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Science is Cool!
Check out all the amazing things being discovered through science!
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Science Has Created a Substitute for Breathing

Science Has Created a Substitute for Breathing | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
A single intravenous injection of a lipid-based gas-filled solution brought 15 minutes worth of life-saving oxygen to rabbits with completely blocked airways.

 

PROBLEM: Patients who can't breathe need oxygen quickly to avoid cardiac arrest and brain injury. Unfortunately, attempts in the early 1900s to intravenously supply this essential gas failed to oxygenate the blood and often caused dangerous air bubbles. Current treatments, such as blood substitutes, breathing masks, and tubes, aren't always effective as well since they still rely on the lungs to function or require time to properly administer. . . .


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Deborah Verran's comment, July 1, 2012 12:40 AM
Brilliant research. Hopefully it is being trialled in humans.
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Astronomers Discover Galaxy They Thought Couldn’t Exist

Astronomers Discover Galaxy They Thought Couldn’t Exist | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Astronomers have spotted one of the rarest and most extreme galaxy clusters in the universe and, behind it, an object that shouldn’t exist. Galaxy clusters are collections of galaxies that orbit one another and are the most massive objects in the universe. The newly discovered cluster, first detected by the Hubble space telescope, is over 500 trillion times the mass of the sun. It is located approximately 10 billion light-years away. Because looking out into the distant cosmos means also looking back in time, the cluster formed during an era when the universe was a quarter its present age.

 

The cluster, named IDCS J1426.5+3508, is extreme because during this period in cosmic history, massive collections of galaxies were just beginning to form. Only one other cluster of comparable size has been seen at this distance and it is a lightweight compared to IDCS J1426.5+3508. Adding to the object’s strangeness, a mysterious arc of blue light was seen just behind the galaxy cluster. Astronomers think this indicates another massive star-forming galaxy located even further away at an even earlier epoch.

 

Light from this more distant — and yet unnamed – galaxy has been highly distorted by an effect known as gravitational lensing. The gargantuan mass of the galaxy cluster bends and twists light coming from the distant galaxy, creating the strange blue arc. The farther galaxy is estimated to be 10 to 13 billion light-years away and have a mass approximately 70 trillion times the sun.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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How to reinforce learning while you sleep

How to reinforce learning while you sleep | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Memories can be reactivated during sleep and strengthened in the process,  Northwestern University research suggests.

 

In the Northwestern study, research participants learned how to play two artificially generated musical tunes with well-timed key presses. Then while the participants took a 90-minute nap, the researchers presented one of the tunes that had been practiced, but not the other. By using EEG methods to record the brain’s electrical activity, the researchers ensured that the soft musical cues were presented during slow-wave sleep (deep sleep, not REM sleep, or dreaming), a stage of sleep previously linked to cementing memories. Participants made fewer errors when pressing the keys to produce a melody that had been presented while they slept, compared to the melody not presented.

 

SONGBIRDS LEARN MELODIES DURING SLEEP

 

When zebra finches learn their songs from their father early in life, their brain is active during sleep. The researchers, Sharon Gobes, Thijs Zandbergen and Johan Bolhuis, have demonstrated that the way in which zebra finches learn their songs is very similar to the way in which children learn to speak. In both cases learning takes place during early youth and involves considerable practise. Also, in children and songbirds alike, different brain regions are involved in learning and in speaking or singing. The new research shows that, just as in human infants, the brain of the young zebra finch is also active during sleep. This makes songbirds a good animal model to study the role of sleep in human speech acquisition.

 

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100616090223.htm


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Fungi may have ended the coal era 300 million years ago

Fungi may have ended the coal era 300 million years ago | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

The humble fungus may have been responsible for bringing to an end Earth's period of accumulating coal reserves, say researchers.  During the 60 million-year-long Carboniferous period on Earth vast carbon beds were laid down from the burial of ancient forests in marshy swamps. The trees did not decay but were instead converted into peat and under extreme pressure to coal. But 300 million years ago, something changed to stop this deposition of coal.

 

Scientists now suggest it may have been the rise of fungi capable of digesting the polymer lignin, which among other things keeps plant cell walls rigid. This hypothesis comes from the study of 31 genomes of mainly wood decay fungi - a group called Agaricomycetes. This group includes white rot fungi, which can digest all components of plant biomass - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin.


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New Spray-On Battery Could Convert Any Object into an Electricity Storage Device

New Spray-On Battery Could Convert Any Object into an Electricity Storage Device | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

A team of researchers has just announced a new paint-on battery design. The paint-on battery, like all lithium ion batteries, consists of five layers: a positive current collector, a cathode that attracts positively charged ions, an ion-conducting separator, an anode to attract negative ions, and a negative current collector. For each layer, the challenge was to find a way to mix the electrically conductive material with various polymers to create a paint that could be sprayed onto surfaces.


