The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis). They follow the oldest known living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish and tetrapods), which means they are more closely related to lungfish, reptiles and mammals than to the common ray-finned fishes. They are found along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. Since there are only two species of coelacanth and both are threatened, it is the most endangered order of animals in the world. The West Indian Ocean coelacanth is a critically endangered species.
The coelacanth, which is related to lungfishes and tetrapods, was believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous period. More closely related to tetrapods than to the ray-finned fish, coelacanths were considered transitional species between fish and tetrapods. On 23 December 1938, the first Latimeria specimen was found off the east coast of South Africa, off the Chalumna River (now Tyolomnqa). Museum curator Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer discovered the fish among the catch of a local angler, Captain Hendrick Goosen. A Rhodes University ichthyologist, J. L. B. Smith, confirmed the fish's importance with a famous cable: "MOST IMPORTANT PRESERVE SKELETON AND GILLS = FISH DESCRIBED".
The coelacanth has no real commercial value apart from being coveted by museums and private collectors. As a food fish it is almost worthless, as its tissues exude oils that give the flesh a foul flavor. The coelacanth's continued survival may be threatened by commercial deep-sea trawling, in which coelacanths are caught as bycatch.
Cell populations are complex. Their collective functioning, turnover, and cooperation are at the basis of the life of multicellular organisms, such as humans. When this goes wrong, an unwanted evolutionary process can begin that leads to cancer. Mathematics cannot cure cancer, but it can be used to understand some of its aspects, which is an essential step in winning the battle.
If six unordered points are given on a conic section, they can be connected into a hexagon in 60 different ways, resulting in 60 different instances of Pascal's theorem and 60 different Pascal lines. This configuration of 60 lines is called the Hexagrammum Mysticum.
As Thomas Kirkman proved in 1849, these 60 lines can be associated with 60 points in such a way that each point is on three lines and each line contains three points. The 60 points formed in this way are now known as the Kirkman points. The Pascal lines also pass, three at a time, through 20 Steiner points. There are 20 Cayley lines which consist of a Steiner point and three Kirkman points. The Steiner points also lie, four at a time, on 15 Plücker lines. Furthermore, the 20 Cayley lines pass four at a time through 15 points known as the Salmon points.
Quantum computing promises to revolutionize how we compute and change the way we use technology in our daily lives.
Dr. Krysta Svore, Senior Researcher at Microsoft Research in Redmond, Washington, reveals some of the mysteries of this disruptive computational paradigm and showcase real-world applications of quantum devices.
Cancer therapies that target specific pathways can be more effective than established, nonspecific chemotherapy and radiation treatments, and may prevent side effects on healthy tissues. Such targeted therapies can only be applied after underlying gene mutations have been identified. However, detecting low frequency variants from clinically relevant samples poses significant challenges. Specimens are routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histology, which can decrease the efficiency of NGS library preparation. In this presentation, we discuss approaches for extraction of DNA from FFPE samples, and recommend quality control assays to guide parameter selection for library construction and sequencing depth.
In this talk, Author/artist Michael Carroll will explore the bizarre methane-filled seas and soaring dunes of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. Recent advances in our understanding of this planet-sized moon provide enough information for authors to paint a realistic picture of this truly alien world. Following his presentation, he will be signing his new science fiction adventure/mystery book, "On the Shores of Titan's Farthest Sea".
"Carroll's descriptions of oily seas and methane monsoons put you in that alien world, front and center…I can imagine future astronauts doing exactly the kinds of things Mike describes. I wish I could be one of them." Alan Bean, Apollo 12 astronaut.
Measurements of the demographics of exoplanets over a range of planet and host star properties provide fundamental empirical constraints on theories of planet formation and evolution. Because of its unique sensitivity to low-mass, long-period, and free-floating planets, microlensing is an essential complement to our arsenal of planet detection methods.
Dr. Gaudi will review the microlensing method, and discuss results to date from ground-based microlensing surveys. Also, Dr. Gaudi will motivate a space-based microlensing survey with WFIRST-AFTA, which when combined with the results from Kepler, will yield a nearly complete picture of the demographics of planetary systems throughout the Galaxy.
When diffraction is employed as the primary collector modality of a telescope instead of reflection or refraction, a new set of performance capabilities emerges. A diffraction-based telescope forms a spectrogram first and an image as secondary data. The results are startling. In multiple object capability, the diffraction telescope on earth can capture 2 million spectra to R bigger than 100,000 in a single night, better for a census of exoplanets by radial velocity than any prior art. In a space telescope in a direct observation mode, this type diffraction primary objective could reveal spectral analyses of individual exoplanets.
The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2016 was awarded to David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter".
In this colloquium Prof Michael Fuhrer will try to explain the concept of a "topological phase of matter" and the impact of this idea on the study of electronic phases in solid-state systems.
Before the work of Thouless, Haldane and Kosterlitz, phase transitions were understood within Landau's framework of an order parameter arising from the breaking of a symmetry; for example the paramagnet to ferromagnet transation breaks rotational symmetry and establishes an order parameter (the magnetization). Thouless, Haldane and Kosterlitz (working independently or together in several different contexts) demonstrated that phase transitions may be accompanied by a change in the topology of a system, without a change in symmetry. This framework allowed understanding of finite-temperature transitions in low-dimensional superfluids (the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition), spin chains (Haldane), the quantum Hall effect (Thouless), and the possibility of quantum Hall effects without magnetic fields (Haldane). This last work was led ultimately to the discovery of a variety of topological phases of real solid-state materials which may form the basis of new types of electronic devices - which the FLEET Centre of Excellence is working to make a reality.
