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Teacher Tube Provides Free Access To Educational Videos and Documents | PowerPoint Presentation

Teacher Tube Provides Free Access To Educational Videos and Documents | PowerPoint Presentation | Science4css | Scoop.it

Teacher Tube is a web service which provides a collection of educational videos, audio files, photos and documentation. Teacher Tube comprises of an online community where users can upload, share and locate instructional videos, documentation, as well as photos and audio content related to  professional development, science, special education, social sciences, maths, etc. At Teacher Tube you can download and view anything from video tutorials toMS PowerPoint and MS Word files related to educational content.

 

 


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Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph | Science4css | Scoop.it
Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias

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Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA, a process underlying cause of phobias

Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA, a process underlying cause of phobias | Science4css | Scoop.it

In a recent study, published in the journal of Nature Neuroscience, the researchers trained mice to fear the smell of cherry blossom using electric shocks before allowing them to breed. The offspring produced showed fearful responses to the odor of cherry blossom compared to a neutral odor, despite never having encountered them before. The following generation also showed the same behavior. This effect continued even if the mice had been fathered through artificial insemination.

 

The researchers found the brains of the trained mice and their offspring showed structural changes in areas used to detect the odor. The DNA of the animals also carried chemical changes, known as epigenetic methylation, on the gene responsible for detecting the odor. This suggests that experiences are somehow transferred from the brain into the genome, allowing them to be passed on to later generations.

 

The researchers now hope to carry out further work to understand how the information comes to be stored on the DNA in the first place.

They also want to explore whether similar effects can be seen in the genes of humans.

 

Prof. Marcus Pembrey, a paediatric geneticist at University College London, said the work provided "compelling evidence" for the biological transmission of memory. He added: "It addresses constitutional fearfulness that is highly relevant to phobias, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders, plus the controversial subject of transmission of the ‘memory’ of ancestral experience down the generations.

 

"It is high time public health researchers took human transgenerational responses seriously. "I suspect we will not understand the rise in neuropsychiatric disorders or obesity, diabetes and metabolic disruptions generally without taking a multigenerational approach.”

 

Prof. Wolf Reik, head of epigenetics at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, said, however, further work was needed before such results could be applied to humans. He said: "These types of results are encouraging as they suggest that transgenerational inheritance exists and is mediated by epigenetics, but more careful mechanistic study of animal models is needed before extrapolating such findings to humans.”

 

Another study in mice has shown that their ability to remember can be effected by the presence of immune system factors in their mother's milk. Dr Miklos Toth, from Cornell University in New York, found that chemokines carried in a mother's milk caused changes in the brains of their offspring, affecting their memory in later life.


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Researchers Create First Artificial Neural Network Out of DNA

Researchers Create First Artificial Neural Network Out of DNA | Science4css | Scoop.it

Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have now taken a major step toward creating artificial intelligence—not in a robot or a silicon chip, but in a test tube. The researchers are the first to have made an artificial neural network out of DNA, creating a circuit of interacting molecules that can recall memories based on incomplete patterns, just as a brain can.


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Scientists have found that memories may be passed down through generations in our DNA

Scientists have found that memories may be passed down through generations in our DNA | Science4css | Scoop.it

New research from Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. During the tests they learned that that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations.


Using olfactory molecular specificity, the researchers examined the inheritance of parental traumatic exposure, a phenomenon that has been frequently observed, but is not fully understood. The scientists subjected F0 mice to odor fear conditioning before conception and found that subsequently conceived F1 and F2 generations had an increased behavioral sensitivity to the F0-conditioned odor, but not to other odors. When an odor (acetophenone) that activates a known odorant receptor (Olfr151) was used to condition F0 mice, the behavioral sensitivity of the F1 and F2 generations to acetophenone was complemented by an enhanced neuroanatomical representation of the Olfr151 pathway.


Bisulfite sequencing of sperm DNA from conditioned F0 males and F1 naive offspring revealed CpG hypomethylation in the Olfr151 gene. In addition, in vitro fertilization, F2 inheritance and cross-fostering revealed that these transgenerational effects are inherited via parental gametes.


These findings provide a framework for addressing how environmental information may be inherited transgenerationally at behavioral, neuroanatomical and epigenetic levels.


Professor Marcus Pembrey, a paediatric geneticist at University College London, said the work provided “compelling evidence” for the biological transmission of memory. He added: “It addresses constitutional fearfulness that is highly relevant to phobias, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders, plus the controversial subject of transmission of the ‘memory’ of ancestral experience down the generations.



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