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The Most Beautiful Photographs You'll See All Night

The Most Beautiful Photographs You'll See All Night | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

At first glance these pictures look like something that greets you at the end of a kaleidoscope. But these marvels are the product of up to 15 hours of shooting the stars in the Australia outback.


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The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost

The remarkable, yet not extraordinary, human brain as a scaled-up primate brain and its associated cost | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Neuroscientists have become used to a number of “facts” about the human brain: It has 100 billion neurons and 10- to 50-fold more glial cells; it is the largest-than-expected for its body among primates and mammals in general, and therefore the most cognitively able; it consumes an outstanding 20% of the total body energy budget despite representing only 2% of body mass because of an increased metabolic need of its neurons; and it is endowed with an overdeveloped cerebral cortex, the largest compared with brain size. These facts led to the widespread notion that the human brain is literally extraordinary: an outlier among mammalian brains, defying evolutionary rules that apply to other species, with a uniqueness seemingly necessary to justify the superior cognitive abilities of humans over mammals with even larger brains. These facts, with deep implications for neurophysiology and evolutionary biology, are not grounded on solid evidence or sound assumptions, however. The recent development of a method that allows rapid and reliable quantification of the numbers of cells that compose the whole brain has provided a means to verify these facts. With 86 billion neurons and just as many nonneuronal cells, the human brain is a scaled-up primate brain in its cellular composition and metabolic cost, with a relatively enlarged cerebral cortex that does not have a relatively larger number of brain neurons yet is remarkable in its cognitive abilities and metabolism simply because of its extremely large number of neurons.


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California Condors face 'epidemic' lead poisoning, finds study - Christian Science Monitor

California Condors face 'epidemic' lead poisoning, finds study - Christian Science Monitor | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Christian Science MonitorCalifornia Condors face 'epidemic' lead poisoning, finds studyChristian Science MonitorAmmunition left in animal corpses is the primary cause of lead poisoning among California Condors, whose numbers have remained low but ...
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Mysterious ruins found in Syrian desert but conflict keeps archaeologists away

Mysterious ruins found in Syrian desert but conflict keeps archaeologists away | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
A mystery city older than the pyramids lies in Syria's deserts but conflict in the region is preventing archaeologists from decoding its riddles.
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Ancient Egyptian talisman of googly-eyed god discovered | News Channel - Mind Processors

Ancient Egyptian talisman of googly-eyed god discovered | News Channel - Mind Processors | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
A newly identified googly-eyed artifact may have been used by the ancient Egyptians to magically protect children and pregnant mothers from evil forces.
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New Indo-European Language Discovered

New Indo-European Language Discovered | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
A linguistics researcher at the Macquarie University in Australia has discovered that the language, known as Burushaski, which is spoken by about 90,000 people who reside in a remote area of Pakistan, is Indo-European in origin.
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Study Sheds New Light on Common Ancestor of All Jawed Vertebrates

Study Sheds New Light on Common Ancestor of All Jawed Vertebrates | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Re-analysis of the braincase of Acanthodes bronni has revealed that this 290-million-year-old fossil fish resembled a shark.
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Scientists Determine Height of Homo Heidelbergensis

Scientists Determine Height of Homo Heidelbergensis | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
The reconstruction of human limb bones found in Atapuerca, Spain, has helped scientists to determine the height of the human species Homo heidelbergensis.
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3M has developed a translucent film that converts windows into solar panels

3M has developed a translucent film that converts windows into solar panels | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

3M said the thin film can easily be applied to windows, generating power and cutting heat, and will begin sales next year.

 

The solar film, on display at the Ceatec electronics conference in Japan, is arrayed in narrow, translucent green strips with clear gaps between and then glued to windows in large patches. A square meter of the film can generate roughly enough electricity to charge an iPhone under peak sunlight, but still allows for high visibility.

 

The product currently generates only about 20 percent of the electricity that a traditional silicon solar panel does, and will cost about half as much, though the final price has not been decided.

 

But it is also far easier to install and takes up no additional space. 3M has strong expertise in adhesives, where its less technical products include Scotch tape and Post-it sticky notes.


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Magnetic field targets transplanted iron-loaded stem cells to key areas of damaged heart

Magnetic field targets transplanted iron-loaded stem cells to key areas of damaged heart | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Optimal stem cell therapy delivery to damaged areas of the heart after myocardial infarction has been hampered by inefficient homing of cells to the damaged site. However, using rat models, researchers in France have used a magnet to guide cells loaded with iron oxide nanoparticles to key sites, enhancing the myocardial retention of intravascularly delivered endothelial progenitor cells.