On January 14, 2005, ESA’s Huygens probe made its descent to the surface of Saturn’s hazy moon, Titan. Carried to Saturn by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, Huygens made the most distant landing ever on another world, and the only landing on a body in the outer solar system. This video uses actual images taken by the probe during its two-and-a-half hour fall under its parachutes. Huygens was a signature achievement of the international Cassini-Huygens mission, which will conclude on September 15, 2017, when Cassini plunges into Saturn’s atmosphere.
A two minute video shows images taken by ESA’s Huygens probe when it made its descent to the surface of Titan. After a two-and-a-half-hour descent, the metallic, saucer-shaped spacecraft came to rest with a thud on a dark floodplain covered in cobbles of water ice, in temperatures hundreds of degrees below freezing. The alien probe worked frantically to collect and transmit images and data about its environs — in mere minutes its mothership would drop below the local horizon, cutting off its link to the home world and silencing its voice forever.
Although it may seem the stuff of science fiction, this scene played out 12 years ago on the surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. The “aliens” who built the probe were us. This was the triumphant landing of ESA’s Huygens probe.
Huygens, a project of the European Space Agency, traveled to Titan as the companion to NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, and then separated from its mothership on Dec. 24, 2004, for a 20-day coast toward its destiny at Titan.
The probe sampled Titan’s dense, hazy atmosphere as it slowly rotated beneath its parachutes, analyzing the complex organic chemistry and measuring winds. It also took hundreds of images during the descent, revealing bright, rugged highlands that were crosscut by dark drainage channels and steep ravines. The area where the probe touched down was a dark, granular surface, which resembled a dry lakebed.
Featuring Dr. Stan Wagon, Professor of Mathematics - Macalester College. There is no better way to get someone's attention than with an assertion that just seems obviously wrong. Math is full of such things. The talk presents several surprising, even shocking, things from elementary mathematics, such as: A square wheel that rolls perfectly smoothly. A device that uses a normal rotating crankshaft to drill perfect square holes. An application of a non-circular wheel to sewage disposal. A shocking cake puzzle. Surprising new formulas for π. Benford's mysterious law of first digits. The Banach-Tarski Paradox, with constructible pieces.
The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows everyone -- experts and enthusiasts alike -- to engage with scientific discoveries in unique and thrilling ways. Through theatrical works, interactive exhibits, intimate discussions, and major outdoor experiences, the Festival takes science out of the laboratory and into the streets, museums, galleries, and premier performing arts venues around the world.
George E. Andrews Evan Pugh Professor of Mathematics, The Pennsylvania State University George Andrews will describe the brief life of Srinivasa Ramanujan and his influence on mathematics with his notebooks.
In this video Burkard Polster tells you about Klein bottle Rubik’s cubes, Torus Rubik's Cubes and Klein Quadric Rubik's cubes as an introduction to a whole new universe of twisty puzzles.
Get your own Klein bottle Rubik’s cube, as well as more than 800 other topological twisty puzzles by downloading the free incredibly powerful Rubik’s cube simulator MagicTile by Roice Nelson: http://roice3.org/magictile
Be one of the select few to get your name recorded in our limited edition Mathologer "Klein bottle Rubik Cube Hall of Fame" by solving the tricky puzzle and following this link: http://roice3.org/magictile/mathologer
To get some help with this challenge check out the second part of this video on Mathologer 2 in which I talk about the MagicTile interface, show you how to design and record algorithms as macro moves, as well as talk you through a complete solution of one of the easy Harlequin edge-turning puzzles (featuring the all-time simplest three-piece cycle algorithm as well as some cute parity problems): https://youtu.be/iOla7WPfCvA
Also check out the following videos for more background information: "A simple trick to design your own solutions to Rubik’s cubes": https://youtu.be/-NL76uQOpI0 (for an introduction to designing your own algorithms for solving twisty puzzles).
A mirror paradox, Klein bottles and Rubik's cubes: https://youtu.be/4XN0V4xHaoQ (An introduction to what Klein bottles are all about and a bit of fun with putting Rubik’s cubes INTO Klein bottles.)
(Your next challenge after the the Klein Bottle Rubik's cube. Another hall of fame awaits.) Klein Quadric II: https://youtu.be/6SZ8ONJlw7I An animation by Jos Leys that shows how the Klein Quadric gets glued together from the patch of 24 regular 7-gons in the hyperbolic plane.
Project Jupyter provides building blocks for interactive and exploratory computing. These building blocks make science and data science reproducible across over 40 programming language (Python, Julia, R, etc.). Central to the project is the Jupyter Notebook, a web-based interactive computing platform that allows users to author data- and code-driven narratives - computational narratives - that combine live code, equations, narrative text, visualizations, interactive dashboards and other media.
Viruses are by far the most abundant biological entities in the oceans, comprising approximately 94% of the nucleic-acid-containing particles. However, because of their small size they comprise only approximately 5% of the biomass. By contrast, even though prokaryotes represent less than 10% of the nucleic-acid-containing particles they represent more than 90% of the biomass.
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