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Garden wall made of recycled bottles and rebar

Garden wall made of recycled bottles and rebar | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Via Debra Anchors
Kim Frye's insight:

I know a lot of you out there collect blue glass bottles...

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Camacho Land Design's curator insight, February 18, 2014 10:06 PM

Finished with that bottle? I'd like to use it for my bottle fence! REALLY :)

SciFrye
the science behind our environments & the changing environments of science
Curated by Kim Frye
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Rescooped by Kim Frye from Gaia Diary
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Faceless fish among weird deep sea Australian finds

Faceless fish among weird deep sea Australian finds | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Faceless fish and other weird and wonderful creatures, many of them new species, have been hauled up from the deep waters off Australia during a scientific voyage studying parts of the ocean never explored before.

The month-long journey off the country's eastern seaboard has been surveying life lurking in a dark and cold abyss that plunges four kilometres (2.5 miles) below the surface, using nets, sonar and deep-sea cameras.

Chief scientist on board "The Investigator" Tim O'Hara from Museums Victoria told AFP Wednesday the search area was "the most unexplored environment on earth".

Bright red spiky rock crabs, puffed-up coffinfish, blind sea spiders and deep sea eels have been collected since the scientists began their voyage—from Launceston in Tasmania north towards the Coral Sea—on May 15.

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Rescooped by Kim Frye from DNA and RNA research
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Yale study finds cause of and cure for genetic skin disorder

Yale study finds cause of and cure for genetic skin disorder | SciFrye | Scoop.it

About one in 200,000 people are affected by a severe group of skin disorders known as the ichthyoses (ik-thee-oh-sees), which feature dry, scaly, or thickened skin. Although treatment with topical medications can help, there is no cure. To better understand the cause of such skin disorders, a Yale-led research team studies the genes of individuals affected by the conditions.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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The beautiful languages of the people who talk like birds

The beautiful languages of the people who talk like birds | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Their unusual whistled speech may reveal what humanity’s first words sounded like.

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Combination therapy targets genetic mutation found in many cancers

Combination therapy targets genetic mutation found in many cancers | SciFrye | Scoop.it
A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has shown promise for effective treatment of therapy-resistant cancers caused by a mutation of the RAS gene found in many cancers. The pre-clinical study combined therapies targeting the inhibitors polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK). The findings were published this week in Science Translational Medicine.

Mutations in the RAS gene account for more than 90 percent of pancreatic cancers, 50 percent of colorectal cancers, and 30 percent of lung cancers, and a significant portion of many other types of tumors. Unfortunately, these cancers are usually resistant to traditional treatments contributing to poor patient outcomes.

"Nowhere is the need for targeted therapies greater than for cancers driven by oncogenic RAS, which represents the most common type of potentially targetable mutation in cancer," said Gordon Mills, M.D., Ph.D., chair of Systems Biology. "Our study demonstrated that the rational combination of PARP and MEK inhibitors warrants clinical investigation in patients with RAS-mutant tumors where there are few effective therapeutic options."

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Hubble 'traps' a vermin galaxy

Hubble 'traps' a vermin galaxy | SciFrye | Scoop.it
This Hubble image shows a distant galaxy as it begins to align with and pass behind a star sitting nearer to us within the Milky Way.

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Remembrance of things past – bacterial memory of gut inflammation

Remembrance of things past – bacterial memory of gut inflammation | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Stable engineered bacteria that retain long-term memory of gut inflammation could be used as living diagnostics for chronic intestinal diseases and other conditions


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3-D printing offers new approach to make buildings in 14 hours time

3-D printing offers new approach to make buildings in 14 hours time | SciFrye | Scoop.it
MIT researchers have developed a system that can 3-D print the basic structure of an entire building.

 

MIT's system  is a massive robotic arm attached to a track vehicle. The arm is fitted with nozzles that can spray foam insulation on the ground and fill the area in with concrete.

It is operated electrically and can harvest its power from the sun using solar panels. A scoop attached to the robot lets it prepare the building surface and acquire local materials, such as dirt for a rammed-earth building, for the construction itself.