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NASA: Underground Ocean on Titan

NASA: Underground Ocean on Titan | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft have revealed Saturn's moon Titan likely harbors a layer of liquid water under its ice shell. The evidence is tidal.  Saturn's powerful gravity stretches and deforms Titan as the moon moves around the gas giant planet. If Titan were composed entirely of stiff rock, the gravitational attraction of Saturn should cause bulges, or solid "tides," on the moon only 3 feet (1 meter) in height. Instead, the data show Saturn creates solid tides approximately 30 feet (10 meters) in height. This suggests Titan is not made entirely of solid rocky material.


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Cavemen bones yield oldest modern human DNA - CBS News

Cavemen bones yield oldest modern human DNA - CBS News | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

What may be the oldest fragments of the modern human genome found yet have now been revealed -- DNA from the 7,000-year-old bones of two cavemen unearthed in Spain, researchers say. These findings suggest the cavemen there were not the ancestors of the people found in the region today.

 

The skeletons of two young adult males were discovered by chance in 2006 by cave explorers in a cavern high in the Cantabrian mountain range, whose main entrance is found at 4,920 feet (1,500 meters) altitude. Winters there are notably cold, which helped preserve the DNA in the bones. These bones date back to the Mesolithic period, before agriculture spread to the Iberian Peninsula with Neolithic settlers from the Middle East. These cavemen were hunter-gatherers, judging by the ornament that one was found with of red-deer canines embroidered onto a cloth.

 

Scientists have recently sequenced the genomes of our closest extinct relatives, the Neanderthals and the Denisovans. When it came to our lineage, the oldest modern human genomes recovered yet came from Ötzi the Iceman, a 5,300-year-old mummy found in the Alps in 1991. Researchers have salvaged DNA from even older human cells, but this comes from the mitochondria that generate energy for our bodies, and not from the nucleus where our chromosomes are housed.


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Light from Alien Super-Earth Exoplanet Seen for 1st Time

Light from Alien Super-Earth Exoplanet Seen for 1st Time | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Light from an alien "super-Earth" twice the size of our own Earth has been detected by a NASA space telescope for the first time in what astronomers are calling a historic achievement. NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope spotted light from the alien planet 55 Cancri e, which orbits a star 41 light-years from Earth. A year on the extrasolar planet lasts just 18 hours.

 

The planet 55 Cancri e was first discovered in 2004 and is not a habitable world. Instead, it is known as a super-Earth because of its size: The world is about twice the width of Earth and has about eight times the mass of Earth. But until now, scientists have never managed to detect the infrared light from the super-Earth world.


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Pottery 20,000 years old found in a Chinese cave - oldest pottery known to exist

Pottery 20,000 years old found in a Chinese cave - oldest pottery known to exist | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it

Pottery fragments found in a south China cave have been confirmed to be 20,000 years old, making them the oldest known pottery in the world, archaeologists say. The findings add to recent efforts that have dated pottery piles in east Asia to more than 15,000 years ago, refuting conventional theories that the invention of pottery correlates to the period about 10,000 years ago when humans moved from being hunter-gathers to farmers. The research by a team of Chinese and American scientists also pushes the emergence of pottery back to the last ice age, which might provide new explanations for the creation of pottery,


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Giant Arc of Light --A Mystery Observed Behind a Super-Massive Galaxy 10 Billion Light Years Away

Giant Arc of Light --A Mystery Observed Behind a Super-Massive Galaxy 10 Billion Light Years Away | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a puzzling arc of light behind an extremely massive cluster of galaxies residing 10 billion light-years away.
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Conservation: Defaced Buddha sculpture gets facelift - The Express Tribune

Conservation: Defaced Buddha sculpture gets facelift - The Express Tribune | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
The Express TribuneConservation: Defaced Buddha sculpture gets faceliftThe Express TribuneK-P Department of Archaeology and Museums Director Dr Shah Nazar Khan said he ...
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Archaeologists in Greece uncover Roman road - The Independent

Archaeologists in Greece uncover Roman road - The Independent | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Archaeologists in Greece uncover Roman roadThe IndependentArchaeologists in Greece's second-largest city have uncovered a 70-metre section of an ancient road built by the Romans that was city's main travel artery nearly ...and more »...
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Are These the Faces of the Children of Antony and Cleopatra?

Are These the Faces of the Children of Antony and Cleopatra? | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Thomas L. McDonald | Archaeology, Art, History (RT @EgyptStudy: Are these the Faces of the Children of Antony and Cleopatra?
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Extremely Rare Sumatran Striped Rabbit Captured on Camera

Extremely Rare Sumatran Striped Rabbit Captured on Camera | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
Using camera traps, wildlife researchers have captured photographs of one of the rarest animals on Earth, the Sumatran striped rabbit.
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First Dairying in Sahara 7000 Years Ago

First Dairying in Sahara 7000 Years Ago | Science is Cool! | Scoop.it
An international team of researchers has discovered the first unequivocal evidence that humans in prehistoric Saharan Africa used cattle for their milk about 7,000 years ago.
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