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Blind Mice, No Longer

In a study published on April 19, 2011 in the journal Molecular Therapy, researchers at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT and the University of Southern California used optogenetic technology to restore vision in blind mice.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jY5Aynh1-cU

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A trick to visualizing higher dimensions

How do you think about a sphere in four dimensions? What about ten dimensions? Problem driven learning on at https://brilliant.org/3b1b

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Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory DNA Learning Center

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory DNA Learning Center | Science-Videos | Scoop.it

The mission of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's DNA Learning Center is to prepare students and families to thrive in the genomic age.

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Beyond Beauty: The Predictive Power of Symmetry

From a bee’s hexagonal honeycomb to the elliptical paths of planets, symmetry has long been recognized as a vital quality of nature. Einstein saw symmetry hidden in the fabric of space and time. The brilliant Emmy Noether proved that symmetry is the mathematical flower of deeply rooted physical law. And today’s theorists are pursuing an even more exotic symmetry that, mathematically speaking, could be nature’s final fundamental symmetry: supersymmetry. Join some of the world’s preeminent scientists to explore the core role symmetry plays in our unraveling of nature’s deepest secrets—and catch a glimpse of profoundly important symmetries that may be awaiting us just over the horizon.

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Possible life, but Not as We Know It  - The Prospects of Life in Titan's Seas (SETI Talks)

The prerequisites for life are thought to be: (1) a liquid solvent; (2) chemical building blocks; and (3) an energy source. Life like we have on the Earth uses water for its solvent and organic molecules for its building blocks. Hence searches for Earth-like life can focus on habitable zones around stars where liquid water can be stable on planetary surfaces.

But is water the only solvent in which life can exist? Though more exotic solvents (like ammonia, liquid nitrogen, or supercritical carbon dioxide) may exist in extrasolar systems, the only surface liquids outside of Earth that we know about today occur on Saturn's smoggy moon Titan.

Dr Barnes will describe these seas, their chemistry, and hydrology, with an eye toward whether they could serve as possible abodes for life. Recent Cassini discoveries show evaporitic bathtub rings and 'salt' flats around seas, which indicate that at least some materials do dissolve in the lakes. He will also discuss new Cassini RADAR evidence for compositional variations between the seas, and VIMS observations that may show the first sea-surface waves ever seen outside of Earth.

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Using Ultra-lightweight Von Neumann Probes to Catalyze Interstellar Exploration (SETI Talk)

Based on present space science and engineering, interstellar travel remains highly unlikely. Applying synergistic emerging technologies to enhance capabilities for accelerated space development in the solar system may catalyze possible steps to the stars. A stepwise sequence of plausible projects will be proposed. The remarkable present progress in diverse applied sciences can be a game changer.

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The Secret Life Of Quarks and Why We Never See Them

Will Detmold, professor at MIT and visitor at KITP's program Nuclear16, gave his "Chalk Talk" about understanding the dynamics of quarks and gluons using lattice QCD on August 21, 2016.

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Google’s Future sees Artificial Intelligence Doing Absolutely Everything

Google's DeepMind's founder Demis Hassabis lecturs about the future and capabilities of artificial intelligence. Hassabis was born to a Greek father and a Chinese mother and grew up in North London. A child prodigy in chess, Hassabis reached master standard at the age of 13 with an Elo rating of 2300 (at the time the second highest rated player in the world Under-14 after Judit Polgár who had a rating of 2335) and captained many of the England junior chess teams. He is a pioneering British artificial intelligence researcher, neuroscientist, computer game designer, entrepreneur, and world-class Go games player.

 

Currently, there are over 250 PhDs and 400 research scientists working on DeepMind’s unlimited funding projects with two main goals in mind. The first is to try and solve intelligence and figure out how the human brain became capable of taking over the planet. The second is use that intelligence to do everything else. If this latter point can be achieved, Google will soon become the most powerful entity on Earth.

 

And you may laugh, but thus is not some crazy far fetched idea either. These goals are for real, and the company is more than happy to talk freely with anyone about it. To get an even deeper understanding of what their plans involve why not check out a recent presentation given by Demis Hassabis, founder of DeepMind, who will talk you through their ideas.