 

To demonstrate the technology, the team constructed the walls of a 50-foot-diameter, 12-foot-high dome in 14 hours of 'printing' time.  Although this technology could change how humans build homes on Earth, the team foresees this system being useful when we go to Mars, as it can create small dwellings in less than 24 hours.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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VLA Reveals Secondary Black Hole Near Supermassive Black Hole in Cygnus A Galaxy

VLA Reveals Secondary Black Hole Near Supermassive Black Hole in Cygnus A Galaxy | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Astronomers were surprised when the VLA revealed that a bright new object has appeared near the core of a famous galaxy. They think it's a second supermassive black hole, indicating that the galaxy has merged with another in the past.

 

Pointing the National Science Foundation’s Very Large Array (VLA) at a famous galaxy for the first time in two decades, a team of astronomers got a big surprise, finding that a bright new object had appeared near the galaxy’s core. The object, the scientists concluded, is either a very rare type of supernova explosion or, more likely, an outburst from a second supermassive black hole closely orbiting the galaxy’s primary, central supermassive black hole.

 

The astronomers observed Cygnus A, a well-known and often-studied galaxy discovered by radio-astronomy pioneer Grote Reber in 1939. The radio discovery was matched to a visible-light image in 1951, and the galaxy, some 800 million light-years from Earth, was an early target of the VLA after its completion in the early 1980s. Detailed images from the VLA published in 1984 produced major advances in scientists’ understanding of the superfast “jets” of subatomic particles propelled into intergalactic space by the gravitational energy of supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies. “This new object may have much to tell us about the history of this galaxy,” said Daniel Perley, of the Astrophysics Research Institute of Liverpool John Moores University in the U.K., lead author of a paper in the Astrophysical Journalannouncing the discovery.

 

“The VLA images of Cygnus A from the 1980s marked the state of the observational capability at that time,” said Rick Perley, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). “Because of that, we didn’t look at Cygnus A again until 1996, when new VLA electronics had provided a new range of radio frequencies for our observations.” The new object does not appear in the images made then. “However, the VLA’s upgrade that was completed in 2012 made it a much more powerful telescope, so we wanted to have a look at Cygnus A using the VLA’s new capabilities,” Perley said.

 

Daniel and Rick Perley, along with Vivek Dhawan, and Chris Carilli, both of NRAO, began the new observations in 2015, and continued them in 2016. “To our surprise, we found a prominent new feature near the galaxy’s nucleus that did not appear in any previous published images. This new feature is bright enough that we definitely would have seen it in the earlier images if nothing had changed,” said Rick Perley. “That means it must have turned on sometime between 1996 and now,” he added.

 

The scientists then observed Cygnus A with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) in November of 2016, clearly detecting the new object. A faint infrared object also is seen at the same location in Hubble Space Telescope and Keck observations, originally made between 1994 and 2002. The infrared astronomers, from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, had attributed the object to a dense group of stars, but the dramatic radio brightening is forcing a new analysis.

 

What is the new object? Based on its characteristics, the astronomers concluded it must be either a supernova explosion or an outburst from a second supermassive black hole near the galaxy’s center. While they want to watch the object’s future behavior to make sure, they pointed out that the object has remained too bright for too long to be consistent with any known type of supernova. “Because of this extraordinary brightness, we consider the supernova explanation unlikely,” Dhawan said.

While the new object definitely is separate from Cygnus A’s central supermassive black hole, by about 1500 light-years, it has many of the characteristics of a supermassive black hole that is rapidly feeding on surrounding material.

 

“We think we’ve found a second supermassive black hole in this galaxy, indicating that it has merged with another galaxy in the astronomically-recent past,” Carilli said. “These two would be one of the closest pairs of supermassive black holes ever discovered, likely themselves to merge in the future.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Have Gravitational Waves Left Scars in the Fabric of Spacetime?

Have Gravitational Waves Left Scars in the Fabric of Spacetime? | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime caused by the universe’s most violent collisions, and we detect them with experiments like the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) and its European counterpart, Virgo. These detectors are a series of several-kilometer-long L-shaped buildings that measure gravitational waves passing through Earth as tiny differences in the distance traveled by two laser beams’ light waves. Scientists have spotted gravitational waves twice, maybe three times.

 

If these waves permanently altered spacetime, our detectors might be able to measure the slight change. These changes to spacetime wouldn’t affect your life at all, since they’d be tinier than the individual protons and neutrons in atoms. But the idea is that, given enough passing gravitational waves from incredible black hole collisions, we’d eventually be able to pick up the sum of all these spacetime ripples as a tiny shift in the detector. This could happen after as few as 20 gravitational wave events similar to the first one ever discovered, according to a paper published last year.

