ash, 11.0–14.5% dietary fiber, and 900–2300 μg/100 g total carotenoids on a dry matter basis.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Ssepuuya - 2016
Food Science & Nutrition
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El impacto de los artrópodos sobre la mente humana

Jacques Mignon's insight:
S ummary : "The influences of arthropods on the p syche are designated, from the traces of the Paleolithic era to the present day. The action of their main families on the mind human, about its myths, legends and fables, the presence of entomophagy in different cultures and the maximum degree of influence represented by phobias, Ekbom syndrome and some cases of “delirium tremens” are describing"
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Les allergènes croissants des insectes comestibles

Introduction

Traditionnellement confinée à différents pays d’Asie, d’Afrique et d’Amérique du Sud, la consommation d’insectes (entomophagie) commence à s’étendre en Europe. Des cas d’allergie ont été rapportés et plusieurs allergènes communs aux arthropodes (acariens, insectes, crustacés), pourraient intervenir dans ces cas d’anaphylaxie.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Rougé :
"Conclusion: Malgré leur intérêt nutritionnel, il paraît nécessaire d’apprécier le risque allergique que les insectes comestibles peuvent représenter pour des sujets allergiques aux crustacés, aux acariens ou aux mollusques. Divers allergènes croissants pourraient être responsables d’allergies croisées entre ces organismes d’origine différente."
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Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells

Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
(2016). Apoptotic effects of insect tea in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. CyTA - Journal of Food: Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 169-175. doi: 10.1080/19476337.2015.1076521
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part introduction :
"Insect tea is a special kind of tea drink which is different from the more common variants. It is prepared by gathering fresh tender leaves of various wild plants such as Kuding tea leaves and platycarya leaves, then removing astringencies from the blades after cooking and drying the leaves (Li & Zhou, 2005). The leaves are then layered and stacked in wooden or bamboo baskets after sprinkling with rice water; they then emit a light fragrance after natural fermentation. The fragrance can attract insects such as Hydrillodes repugnalis to lay eggs on the blades. The hatched larvae excrete fecula particles after eating the leaves. Through exposure and stir-frying, collected fecula particles are turned into insect tea products (Feng, Luo, & Zhao, 2013)."
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Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

Chemical Composition and Food Potential of  Pachymerus nucleorum  Larvae Parasitizing  Acrocomia aculeata  Kernels | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit ( Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P . nucleorum larvae compared to bocaiuva kernels for human consumption. Proteins were the second largest portion of the larvae nutritional composition (33.13%), with percentage higher than the bocaiuva kernels (14.21%). The larval lipid content (37.87%) was also high, very close to the kernels (44.96%). The fraction corresponding to fatty acids in the oil extracted from the larvae was 40.17% for the saturated and 46.52% for the unsaturated. The antioxidant activity value was 24.3 uM trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae. The larvae tryptic activity was 0.032±0.006 nmol BAPNA/min. Both the larvae and the bocaiuva kernel presented absence of anti-nutritional factors. These results favor the use of P . nucleorum larvae as food, which are a great protein and lipid sources with considerable concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids compared to the bocaiuva kernel.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Ariana Vieira Alves et al. 2016
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Getting insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in specimens of marketed edible insects

Getting insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in specimens of marketed edible insects | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
The presence of antibiotic resistance genes on marketed edible insects was assessed.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Milanovic et al.
Short communication
International Journal of Food Microbiology

Part abstract:
"This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of 11 transferable antibiotic resistance (AR) genes [erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), vanA, vanB, tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), tet(K), mecA, blaZ] in 11 species of marketed edible insects (small crickets powder, small crickets, locusts, mealworm larvae, giant waterbugs, black ants, winged termite alates, rhino beetles, mole crickets, silkworm pupae, and black scorpions) in order to provide a first baseline for risk assessment."
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Nutritional Composition and Microbiology of Some Edible Insects Commonly Eaten in Africa, Hurdles and Future Prospects: A Critical Review

A review of the diversity and nutritional status of insects used as food in Nigeria was given by Alamu et al. [10] but it did not cover their microbial load, a critically important consideration when used as food. Insects are eaten in their adult or larval form. For instance, in Nigeria, the larvae and the adult Rhynchophorus phoenicis are eaten. In Indonesia larvae of rhinoceros beetle is a delicacy and the larvae of Anaphe venata is preferred in some parts of Nigeria. A major barrier for the use of insects as human food is repulsion, particularly strong among consumers in most Western countries. This may reflect their view of insects as pests and not as a human food source [11-13].
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"An overview of the microbiology and nutritional composition of eight (8) insects, Bunaea alcinoe , Rhynchophorus phoenicis , Gonimbrasia belina, Gryllotalpa africana , Cirina forda, Brachytrupes membranaceus , Macrotermes natalensis , and Anaphe venata used as food is presented. All the edible insects whose microbiological flora is known have mixed population of bacteria with Bacillus and Staphylococcus persistently occurring."
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Safety evaluation of cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) extract in Sprague-Dawley rats

Recently, research investment in the improvement of food safety as a food source and specializing of nutritional source of edible insects is being actively conducted. Cricket especially has been attracting considerable interest in entomophagy; however, research on the safety assessment of cricket is limited. This study investigated the effects of cricket ethanol extract when orally administrated in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"The results showed that there were no systemic toxicological effects related with the cricket ethanol extract in the 4 wk oral repeated dose toxicity study. It is considered that NOAEL of cricket ethanol extract is greater than 1,000 mg/kg/d and there was no target organ detected. "
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Insect biodiversity: underutilized bioresource for sustainable applications in life sciences - Online First - Springer

