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Video Lecture: Small RNA, The Dark Matter of Genetics - by Professor Sir David Baulcombe

Sir David Baulcombe is one of the world's top scientists whose work identified small RNAs, and he's a nice person as well. He will be a Keynote Speaker at the upcoming UK Plant Sciences Federation meeting in Dundee, Scotland, April 2013, which is sure to be a stimulating meeting http://www.plantsci2013.org.uk/programme/


Via Mary Williams, Ruth Bastow, sonia ramos
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Adiabatic Quantum Computing Conference 2016  [29 Videos]

Adiabatic Quantum Computing Conference 2016  [29 Videos] | Science-Videos | Scoop.it

Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is a form of quantum computing which relies on the adiabatic theorem to do calculations[1] and is closely related to, and may be regarded as a subclass of, quantum annealing. First, a (potentially complicated) Hamiltonian is found whose ground state describes the solution to the problem of interest. Next, a system with a simple Hamiltonian is prepared and initialized to the ground state. Finally, the simple Hamiltonian is adiabatically evolved to the desired complicated Hamiltonian. By the adiabatic theorem, the system remains in the ground state, so at the end the state of the system describes the solution to the problem. Adiabatic Quantum Computing has been shown to be polynomially equivalent to conventional quantum computing in the circuit model.[6] The time complexity for an adiabatic algorithm is the time taken to complete the adiabatic evolution which is dependent on the gap in the energy eigenvalues (spectral gap) of the Hamiltonian. Specifically, if the system is to be kept in the ground state, the energy gap between the ground H(t) state and the first excited state of {\displaystyle H(t)} provides an upper bound on the rate at which the t Hamiltonian can be evolved at time {\displaystyle t}.[7

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Frontiers of Physics Lecture: Dr. Rainer Weiss talks about Gravity Waves and more

Dr. Rainer Weiss, emeritus professor of Physics from MIT, speaks to the University of Washington community on "Gravitational Wave Astronomy: A New Way.

 

Prof. Weiss is an American physicist, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. He is a professor of physics emeritus at MIT. He is best known for inventing the laser interferometric technique which is the basic operation of LIGO. Rainer Weiss was Chair of the COBE Science Working Group.[1][2][3].

 

Dr. Weiss brought two fields of fundamental physics research from birth to maturity: characterization of the cosmic background radiation,[3] and interferometric gravitational wave observation. He made pioneering measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation, and then was co-founder and science advisor of the NASA COBE (microwave background) satellite.[1] In 2006, with John C. Mather, he and the COBE team received the Gruber Prize in Cosmology.[2]

 

Weiss also invented the interferometric gravitational wave detector, and co-founded the NSF LIGO (gravitational-wave detection) project. Both of these efforts couple challenges in instrument science with physics important to the understanding of the Universe.[7] In 2007, with Ronald Drever, he was awarded the Einstein Prize for this work.[8]

 

In February 2016, he was one of the four scientists presenting at the press conference for the announcement that the first direct gravitational wave observation had been made in September 2015.[9][10][11][12][a] For this achievement, in 2016 he received the Special Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, Gruber Prize in Cosmology, Shaw Prize,[13] Kavli Prize in Astrophysics[14] and the Harvey Prize together with Kip Thorne andRonald Drever.[15]

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The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Quantum Physics in Modern Mathematics

Mathematics has proven to be "unreasonably effective" in understanding nature. The fundamental laws of physics can be captured in beautiful formulae. In this lecture, Prof. Robbert Dijkgraaf argues for the reverse effect: Nature is an important source of inspiration for mathematics, even of the purest kind. In recent years ideas from quantum field theory, elementary particles physics and string theory have completely transformed mathematics, leading to solutions of deep problems, suggesting new invariants in geometry and topology, and, perhaps most importantly, putting modern mathematical ideas in a `natural’ context.

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Coelacanths: The ancient fish that never turned extinct

The coelacanths constitute a now rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis). They follow the oldest known living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish and tetrapods), which means they are more closely related to lungfish, reptiles and mammals than to the common ray-finned fishes. They are found along the coastlines of the Indian Ocean and Indonesia. Since there are only two species of coelacanth and both are threatened, it is the most endangered order of animals in the world. The West Indian Ocean coelacanth is a critically endangered species.