 

It’s possible that scientists might be able to spot the scars caused by gravitational waves without observing the waves themselves, which would be useful seeing as our gravitational wave detectors are only sensitive to waves with certain frequencies. Scientists named this idea “orphan memory” in a paper published this month in the journal Physical Review Letters. It’s a bit like The Flash’s footprints—something moving beyond the comprehension of our detectors but leaving behind a tiny hint of a passing force.

 

Others researchers are excited about the prospect of detecting hints of higher frequency gravitational waves—these could signal exotic physics and extra dimensions, Sanjeev Seahra, associate professor in mathematics at the University of New Brunswick told Gizmodo. “But detectors such as LIGO are not optimised to see such signals, so the possibility that the gravitational wave memory effect could act as an observable low-frequency component to intrinsically high-frequency waveforms is very encouraging.” The detectors are optimized to see signals between 10 and 2000Hz.

 

At least one scientist wasn’t so encouraged. I asked Lionel London, a research associate in gravitational waves at Cardiff University what he thought about using experiments like LIGO to detect the ghostly traces of past spacetime ripples, and he was skeptical. He pointed out that a few of the paper’s statements go against what many astrophysicists know about black hole mergers, like the amount of a black hole’s energy that gets converted into gravitational waves. The paper assumes the entire remnant black hole mass turns into gravitational waves after a collision, but London said only about 10 percent of the system’s initial mass can turn to gravitational waves.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Extra layer of tectonic plates discovered within Earth's mantle, scientists say

Extra layer of tectonic plates discovered within Earth's mantle, scientists say | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Preliminary findings suggest that a mysterious series of earthquakes in the Pacific could be down to the newly-discovered plates
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Scientists identify 40 genes that shed new light on biology of intelligence

Scientists identify 40 genes that shed new light on biology of intelligence | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Study significantly adds to the tally of genes connected to intellect – but researchers caution genius isn’t all down to genetics
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Unveiling the Quantum Necklace

Unveiling the Quantum Necklace | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Researchers simulate quantum necklace-like structures in superfluids.

 

The quantum world is both elegant and mysterious. It is a sphere of existence where the laws of physics experienced in everyday life are broken—particles can exist in two places at once, they can react to each other over vast distances, and they themselves seem confused over whether they are particles or waves. For those not involved in the field, this world may seem trifling, but recently, researchers from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) have theoretically described two quantum states that are extraordinary in both the physics that define them and their visual appeal: a complex quantum system that simulates classical physics and a spellbinding necklace-like state. Their study is published in the journal Physical Review A.

 

The quest for these states begins with a doughnut, or rather, a doughnut-shaped container housing a rotating superfluid. This superfluid, which is a fluid that moves with no friction, is made of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) comprising particles with no charge that are cooled to near-zero degrees kelvin, a temperature so cold, that it does not exist in the universe outside of laboratories. At this temperature, particles begin to exhibit strange properties—they clump together, and eventually become indistinguishable from one another. In effect, they become a single entity and thus move as one.

 

Since this whirling BEC superfluid is operating at a quantum scale, where tiny distances and low temperatures reign, the physical characteristics of its rotation are not those seen in the classical world. Consider a father who is swinging his daughter around in a circle by the arms. Classical physics mandates that the child’s legs will move faster than her hands around the circle, since her legs must travel further to make a complete turn.

 

In the world of quantum physics the relationship is the opposite. “In a superfluid…things which are very far away [from the center] move really slowly, whereas things [that] are close to the center move very fast,” explains OIST Professor Thomas Busch, one of theresearchers involved in the study. This is what is happening in the superfluid doughnut.

 

In addition, the superfluid inside of the doughnut shows a uniform density profile, meaning that it is distributed around the doughnut evenly. This would be the same for most liquids that are rotating via classical or quantum rules. But what happens if another type of BEC is added, one that is made from a different atomic species and that cannot mix with the original BEC? Like oil and water, the two components will separate in a way that minimizes the area in which they are touching and form two semicircles on opposite sides of the doughnut container.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Take a look, and you'll see, into your imagination

Take a look, and you'll see, into your imagination | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Kyoto scientists enhance mind reading technology

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Building a better foundation: improving root‐trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes

Building a better foundation: improving root‐trait measurements to understand and model plant and ecosystem processes | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Trait-based approaches provide a useful framework to investigate plant strategies for resource acquisition, growth, and competition, as well as plant impacts on ecosystem processes. Despite significant progress capturing trait variation within and among stems and leaves, identification of trait syndromes within fine-root systems and between fine roots and other plant organs is limited. Here we discuss three underappreciated areas where focused measurements of fine-root traits can make significant contributions to ecosystem science. These include assessment of spatiotemporal variation in fine-root traits, integration of mycorrhizal fungi into fine-root-trait frameworks, and the need for improved scaling of traits measured on individual roots to ecosystem-level processes. Progress in each of these areas is providing opportunities to revisit how below-ground processes are represented in terrestrial biosphere models. Targeted measurements of fine-root traits with clear linkages to ecosystem processes and plant responses to environmental change are strongly needed to reduce empirical and model uncertainties. Further identifying how and when suites of root and whole-plant traits are coordinated or decoupled will ultimately provide a powerful tool for modeling plant form and function at local and global scales.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Jean-Michel Ané
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The Muon g-2 experiment has begun its search for phantom particles with its world-famous and well-traveled electromagnet

The Muon g-2 experiment has begun its search for phantom particles with its world-famous and well-traveled electromagnet | SciFrye | Scoop.it
What do you get when you revive a beautiful 20-year-old physics machine, carefully transport it 3,200 miles over land and sea to its new home, and then use it to probe strange happenings in a magnetic field? Hopefully you get new insights into the elementary particles that make up everything.

The Muon g-2 experiment, located at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, has begun its quest for those insights. On May 31, the 50-foot-wide superconducting electromagnet at the center of the experiment saw its first beam of muon particles from Fermilab's accelerators, kicking off a three-year effort to measure just what happens to those particles when placed in a stunningly precise magnetic field. The answer could rewrite scientists' picture of the universe and how it works.

"The Muon g-2 experiment's first beam truly signals the start of an important new research program at Fermilab, one that uses muon particles to look for rare and fascinating anomalies in nature," said Fermilab Director Nigel Lockyer. "After years of preparation, I'm excited to see this experiment begin its search in earnest."

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First-ever look at DNA opening reveals initial stage of reading the genetic code

First-ever look at DNA opening reveals initial stage of reading the genetic code | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Scientists have watched a cell's genetic machinery in the first stages of 'reading' genes, giving a potential way to stop the process in bacteria.


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Chinese team develops skin-like triboelectric nanogenerator

Chinese team develops skin-like triboelectric nanogenerator | SciFrye | Scoop.it
A team of researchers with the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology in China has developed what it is calling a skin-like triboelectric nanogenerator (STENG). In their paper published in the journal Science Advances, the group describes the nanogenerator they built and offer suggestions for its use.

Prior research led to the construction of TENG devices that generate electricity by pressing materials together and taking them apart, creating an electrostatic charge. In this new effort, the researchers put an S in front of the name of their TENG device to highlight its similarity to human skin.

To make the new device, the group mixed an elastomer with an ionic hydrogel to create a material that is both flexible and nearly transparent. Unlike other TENG devices, the elastomer can be used as the layer that is electrified while the hydrogel can work as the electrode. This allowed for much better stretching abilities—the team reports a 1000 percent improvement over other TENGs.

The researchers report that the material is also nearly clear, allowing 96.2 percent of light to pass through it—this, they suggest, makes it useful for devices that require transmission of optical data. The nanogenerator was able to continue functioning properly in temperatures up to 30° C, and with humidity as high as 30 percent. Testing showed that the material was capable of producing up to 145 volts and had a power density of 35 milliwatts per square meter when configured as an open circuit. The team notes also that all of the materials used to make the device are inexpensive, light and readily available.

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Dynamic Communities: The new American suburb

Dynamic Communities: The new American suburb | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Millennials are leaving the cities and transforming the suburbs, with a focus on community. (Partner Content)
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Near-infrared light proves an effective and precise tool for engineering tissues from stem cells

Near-infrared light proves an effective and precise tool for engineering tissues from stem cells | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Researchers in UC Santa Barbara’s departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology have gotten a step closer to unlocking the secrets of tissue morphology with a method of three-dimensional culturing of embryonic stem cells using light. “The important development with our method is that we have good spatiotemporal control over which cell — or even part of a cell — is being excited to differentiate along a particular gene pathway,” said lead author Xiao Huang, who conducted this study as a doctoral student at UCSB and is now a postdoctoral scholar in the Desai Lab at UC San Francisco. The research, titled “Light-Patterned RNA Interference of 3D-Cultured Human Embryonic Stem Cells,” appears in volume 28, issue 48 of the journal Advanced Materials.