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A Theory for Tabby's Star (Without Aliens) | Metzger & Stone

You've probably heard about the recent news of the strange dimmings of Tabby's Star and the provoactive hypothesis of an alien megastructure (fi not check out http://bit.ly/TabbysStar). But could there be a natural explanation instead? Well two theoretical astrophycistss here at Columbia think so and here they briefly summarize some of the leading theories (although news ones are appearing almost every day!) and they think their own explanation is the best one so far.

 

::More about this Video::

► Metzger, Shen & Stone (2017), "Secular Dimming of KIC 8462852 Following its Consumption of a Planet": https://arxiv.org/abs/1612.07332
► Montet & Simon (2016), "KIC 8462852 Faded Throughout the Kepler Mission": https://arxiv.org/abs/1608.01316
► Schaefer (2016), "KIC 8462852 Faded at an Average Rate of 0.165+-0.013 Magnitudes Per Century From 1890 To 1989": https://arxiv.org/abs/1601.03256
► Boyajian et al. (2016), "Planet Hunters X. KIC 8462852 - Where's the Flux?": https://arxiv.org/abs/1509.03622
► Live Q&A on Cool Worlds with Tabby Boyajian: https://youtu.be/k_-6SEb2QlM
► Cool Worlds video "What is an Alien Megastructure?" at https://youtu.be/tYHVCW3BkHU
► Jason Wright's Cool Worlds video, "The Most Mysterious Star": https://youtu.be/jjh0oK7ZyfM
► Cool Worlds Lab website: http://coolworlds.astro.columbia.edu
► Columbia University Department of Astronomy: http://www.astro.columbia.edu
► Outro music by Daft Punk "Harder, Better, Stronger, Faster": http://www.daftpunk.com and http://smarturl.it/DaftPunkiTunes

::Playlists For Channel::

Latest Cool Worlds Videos ► http://bit.ly/NewCoolWorlds
Cool Worlds Research ► http://bit.ly/CoolWorldsResearch
Guest Videos ► http://bit.ly/CoolWorldsGuests
Q&A Videos ► http://bit.ly/CoolWorldsQA
Tabby's Star ► http://bit.ly/TabbysStar
Science of TV/Film ► http://bit.ly/ScienceMovies

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How to take a picture of a black hole? Katie Bouman (MIT) explains

At the heart of the Milky Way, there's a supermassive black hole that feeds off a spinning disk of hot gas, sucking up anything that ventures too close -- even light. We can't see it, but its event horizon casts a shadow, and an image of that shadow could help answer some important questions about the universe.

 

Scientists used to think that making such an image would require a telescope the size of Earth -- until Katie Bouman and a team of astronomers came up with a clever alternative. Katie explains how we can take a picture of the ultimate dark using the Event Horizon Telescope.

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Turning a Sphere Inside-out

It is possible to turn a sphere inside out in 3-space with possible self-intersections but without creating any crease, a process often called sphere eversion (eversion means "to turn inside out").

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Andreas Dewes: Let's build a quantum computer!

Andreas Dewes explains why quantum computing is interesting, how it works and what you actually need to build a working quantum computer. He uses the superconducting two-qubit quantum processor which he built during his PhD thesis as an example to explain its basic building blocks. He shows how this processor can be used to achieve so-called quantum speed-up for a search algorithm that can be run on it. Finally, he gives a short overview of the current state of superconducting quantum computing and Google's recently announced effort to build a working quantum computer in cooperation with one of the leading research groups in this field.

 

Google recently announced that it is partnering up with John Martinis - one of the leading researchers on superconducting quantum computing - to build a working quantum processor. This announcement has sparked a lot of renewed interest in a topic that was mainly of academic interest before. So, if Google thinks it's worth the hassle to build quantum computers then there surely must be something about them after all?

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7 TED Talks on how your brain constructs reality

7 TED Talks on how your brain constructs reality | Science-Videos | Scoop.it
Do we experience the world as it really is? Find out with these talks that explain why we see the world the way we do.

