Extra dimensions of space—the idea that we are immersed in hyperspace—may be key to explaining the fundamental nature of the universe. Relativity introduced time as the fourth dimension, and Einstein’s subsequent work envisioned more dimensions still--but ultimately hit a dead end. Modern research has advanced the subject in ways he couldn’t have imagined. John Hockenberry joins Brian Greene, Lawrence Krauss, and other leading thinkers on a visual tour through wondrous spatial realms that may lie beyond the ones we experience.
Dr. Michael Rosenzweig, Professor, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, the University of Arizona. Dr. Rosenzweig's lecture was given as part of the College of Science "The Edges of Life Lecture Series." Science now knows we've taken away enough land from nature to precipitate a mass extinction like the one that exterminated the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Using reconciliation ecology, we can prevent this - and preserve life.
The holographic principle was inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be expected. In the case of a black hole, the insight was that the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the hole might be entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. The holographic principle resolves the black hole information paradox within the framework of string theory.However, there exist classical solutions to the Einstein equations that allow values of the entropy larger than those allowed by an area law, hence in principle larger than those of a black hole. These are the so-called "Wheeler's bags of gold". The existence of such solutions conflicts with the holographic interpretation, and their effects in a quantum theory of gravity including the holographic principle are not yet fully understood.
Cosmic Journeys explores the challenges of interstellar flight and the technological possibilities that may one day send us on a long voyage out into the galaxy. What imperatives will define the mission when it launches and finally arrives: exploration and science, or a struggle for survival?
David A. Weintraub is professor of astronomy, director of the Communication of Science & Technology program, and director of Undergraduate Studies for Department of Physics & Astronomy at Vanderbilt University.
The title question about the age of our universe poses a deceptively simple question, and its answer carries profound implications for science, religion and philosophy. In this class, we will trace the centuries-old quest by astronomers to fathom the secrets of the nighttime sky. We will discover how they have used their knowledge of astrophysics and their observations of the heavens to determine that the universe is 13.7 billion years old.
By the end of the course, you will understand why astronomers know this is the answer to the title question. Individual classes will focus on
ancient answers for the age of the universe, Renaissance science's impact on that ancient wisdom, and Biblical Chronology as a reasonable seventeenth century response to the birth of modern science;
nineteenth-century discoveries that changed astronomy into astrophysics;
white dwarf stars as a chronometer for the age of the universe;
star clusters as another tool for measuring the age of the universe;
the expanding universe as a third method for dating the universe;
maps of the cosmic background radiation, dark matter and dark energy as a fourth method for determining the age of the universe.
No background in math, astronomy, or physics is required to understand this material.Watch video of Vanderbilt Professor David A. Weintraub speaking March 23 on "How Old is the Universe?" as part of the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute.
Dr. Michio Kaku is a theoretical physicist, bestselling author, acclaimed public speaker, renowned futurist, and popularizer of science. As co-founder of String Field Theory, Dr. Kaku carries on Einstein's quest to unite the four fundamental forces of nature into a single grand unified theory of everything. You will not be surprised to hear that Michio Kaku has been on my guest dream-list since I started Singularity 1 on 1, and I was beyond ecstatic to finally have an opportunity to speak to him.
During our 90 min conversation with Dr. Michio Kaku we cover a variety of interesting topics such as: why he shifted his focus from the universe to the human mind; his definition, classification and ranking of consciousness; his take on the Penrose-Hameroff Orch OR model; Newton, Einstein, determinism and free will; whether the brain is a classical computer or not; Norman Doidge's work on neuro-plasticity and The Brain That Changes Itself; the underlying reality of everything; his dream to finish what Einstein has started and know the mind of God; The Future of the Mind; mind-uploading and space travel at the speed of light; Moore's Law and D-Wave's quantum computer; the Human Brain Project and whole brain simulation; alternatives paths to AI and the Turing Test as a way of judging progress; cryonics and what is possible and impossible.