Insect biodiversity: underutilized bioresource for sustainable applications in life sciences - Online First - Springer | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Due to the growing world population and changing eating habits, there is an increasing demand in sustainable alternative protein sources, whereas the available land for the production of plant and animal protein decreases owing to desertification and urbanization. Furthermore, the rapidly decreasing resources of fossil fuels necessitate more sustainable production cycles combined with well-conceived land use. This includes the establishment of novel utilization pathways for hitherto not or insufficiently used biomass. In this context, insects offer prospective alternatives, since they represent highly efficient and, due to evolutionary processes, highly optimized bioreactors that have the ability to effectively and autonomously convert biomass into biochemical compounds such as proteins, fat, and chitin by combined mechanical, chemical, and microbiological degradation.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Furthermore, insects are a vastly underutilized bioresource and need to be exploited for the bioconversion and valorization also of hitherto not usable organic residues to food, feed, chemicals, enzymes, and other bioactive compounds. Mentionable is here also the production of attractants, repellants, defensive, and other chemicals such as antimicrobial peptides that open up new opportunities for therapeutical and biotechnological applications, for example regarding plant pest management."
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Il grillo domestico : Analisi della Food Neophobia Scale e la sua accettabilità da intero e sfarinato.

Il grillo domestico : Analisi della Food Neophobia Scale e la sua accettabilità da intero e sfarinato. | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Unconventionalfood e i suoi prodotti sono stati lo spunto per un approfondimento che si è concluso con una tesi sperimentale. Ad oggi la Food Neophobia si riscontra in tutti i paesi e in tutte le culture, specialmente nei confronti di alimenti e prodotti esteri o non facenti parte della propria cultura di appartenenza. Il disgusto è forse il fattore/barriera più difficile da superare, soprattutto dopo la vista del fattore scatenante, in questo caso il grillo intero.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
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Edible insects and the future of food

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "We used the methods of Foresight to explore the potential of insect-eating within four different future scenarios. Interestingly, edible insects featured as a plausible part of all four imagined futures. This suggests that eating insects might become mainstream in a few decades. However, questions remain about the economic viability and food safety of insect-based foods. Research into these questions is necessary and justified."
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IMPROVING UTILISATION OF Raphia hookeri  THROUGH COMMUNITY BASED CONSERVATION IN THE NIGER DELTA OF NIGERIA

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract: "The two main specific uses of R. hookeri in Niger Delta are palm wine and edible insect larvae ( Rynchophorus phoenicis ) from stem sap and wood (trunk). "
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North American entomophagy: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: Vol 0, No 0

North American entomophagy: Journal of Insects as Food and Feed: Vol 0, No 0 | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Eating insects is not a common Northern American practice today. However, in the past a variety of insect species was consumed in Northern America (north of Mexico including Greenland). The aim of this literature review is to provide an historical overview of North American entomophagy based upon both peer and non-peer reviewed sources on this topic.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract : "We show that North American Natives, and in certain cases colonists, collected and consumed a large variety of edible insects. These are categorized per order and where available, information on how these species were collected and processed is provided. Lastly, we mention reasons for the renewed interest in edible insects and make suggestions for future studies."
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The use of Hermetia illucens and Chrysomya chloropyga larvae and
pre-pupae meal in ruminant nutrition

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Pierre Haasbroek
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Sensibilisation allergénique croisée entre criquets et arthropodes dans la communauté urbaine de Niamey

Discussion

Cette étude préliminaire a permis de montrer l’existence probable d’une sensibilisation croisée entre les criquets et les autres arthropodes. La littérature décrit divers pan-allergènes tels que la tropomyosine ou l’arginine kinase communs aux insectes, aux crustacés, aux acariens… et qui seraient à l’origine de ces réactions croisées.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Hamidou: "Cette étude a pour but d’évaluer la sensibilisation croisée entre les criquets largement consommés au Niger et les autres arthropodes..."
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Identification de l’alpha-amylase comme allergène du ver de farine chez des patients professionnellement exposés

Conclusion

L’exposition professionnelle à TM et AD peut induire une allergie. Nous identifions pour la première fois l’AA comme allergène potentiel de TM.
Jacques Mignon's insight:
"Les allergies aux insectes sont également connues en occident dans le cadre d’allergies professionnelles ou de loisir. Depuis peu les vers de farine (larves de Tenebrio molitor [TM]) et grillons (Acheta domesticus [AD]) sont distribués sous formes comestibles dans plusieurs pays européens."
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Entomophagy in the area surrounding LuiKotale, Salonga
National Park, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Jacques Mignon's insight:
Part abstract:
"Information was gathered using interviews and first-hand observations. A total of 31 edible insects are identified by their local names, and of these 10 are identified to species level. Collection methods are recorded for seven commonly consumed spe - cies. This article contributes to the scarce body of research detailing entomophagy in the DRC."
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Presentation: Edible Insects, New Future Food: Threats and Opportunity (IAFP's 12th European Symposium on Food Safety)

Presentation: Edible Insects, New Future Food: Threats and Opportunity (IAFP's 12th European Symposium on Food Safety) | Entomophagy, insects for feed and pharma | Scoop.it
Jacques Mignon's insight:
Significance: "Edible insects could be a promising alternative for the conventional production of meat, either for direct human consumption or for indirect use as feedstock. Eating insects is not only good for health, it is good for the planet."
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