Via Fernando Gil, CineversityTV
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Natalie Batalha Kepler: Searching for a Planet Inside the Goldilocks Zone

Not too hot, not too cold reads the prescription for a world that's just right for life as we know it. Finding evidence of life beyond Earth is one of the primary goals.

 

Natalie is an astrophysicist and the project scientist for NASA’s Kepler Mission, a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-sized planets orbiting other stars. As one of the original co-investigators of the Kepler Mission, Natalie has been a leader in using the telescope to discover exoplanets, which are planets that orbit stars other than our own sun. Natalie has been involved in the Kepler Mission since the proposal stage and has helped identify more than 150,000 stars that are monitored by the telescope.

 

She holds a bachelor’s degree in physics from The University of California Berkeley, and a doctoral degree in astrophysics from UC Santa Cruz. She taught physics and astronomy for 10 years at San Jose State University before joining the Space Sciences Division of the NASA Ames Research Center, which is located in California’s Silicon Valley.

 

In 2011, Natalie received a NASA Public Service Medal for her vision in communicating Kepler’s science to the public, and also for her outstanding leadership in coordinating the Kepler science team. That same year Natalie also headed up the analysis that led to the discovery of Kepler 10b, the first confirmed rocky planet outside our solar system.

 

She joined the leadership team of a new NASA initiative in 2015, which is dedicated to the search for evidence of life beyond our solar system. Called the Nexus for Exoplanet System Science, the program brings together teams from multiple disciplines to understand the diversity of worlds, and which of those exoplanets are most likely to harbor life.

 

As if Dawn and the STEM-Talk gang weren’t excited enough after talking to Natalie about the search for life beyond our solar system, NASA announced about a month after our interview with Natalie that its Spitzer Space Telescope had revealed the first known system of seven Earth-sized planets around a single star. Three of these planets are firmly located in the habitable zone, the area around the parent star where a rocky planet is most likely to have liquid water.

 

According to a NASA press release in February, the discovery sets a new record for greatest number of habitable-zone planets found around a single star outside our solar system. All of these seven planets could have liquid water – key to life as we know it – under the right atmospheric conditions, but the chances are highest with the three in the habitable zone.

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The incredible inventions of intuitive AI

What do you get when you give a design tool a digital nervous system? Computers that improve our ability to think and imagine, and robotic systems that come up with (and build) radical new designs for bridges, cars, drones and much more -- all by themselves. Take a tour of the Augmented Age with futurist Maurice Conti and preview a time when robots and humans will work side-by-side to accomplish things neither could do alone.

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NCBI YouTube Channel: Videos from the National Center for Biotechnology Information

NCBI YouTube Channel: Videos from the National Center for Biotechnology Information | Science-Videos | Scoop.it

Videos from the National Center for Biotechnology Information including presentations and tutorials about NCBI biomolecular and biomedical literature databases and tools.

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3D Mandelbulb — Flying into the depth of a mathematical structure

A long flight into a 3D Mandelbrot structure, for 14 minutes. 20950 frames at 25 fps. Frames size : 1064*600 pixels. Realized with : Mandelbulber. Music : Beethoven - 7th symphony, 4th movement, Beethoven - 8th symphony, 4th movement

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Deep Learning, Self-Taught Learning and Unsupervised Feature Learning

Graduate Summer School: Deep Learning, Self-Taught Learning and Unsupervised Feature Learning

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Quantum Mechanics and Spacetime in the 21st Century

Dr. Nima Arkani-Hamed (Perimeter Institute and Institute for Advanced Study) delivers the second lecture of the 2014/15 Perimeter Institute Public Lecture Series, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Held at Perimeter Institute and webcast live worldwide on Nov. 6, 2014, Arkani-Hamed's lecture explores the exciting concepts of quantum mechanics and spacetime, and how our evolving understanding of their importance in fundamental physics will shape the field in the 21st Century.