In this video lecture, Prof. Wei Shun from Tsinghua university talks about the various aspects of 3D bioprinting. What is 3D bioprinting and how it can be used for regenerative medicine and for the formation of 3D tissue models to study disease mechanisms in the lab.
The lecture was given in Tel-Aviv University 2014.
Can current theories of cosmology explain how the Universe evolved? One way to find out is to plug everything we think we know about the early Universe and how galaxies form into a supercomputer, and see what comes out. In a simulation presented today in Nature1, researchers did just that — and revealed a cosmos that looks rather like our own. The findings lend weight to the standard model of cosmology, but could also help physicists to probe where our models of galaxy formation fall down.
Scientists at MIT have traced 13 billion years of galaxy evolution, from shortly after the Big Bang to the present day. Their simulation, named Illustris, captures both the massive scale of the Universe and the intriguing variety of galaxies -- something previous modelers have struggled to do. It produces a Universe that looks remarkably similar to what we see through our telescopes, giving us greater confidence in our understanding of the Universe, from the laws of physics to our theories about galaxy formation.
The recent resurrection of multi-layer neural networks is generating a lot of interest currently, with deep learning appearing on the New York Times front page, and big companies like Google and Facebook hunting for the experts in this field. Jürgen Schmidhuber, Director of the Swiss AI Lab IDSIAs, will shed more light on how deep learning methods work, and why they work.
Dogs have been called a person's best friend, but they also can tell us a lot about human disease. Dr. Elaine Ostrander joins us in discussing how her lab at the National Human Genome Research Institute studies the genes of canines (dogs) in order to better understand human diseases, such as cancer.
It's a golden age for planet hunters: NASA's Kepler mission has identified more than 3,500 potential planets orbiting stars beyond our Sun. Some of them, like a planet called Kepler-22b, might even be able to harbor life. How did we come upon this distant planet? Combining startling animation with input from expert astrophysicists and astrobiologists, "Alien Planets Revealed" takes viewers on a journey along with the Kepler telescope. How does the telescope look for planets? How many of these planets are like our Earth? Will any of these planets be suitable for life as we know it? Bringing the creative power of veteran animators together with the latest discoveries in planet-hunting, "Alien Planets Revealed" shows the successes of the Kepler mission, taking us to planets beyond our solar system and providing a glimpse of creatures we might one day encounter.
How do you get a genius brain? Is it all in your genes? Or is it hard work? Is it possible that everyone’s brain has untapped genius–just waiting for the right circumstances so it can be unleashed? From a man who can immediately name the day of the week of any date in history to a “memory athlete” who can remember strings of hundreds of random numbers, David Pogue meets people stretching the boundaries of what the human mind can do. Then, Pogue puts himself to the test: after high-resolution scanning, he finds out how the anatomy of his brain measures up against the greatest mind of the century: Albert Einstein.
Dr. Theodore Berger's research is currently focused primarily on the hippocampus, a neural system essential for learning and memory functions.
Theodore Berger leads a multi-disciplinary collaboration with Drs. Marmarelis, Song, Granacki, Heck, and Liu at the University of Southern California, Dr. Cheung at City University of Hong Kong, Drs. Hampson and Deadwyler at Wake Forest University, and Dr. Gerhardt at the University of Kentucky, that is developing a microchip-based neural prosthesis for the hippocampus, a region of the brain responsible for long-term memory. Damage to the hippocampus is frequently associated with epilepsy, stroke, and dementia (Alzheimer's disease), and is considered to underlie the memory deficits characteristic of these neurological conditions.
