Electric motorcycles and scooters are plug-in electric vehicles with two or three wheels that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, and the electricity stored on board in a rechargeable battery powers one or more electric motors to attain locomotion. Electric motorcycles, as distinguished from scooters, do not have a step-through frame.
As of November 2012[update], there are several commercial production electric motorcycles and scooters available in several markets around the world, including the Brammo Enertia, Brammo Enertia Plus. Brammo Empulse, Zero X, Zero S, Yamaha EC-03, and Vectrix VX-1.
Generally, the source of power for the electric motor has been batteries, but development in fuel cell technology has created several prototypes. Some examples are: the ENV from Intelligent Energy, Honda's scooter using the Honda FC Stack, and the Yamaha FC-AQEL. Also, petroleum hybrid-electric motorcycles are available. Some examples are the Ecycle, and Yamaha's Gen-RYU.