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The Origami Revolution - Nova - February 15, 2017

The centuries-old tradition of folding two-dimensional paper into three-dimensional shapes is inspiring a scientific revolution. The rules of folding are at the heart of many natural phenomena, from how leaves blossom to how beetles fly. But now, engineers and designers are applying its principles to reshape the world around us—and even within us, designing new drugs, micro-robots, and future space missions. With this burgeoning field of origami-inspired-design, the question is: can the mathematics of origami be boiled down to one elegant algorithm—a fail-proof guidebook to make any object out of a flat surface, just by folding? And if so, what would that mean for the future of design? Explore the high-tech future of this age-old art as NOVA unfolds “The Origami Revolution.”

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How to Increase Machine Learning by 100 Fold? With Machine Teaching!

Machine Teaching: For many Machine Learning problems, labeled data is readily available. The algorithm is the bottleneck. 

 

If machine learning is to discover knowledge, then machine teaching is to pass it on. Machine teaching is an inverse problem to machine learning. Given a learning algorithm and a target model, machine teaching finds an optimal (e.g. the smallest) training set. For example, consider a "student" who runs the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm. Imagine a teacher who wants to teach the student a specific target hyperplane in some feature space (never mind how the teacher got this hyperplane in the first place). The teacher constructs a training set D=(x1,y1) ... (xn, yn), where xi is a feature vector and yi a class label, to train the student. What is the smallest training set that will make the student learn the target hyperplane? It is not hard to see that n=2 is sufficient with the two training items straddling the target hyperplane.

 

Machine teaching mathematically formalizes this idea and generalizes it to many kinds of learning algorithms and teaching targets. Solving the machine teaching problem in general can be intricate and is an open mathematical question, though for a large family of learners the resulting bilevel optimization problem can be approximated.

 

Machine teaching can have impacts in education, where the "student" is really a human student, and the teacher certainly has a target model (i.e. the educational goal). If we are willing to assume a cognitive learning model of the student, we can use machine teaching to reverse-engineer the optimal training data -- which will be the optimal, personalized lesson for that student. We have shown feasibility in a preliminary cognitive study to teach categorization. Another application is in computer security where the "teacher" is an attacker and the learner is any intelligent system that adapts to inputs.

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Jake VanderPlas - Machine Learning with Scikit-Learn

Jake VanderPlas's tutorial offers an introduction to the core concepts of machine learning and the Scikit-Learn package.

 

He has a github repository that contains his entire Python Data Science Handbook, in the form of (free!) Jupyter notebooks.

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Creating The Never-Ending Bloom

John Edmark's sculptures are both mesmerizing and mathematical. Using meticulously crafted platforms, patterns, and layers, Edmark's art explores the seemingly magical properties that are present in spiral geometries. In his most recent body of work, Edmark creates a series of animating “blooms” that endlessly unfold and animate as they spin beneath a strobe light.


Via David McConville
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2017 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: De-Extinction of Species

Neil deGrasse Tyson and panelists discuss de-extinction in the 2017 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate at the American Museum of Natural History. Biologists today have the knowledge, the tools, and the ability to influence the evolution of life on Earth. Do we have an obligation to bring back species that human activities may have rendered extinct? Does the technology exist to do so? Join Tyson and the panel for a lively debate about the merits and shortcomings of this provocative idea.

2017 Asimov Debate panelists are:

George Church
Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard University and MIT

Hank Greely
Director of the Center for Law and the Biosciences, Stanford University

Gregory Kaebnick
Scholar, The Hastings Center; Editor, Hastings Center Report

Ross MacPhee
Curator, Department of Mammalogy, Division of Vertebrate Zoology; Professor, Richard Gilder Graduate School

Beth Shapiro
Professor of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz

For a full transcript of this debate, visit:
http://www.amnh.org/explore/amnh.tv/(...

2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgSZA...

2015 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Water, Water
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSF79...

2014 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Selling Space
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbmFe...

2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OLz6...

2012 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Faster Than the Speed of Light
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qlLW...

2011 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Theory of Everything
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eb8_3...

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Chaos - A mathematical adventure

Chaos - A mathematical adventure | Science-Videos | Scoop.it

From Jos Leys, Étienne Ghys and Aurélien Alvarez, the makers of Dimensions, comes CHAOS. It is a film about dynamical systems, the butterfly effect and chaos theory, intended for a wide audience.

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