 

The coelacanth, which is related to lungfishes and tetrapods, was believed to have been extinct since the end of the Cretaceous period. More closely related to tetrapods than to the ray-finned fish, coelacanths were considered transitional species between fish and tetrapods. On 23 December 1938, the first Latimeria specimen was found off the east coast of South Africa, off the Chalumna River (now Tyolomnqa). Museum curator Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer discovered the fish among the catch of a local angler, Captain Hendrick Goosen. A Rhodes University ichthyologist, J. L. B. Smith, confirmed the fish's importance with a famous cable: "MOST IMPORTANT PRESERVE SKELETON AND GILLS = FISH DESCRIBED".[6][14]

 

Its discovery 66 million years after it was believed to have gone extinct makes the coelacanth the best-known example of a Lazarus taxon, an evolutionary line that seems to have disappeared from the fossil record only to reappear much later. Since 1938, Latimeria chalumnae have been found in the Comoros, Kenya,Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, and in iSimangaliso Wetland Park, Kwazulu-Natal in South Africa.[15]

 

The second extant species, L. menadoensis, was described from Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia in 1999 by Pouyaud et al.[16] based on a specimen discovered by Mark V. Erdmann in 1998[17] and deposited at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Only a photograph of the first specimen of this species was made at a local market by Erdmann and his wife Arnaz Mehta before it was bought by a shopper.[citation needed]

 

The coelacanth has no real commercial value apart from being coveted by museums and private collectors. As a food fish it is almost worthless, as its tissues exude oils that give the flesh a foul flavor.[18] The coelacanth's continued survival may be threatened by commercial deep-sea trawling,[19] in which coelacanths are caught as bycatch.

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Universe, Cosmic Vistas and Magnificent Views of Space

The "Journey to the Edge of the Universe" documentary film broadcast on National Geographic and Discovery Channels.

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Mathematics of Stem Cells

Cell populations are complex. Their collective functioning, turnover, and cooperation are at the basis of the life of multicellular organisms, such as humans. When this goes wrong, an unwanted evolutionary process can begin that leads to cancer. Mathematics cannot cure cancer, but it can be used to understand some of its aspects, which is an essential step in winning the battle.

Via Miguel Martín-Landrove
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Einstein Field Equations - for beginners!

Einstein's Field Equations for General Relativity - including the Metric Tensor, Christoffel symbols, Ricci Cuvature Tensor, Curvature Scalar, Stress Energy Momentum Tensor and Cosmological Constant.

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John Conway on "The remarkable history of Pascal's hexagrammum mysticum"

If six unordered points are given on a conic section, they can be connected into a hexagon in 60 different ways, resulting in 60 different instances of Pascal's theorem and 60 different Pascal lines. This configuration of 60 lines is called the Hexagrammum Mysticum.[3]

 

As Thomas Kirkman proved in 1849, these 60 lines can be associated with 60 points in such a way that each point is on three lines and each line contains three points. The 60 points formed in this way are now known as the Kirkman points.[4] The Pascal lines also pass, three at a time, through 20 Steiner points. There are 20 Cayley lines which consist of a Steiner point and three Kirkman points. The Steiner points also lie, four at a time, on 15 Plücker lines. Furthermore, the 20 Cayley lines pass four at a time through 15 points known as the Salmon points.[5]

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Surreal Numbers - How playing games led to more numbers than anybody ever thought of

IT’S ALL ABOUT MATH! An ongoing series hosted by The Department of Mathematics of the University of Toronto How playing games led to more numbers than anyone ever expected.

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Highlights from the O'Reilly AI Conference in New York 2016

Highlights from the O'Reilly AI Conference in New York 2016 | Science-Videos | Scoop.it
Watch highlights covering artificial intelligence, machine learning, intelligence engineering, and more. From the O'Reilly AI Conference in New York 2016.
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Quantum Computing: Transforming the Digital Age

Quantum computing promises to revolutionize how we compute and change the way we use technology in our daily lives.

 

Dr. Krysta Svore, Senior Researcher at Microsoft Research in Redmond, Washington, reveals some of the mysteries of this disruptive computational paradigm and showcase real-world applications of quantum devices.