The essential goals of Dr. Berger's multi-laboratory effort include: (1) experimental study of neuron and neural network function during memory formation -- how does the hippocampus encode information?, (2) formulation of biologically realistic models of neural system dynamics -- can that encoding process be described mathematically to realize a predictive model of how the hippocampus responds to any event?, (3) microchip implementation of neural system models -- can the mathematical model be realized as a set of electronic circuits to achieve parallel processing, rapid computational speed, and miniaturization?, and (4) creation of conformal neuron-electrode interfaces -- can cytoarchitectonic-appropriate multi-electrode arrays be created to optimize bi-directional communication with the brain? By integrating solutions to these component problems, the team is realizing a biomimetic model of hippocampal nonlinear dynamics that can perform the same function as part of the hippocampus.
Nick Bostrom talked about his book, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies, in which he posits a future in which machines are more intelligent than humans and questions whether intelligent machines will try to save or destroy us. He spoke at an event hosted by the Machine Intelligence Research Institute in Berkeley, California.
Dr. Subir Sachdev (Perimeter Institute and Harvard University) delivers the kick-off lecture of the 2014/15 Perimeter Institute Public Lecture Series, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Held at Perimeter Institute and webcast live worldwide on Oct. 1, 2014, Sachdev's lecture explores the fascinating and surprising connections between quantum mechanics, the phenomenon of superconductivity, and string theory.
Human deep space exploration missions require a thorough understanding of the prolonged environmental effects on life. The use of genomics and synthetic biology will transform such missions by reducing the overall risk and mass needed to sustain crew health in space. As the lead Center for space biology and synthetic biology, NASA Ames is in pursuit of these challenges.
Regarded as one of the leading scientists in genomic research of the 21st century, J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., will speak about the profound impacts these new tools will have on human¹s existence on Earth and beyond.
The Director's Colloquium Summer Series is presented by the Office of the Chief Scientist at NASA's Ames Research Center as part of the Center's 75th anniversary celebration.
The centuries-old quest for other worlds like our Earth has been rejuvenated by the intense excitement surrounding the discovery of hundreds of planets orbiting other stars. The challenge now is to find terrestrial planets, especially those in the habitable zone of their stars where liquid water might exist on the surface of the planet. The Kepler mission, which launched in March 2009, is specifically designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover Earth-size and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone and determine the fraction of the hundreds of billions of stars in our galaxy that might have such planets. To date, 61 Kepler planets have been confirmed and more than 2,300 planet candidates have been found. This talk will cover many of Kepler's discoveries, including several planets orbiting two stars, and will try to explain how Kepler's discoveries help define humanity's place in the universe.
In this 2013 video by Science Friday, researchers take advantage of the Leidenfrost effect to make droplets of water flow up an incline. The Leidenfrost effect occurs when a liquid is placed on a surface that is significantly hotter than the liquid’s boiling point. A layer of vapor prevents the liquid from touching the surface and thus boiling rapidly away—the vapor also allows the liquid to move across the surface with ease.
Machine learning algorithms find patterns in big data sets. This talk presents quantum machine learning algorithms that give exponential speed-ups over their best existing classical counterparts. The algorithms work by mapping the data set into a quantum state (big quantum data) that contains the data in quantum superposition. Quantum coherence is then used to reveal patterns in the data. The quantum algorithms scale as the logarithm of the size of the database.
Seth Lloyd visited the Quantum AI Lab at Google LA to give a tech talk on "Quantum Machine Learning." This talk took place on January 29, 2014.
Time. We waste it, save it, kill it, make it. The world runs on it. Yet ask physicists what time actually is, and the answer might shock you: They have no idea. Even more surprising, the deep sense we have of time passing from present to past may be nothing more than an illusion. How can our understanding of something so familiar be so wrong? In search of answers, Brian Greene takes us on the ultimate time-traveling adventure, hurtling 50 years into the future before stepping into a wormhole to travel back to the past. Along the way, he will reveal a new way of thinking about time in which moments past, present, and future—from the reign of T. rex to the birth of your great-great-grandchildren—exist all at once. This journey will bring us all the way back to the Big Bang, where physicists think the ultimate secrets of time may be hidden. You'll never look at your wristwatch the same way again.
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