 

Similar to other work in the field of optogenetics — which largely focuses neurological disorders and activity in living organisms, leading to insights into diseases and conditions such as Parkinson’s and drug addiction — this new method relies on light to control gene expression. The researchers used a combination of hollow gold nanoshells attached to small molecules of synthetic RNA (siRNA) — a molecule that plays a large role in gene regulation — and thermoreversible hydrogel as 3D scaffolding for the stem cell culture, as well as invisible, near-infrared (NIR) light. NIR light, Huang explained, is ideal when creating a three-dimensional culture in the lab.

 

“Near-infrared light has better tissue penetration that is useful when the sample becomes thick,” he explained. In addition to enhanced penetration — up to 10 cm deep — the light can be focused tightly to specific areas. Irradiation with the light released the RNA molecules from the nanoshells in the sample and initiated gene-silencing activity, which knocked down green fluorescent protein genes in the cell cluster. The experiment also showed that the irradiated cells grew at the same rate as the untreated control sample; the treated cells showed unchanged viability after irradiation.

 

Of course, culturing tissues consisting of related but varying cell types is a far more complex process than knocking down a single gene. “It’s a concert of orchestrated processes,” said co-author and graduate student researcher Demosthenes Morales, describing the process by which human embryonic stem cells become specific tissues and organs. “Things are being turned on and turned off.” Perturbing one aspect of the system, he explained, sets off a series of actions along the cells’ developmental pathways, much of which is still unknown.

 

“One reason we’re very interested in spatiotemporal control is because these cells, when they’re growing and developing, don’t always communicate the same way,” Morales said, explaining that the resulting processes occur at different speeds, and occasionally overlap. “So being able to control that communication on which cell differentiates into which cell type will help us to be able to control tissue formation,” he added.


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Rescooped by Kim Frye from Ecoagriculture landscapes - Adapting, designing and managing biodiversity & ecosystem services for sustainability
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New Book Examines Agroecology As the Future of Farming 

New Book Examines Agroecology As the Future of Farming  | SciFrye | Scoop.it
The Institute for Food and Development Policy, a nonprofit known as Food First, released a new book entitled Fertile Ground: Scaling Agroecology from the Ground Up, edited by Groundswell International Executive Director and co-founder Steve Brescia.

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“Smoking gun” on ice ages revisited

“Smoking gun” on ice ages revisited | SciFrye | Scoop.it

Paleoclimatologists Rock -Two million years of radical climate change is significant. “The smoking gun of the ice ages” is the title of an article in the Dec. 9, 2016 issue of Science, the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The author, David A. Hodel, is listed with the Laboratory for Paleoclimate Research, Department of Earth Sciences, at Cambridge University in the UK.

 

Hodel cites a 40-year-old paper in Science, 194,1121 (1976). In that paper, Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton reported that their proxies for paleo sea surface temperatures and changing continental ice volumes exhibited periodicities of 42,000, 23,500 and 19,000 years, matching almost exactly the predicted orbital periods of planetary obliquity, precession and eccentricity. They also found that the dominant rhythm in the paleoclimate variations was 100,000 (±20,000) years.

 

Other climatologists have identified 20 glacial/interglacial oscillations over the past two million years with glacial parts of the cycles lasting about four times as long as the warm, interglacial parts. The last glacial maximum was about 18,000 years ago. We have been enjoying the present warm interglacial for about 12,000 years.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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How did whales become so large? Scientists dive into marine mystery

How did whales become so large? Scientists dive into marine mystery | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Changes in food distribution, rather than falling ocean temperatures, could hold key to shift towards giant lengths
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Fitness trackers out of step when measuring calories, research shows

Fitness trackers out of step when measuring calories, research shows | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Compared with gold-standard laboratory measurements, scientists found devices poor at tracking calories burned, but good at monitoring heart rate
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Fathers pay more attention to toddler daughters than sons, study shows

Fathers pay more attention to toddler daughters than sons, study shows | SciFrye | Scoop.it
Striking differences in the way men talk and play with their children depending on whether they are male or female revealed by US researchers
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