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Target capture of DNA from FFPE samples — recommendations for generating robust sequencing data

Cancer therapies that target specific pathways can be more effective than established, nonspecific chemotherapy and radiation treatments, and may prevent side effects on healthy tissues. Such targeted therapies can only be applied after underlying gene mutations have been identified. However, detecting low frequency variants from clinically relevant samples poses significant challenges. Specimens are routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) for histology, which can decrease the efficiency of NGS library preparation. In this presentation, we discuss approaches for extraction of DNA from FFPE samples, and recommend quality control assays to guide parameter selection for library construction and sequencing depth.


Via Integrated DNA Technologies
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SETI Talks 2016: When Will We Find Life Beyond Earth? (46 Videos)

196 additional little older talks

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Emmy Noether and The Fabric of Reality

Emmy Noether made one the most significant discovery of the 20th century. As female Jewish intellectual in Nazi Germany, Emmy's had a special approach to life. Noether's Theorem ties the laws of nature -- from Newton's laws to thermodynamics to charge conservation -- directly to the geometry of space and time, the very fabric of reality. It is the basis for the standard model of particle physics, quantum electrodynamics, and grand unified theories including supersymmetry and superstrings. As usual in physics, it gets really interesting when the theorem is violated: answers to the origin of mass and the matter-antimatter asymmetry problems emerge when Noether's theorem is violated. Two things should bother you about Noether's Theorem: (1) how come so few people have heard of Emmy Noether? and (2) why isn't her theorem well known to lovers of science? With the help of a bunch of straw, Ransom Stephens solves these problems on June 16, 2010.

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Through the looking glass: The Weak Nuclear Force

Of all of the known subatomic forces, the weak force is in many ways unique. One particularly interesting facet is that the force differentiates between a particle that is rotating clockwise and counterclockwise. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln describes this unusual property and introduces some of the historical figures who played a role in working it all out.

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Quantum Fields: The Real Building Blocks of the Universe - with David Tong

According to our best theories of physics, the fundamental building blocks of matter are not particles, but continuous fluid-like substances known as 'quantum fields'. David Tong explains what we know about these fields, and how they fit into our understanding of the Universe.

 

Watch the Q&A here: https://youtu.be/QUMeKDlgKmk

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Nima Arkani-Hamed: About The Future of Fundamental Physics [7 hr Lecture]

Learn about where physics is heading in the 21st century.

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Topological Phase Transitions: The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics - Prof Michael Fuhrer

The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2016 was awarded to David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane and J. Michael Kosterlitz "for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter".

 

In this colloquium Prof Michael Fuhrer will try to explain the concept of a "topological phase of matter" and the impact of this idea on the study of electronic phases in solid-state systems.

 

Before the work of Thouless, Haldane and Kosterlitz, phase transitions were understood within Landau's framework of an order parameter arising from the breaking of a symmetry; for example the paramagnet to ferromagnet transation breaks rotational symmetry and establishes an order parameter (the magnetization). Thouless, Haldane and Kosterlitz (working independently or together in several different contexts) demonstrated that phase transitions may be accompanied by a change in the topology of a system, without a change in symmetry. This framework allowed understanding of finite-temperature transitions in low-dimensional superfluids (the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition), spin chains (Haldane), the quantum Hall effect (Thouless), and the possibility of quantum Hall effects without magnetic fields (Haldane). This last work was led ultimately to the discovery of a variety of topological phases of real solid-state materials which may form the basis of new types of electronic devices - which the FLEET Centre of Excellence is working to make a reality.

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Cassini and Huygens  - 22 NASA videos of a foreign world

On January 14, 2005, ESA’s Huygens probe made its descent to the surface of Saturn’s hazy moon, Titan. Carried to Saturn by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, Huygens made the most distant landing ever on another world, and the only landing on a body in the outer solar system. This video uses actual images taken by the probe during its two-and-a-half hour fall under its parachutes. Huygens was a signature achievement of the international Cassini-Huygens mission, which will conclude on September 15, 2017, when Cassini plunges into Saturn’s atmosphere.

 

A  two minute video shows images taken by ESA’s Huygens probe when it made its descent to the surface of Titan. After a two-and-a-half-hour descent, the metallic, saucer-shaped spacecraft came to rest with a thud on a dark floodplain covered in cobbles of water ice, in temperatures hundreds of degrees below freezing. The alien probe worked frantically to collect and transmit images and data about its environs — in mere minutes its mothership would drop below the local horizon, cutting off its link to the home world and silencing its voice forever.

 

Although it may seem the stuff of science fiction, this scene played out 12 years ago on the surface of Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. The “aliens” who built the probe were us. This was the triumphant landing of ESA’s Huygens probe.

