Cinq thèmes sont suivis dans ce scoop.it : le libre accès (Open Access), la science citoyenne (citizen science), la science en ligne (Open Science), la science 2.0 et les cours en ligne gratuits (MOOCs).
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n the face of rising global competition and increased funding for science, mathematics, engineering and technology, researchers across the spectrum need to develop interdisciplinary collaborations to tackle pressing societal challenges, a conglomerate of scientists declares in a new report.
“What is both possible and necessary is a true conceptual leap from interdisciplinary collaboration to a powerful transdisciplinarity, sweeping together the physical sciences and engineering (PSE) and the life sciences and medicine (LSM),” the report reads.
The report from the Advancing Research in Science and Engineering (ARISE) committee, which includes about 30 representatives from the private sector and universities across the country, acknowledges the “daunting task” of reforming how the U.S. approaches research. It suggests “radical changes” that would affect every stakeholder in the process, from institutions of higher education to government agencies and corporations. The project is overseen by the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
Open Access, as defined in the Berlin Declaration, means unrestricted, online access to peer-reviewed, scholarly research papers for reading and productive re-use, not impeded by any financial, organisational, legal or technical barriers. Ideally, the only restriction on use is an obligation to attribute the work to the author..
We have now published two guides to open data licensing:
a Publisher's Guide to Open Data Licensinga Reuser's Guide to Open Data Licensing
These guides were produced with great help from Francis Davey, Leigh Dodds, Tony Hirst, and the anonymous commenters who contributed comments on the draft versions of the publisher's guide and reuser's guide on Crocodoc.
Du 2 au 4 mai 2013, le OuiShareFest s’est déroulé à Paris. L’organisation par OuiShare de ces 3 jours consacrés à l’économie collaborative est la preuve de la puissance d’une communauté agissant ensemble autour de valeurs qui les portent. Sans OuiShare, HackYourPhd n’aurait jamais vu le jour… Un grand merci à ce collectif qui permet juste de dire haut et fort “Oui, c’est possible!”
Science Europe, une association qui regroupe plus de cinquante organisations de recherche réparties dans 26 pays européens, a dévoilé un énoncé de principes visant à faciliter la transition vers un accès libre (open access) des résultats de la recherche scientifique.
Le document Principles for the Transition to Open Access to Research Publications (PDF) énonce dix principes afin de garantir la cohérence des efforts des organisations pour donner accès à leurs résultats scientifiques.
Entre autres, les membres de Science Europe préconisent que les publications de recherche soient publiées dans une revue à accès ouvert ou mises le plus tôt possible dans un dépôt (repository). Ils suggèrent également que les éditeurs accordent des réductions de tarifs d’abonnement à des clientèles spécifiques (universités et organismes de recherche) ou sur une base territoriale (régions, pays).
Pour plus de détails : Communiqué de presse de Science Europe (
(Agence Science-Presse) Il y a un siècle et demi, ça se serait résumé à l’amateur d’oiseaux qui prenait minutieusement des notes dans son petit carnet. Aujourd’hui, la «science citoyenne» regroupe des activités si disparates que ses promoteurs sentent le besoin de la diviser en plusieurs catégories. Pourtant, l’expression reste méconnue du grand public —et même, malmenée. Survol en trois intervenants.
It would be easy to think that the leaders of American higher education are all in when it comes to MOOCs. Dozens of colleges and universities -- many of them among the elites -- have rushed to offer massive open online courses. Top foundations back the effort. The American Council on Education has moved quickly to certify some of the courses as credit-worthy. Many other colleges are considering plans to award credit for MOOCs or to use them in instruction.
But it turns out that -- when asked privately -- most presidents don't seem sure at all that MOOCs are going to transform student learning, or reduce costs to students -- two of the claims made by MOOC enthusiasts and an increasing number of politicians and pundits.
Like AbbVie, described in my last post, a second American company, InterMune, has taken legal action to prevent or restrict the European Medicines Agency from disclosing certain clinical trial data after a medicine is approved for marketing.
On 4th March a federal appeals court upheld the conviction of the former chief executive of InterMune, W. Scott Harkonen, relating to the dissemination of false and misleading statements about the results of a clinical trial of the medicine Actimmune. (Mr Harkonen may launch further appeals.)
I very occasionally hear expressed a concern about the Harvard open-access policy that it violates some aspect of academic freedom. The argument seems to be that by granting a prior license to Harvard, faculty may be forced to forgo publication in certain venues. Our rights as scholars to determine the disposition of particular articles would thus be assailed by the policy.
A requirement to publish or refrain from publishing in particular venues would certainly infringe on academic freedom. But the Harvard policy leaves choice of whether and where to publish fully in the hands of authors. The policy allows for the license to be waived for any article at the sole discretion of the author. (Obtaining a waiver involves filling out a web form at the OSC web site with some metadata about the article. The process takes about 20 seconds.) This “opt-out” provision makes the policy consistent with libertarian principles. The policy manifests “libertarian paternalism” in the sense of Sunstein and Thaler.
As we mentioned last week, California has introduced AB 609, the California Taxpayer Access to Publicly Funded Research Act. The bill, sponsored by Assembly Member Brian Nestande, would require that research articles funded through California tax dollars be made available online for free no later than 12 months after publication in a peer-reviewed journal. A letter from the University of California may have prompted the Assembly to modify the text of the draft bill to extend the embargo to 12 months (instead of six), and to include a provision exempting the University of California and California State University from the state agencies that must comply with the legislation, if enacted.
A group of 36 students in Western University's Master of Arts in Journalism class has spent three months studying and reporting on citizen science. Over the next three weeks, we will be sharing our citizen science stories -- how it emerged and evolved, where it stands now and where it's going. We will be tackling scepticism about whether or not it is indeed science, looking at the effectiveness of gathering "big data" and introducing activists who are using citizen science to bring attention to their causes. To view all of the articles in this special series thus far, visit our Citizen Science page.
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