 

Huygens, a project of the European Space Agency, traveled to Titan as the companion to NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, and then separated from its mothership on Dec. 24, 2004, for a 20-day coast toward its destiny at Titan.

 

The probe sampled Titan’s dense, hazy atmosphere as it slowly rotated beneath its parachutes, analyzing the complex organic chemistry and measuring winds. It also took hundreds of images during the descent, revealing bright, rugged highlands that were crosscut by dark drainage channels and steep ravines. The area where the probe touched down was a dark, granular surface, which resembled a dry lakebed.

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Imaginary Numbers, Functions of Complex Variables: 3D animations.

Visualization explaining imaginary numbers and functions of complex variables. Includes exponentials (Euler’s Formula) and the sine and cosine of complex numbers.

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A Tribute to Euler - presented by William Dunham, Harvard University

A Tribute to Euler William Dunham Truman Koehler Professor of Mathematics, Muhlenberg College Tuesday, October 14, 2008, at 6:00 PM Harvard University

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Surprises in Mathematics

Featuring Dr. Stan Wagon, Professor of Mathematics - Macalester College. There is no better way to get someone's attention than with an assertion that just seems obviously wrong. Math is full of such things. The talk presents several surprising, even shocking, things from elementary mathematics, such as: A square wheel that rolls perfectly smoothly. A device that uses a normal rotating crankshaft to drill perfect square holes. An application of a non-circular wheel to sewage disposal. A shocking cake puzzle. Surprising new formulas for π. Benford's mysterious law of first digits. The Banach-Tarski Paradox, with constructible pieces.

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Full Programs from the World Science Festival Archive

Full Programs from the World Science Festival Archive | Science-Videos | Scoop.it

The World Science Festival gathers great minds in science and the arts to produce live and digital content that allows everyone -- experts and enthusiasts alike -- to engage with scientific discoveries in unique and thrilling ways. Through theatrical works, interactive exhibits, intimate discussions, and major outdoor experiences, the Festival takes science out of the laboratory and into the streets, museums, galleries, and premier performing arts venues around the world.

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The Meaning of Ramanujan and His Lost Notebook

George E. Andrews Evan Pugh Professor of Mathematics, The Pennsylvania State University George Andrews will describe the brief life of Srinivasa Ramanujan and his influence on mathematics with his notebooks.

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Burkard Polster introduces the Klein bottle, Torus and Klein Quadric Rubik's Cubes

In this video Burkard Polster tells you about Klein bottle Rubik’s cubes, Torus Rubik's Cubes and Klein Quadric Rubik's cubes as an introduction to a whole new universe of twisty puzzles.

Get your own Klein bottle Rubik’s cube, as well as more than 800 other topological twisty puzzles by downloading the free incredibly powerful Rubik’s cube simulator MagicTile by Roice Nelson: http://roice3.org/magictile

Be one of the select few to get your name recorded in our limited edition Mathologer "Klein bottle Rubik Cube Hall of Fame" by solving the tricky puzzle and following this link: http://roice3.org/magictile/mathologer

To get some help with this challenge check out the second part of this video on Mathologer 2 in which I talk about the MagicTile interface, show you how to design and record algorithms as macro moves, as well as talk you through a complete solution of one of the easy Harlequin edge-turning puzzles (featuring the all-time simplest three-piece cycle algorithm as well as some cute parity problems): https://youtu.be/iOla7WPfCvA

Also check out the following videos for more background information:  "A simple trick to design your own solutions to Rubik’s cubes": https://youtu.be/-NL76uQOpI0 (for an introduction to designing your own algorithms for solving twisty puzzles).

 

A mirror paradox, Klein bottles and Rubik's cubes: https://youtu.be/4XN0V4xHaoQ (An introduction to what Klein bottles are all about and a bit of fun with putting Rubik’s cubes INTO Klein bottles.)

 

Cracking the 4D Rubik's Cube with simple 3D tricks: https://youtu.be/yhPH1369OWc

(Your next challenge after the the Klein Bottle Rubik's cube. Another hall of fame awaits.)
Klein Quadric II: https://youtu.be/6SZ8ONJlw7I
An animation by Jos Leys that shows how the Klein Quadric gets glued together from the patch of 24 regular 7-gons in the hyperbolic plane.

Enjoy!

Burkard

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