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Philosophy of Cosmology

Philosophy of cosmology, philosophy of physics, philosophy of science, metaphysics, philosophy of mathematics, University of Oxford.

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Philosophy of cosmology is an expanding discipline, directed to the conceptual foundations of cosmology and the philosophical contemplation of the universe
as a totality. It draws on the fundamental theories of physics — thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and special and general relativity — and on several branches of philosophy -- philosophy of physics, philosophy of science, metaphysics, philosophy of mathematics, and epistemology.

 

Central questions concern limits to explanation, physical infinity, laws, especially laws, if any, of initial conditions, selection effects and the anthropic principle, objective probability, the nature of space, time, and spacetime, the arrow of time,
the measurement problem of quantum mechanics, dark energy and quantum fluctuations, scale, the origins of structure formation, the origins and fate of the universe, and the place of life and intelligence within it.


Via Wildcat2030
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would love to know more about!  and you? what do you think about the unknown?

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7 Ways To Boost Your Happiness, According To Science

7 Ways To Boost Your Happiness, According To Science | science | Scoop.it
Happiness is an elusive goal; everyone seems to want it, but if it were easy to attain, the whole world would be happy and we wouldn't need to keep searching for it.
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From OM To OMG: Science, Your Brain, And The Productive Powers Of Meditation

From OM To OMG: Science, Your Brain, And The Productive Powers Of Meditation | science | Scoop.it
Using fMRI scans, we can now see what meditation does to the brain. The author suggests it can lead to a happier, more productive, and creative life...
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Simulated Brain Ramps Up To Include 100 Trillion Synapses

Simulated Brain Ramps Up To Include 100 Trillion Synapses | science | Scoop.it
IBM is developing a cognitive computing program under a DARPA program and just hit a major high. Can Skynet be far behind??
Via Sakis Koukouvis, Amanda Hayes
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NASA is working on Star Trek healing devices—'it's not sci-fi anymore'

“ NASA and Houston-based company GRoK Technologies will work on the development of new "breakthrough products," noninvasive medical technologies designed to "regenerate bone and muscle tissues." It really sounds like something out of Star Trek, but...”
Via Kalani Kirk Hausman
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IBM Solar Collector Magnifies Sun By 2000X – These Could Provide Power To The Entire Planet | The Unbounded Spirit

IBM Solar Collector Magnifies Sun By 2000X – These Could Provide Power To The Entire Planet | The Unbounded Spirit | science | Scoop.it
A team at IBM recently developed what they call a High Concentration Photo Voltaic Thermal (HCPVT) system that is capable of concentrating the power of 2,000 suns, they are even claiming to be able to concentrate energy safely up to 5,000X, that’s huge.The process of trapping the sunlight produces water that can be used to produce filtered drinkable water, or used for other things like air conditioning etc. Scientists envision that the HCPVT system could provide sustainable energy and fresh water to communities all around the world.“Each 1cmX1cm chip can convert 200-250 watts, on average, over a typical eight-hour day in a sunny region. In the HCPVT system, instead of heating a building, the 90 degree Celsius water will pass through a porous membrane distillation system where it is then vaporized and desalinated. Such a system could provide 30-40 liters of drinkable water per square meter of receiver area per day, while still generating electricity with a more than 25 percent yield or two kilowatts hours per day.
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Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, August 5, 5:26 PM

Some good research on solar technology...

MJUNCKE's curator insight, August 6, 5:16 AM

Sounds good!

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NASA Scientists Claim "Impossible" Space Travel Engine Could Actually Work | IFLScience

NASA Scientists Claim "Impossible" Space Travel Engine Could Actually Work | IFLScience | science | Scoop.it
While some may say that nothing is impossible, that is a word that has been frequently used by experts to describe SPR Ltd’s EmDrive. To some, EmDrive is crazy, junk science that will never amount to anything; however, its inventor Roger Shawyer has stuck by it resolutely and insists that this novel spacecraft propulsion system works.EmDrive is a highly efficient propellant-less propulsion system that converts microwave energy into thrust inside a sealed chamber. Such a system would be a complete game changer in spaceflight; it could dramatically cut the cost of satellites and space stations, extend the lives of spacecrafts and drive deep-space missions.more at http://www.iflscience.com/technology/nasa-scientists-claim-impossible-space-travel-engine-could-actually-work#fIR0rScvf8dyGY8Z.99
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Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, August 3, 10:13 AM

Time to take space tech beyond rockets?

Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, August 4, 5:43 PM

Time to take space tech beyond rockets?

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7 Predictions for Your Brain in 2050

What can we expect in terms of innovations based on their research in the next, say, 35 years? That was the topic of a discussion at New York City's Hunter College Thursday night as part of the World Science Festival. Host Robert Krulwich, a longtime reporter who's perhaps best known as one of the silvery voices behind the Radiolab podcast, asked a panel of researchers and neuroscientists how, based on current research and the trajectory of neuroscience, we might expect innovations in terms of the human brain to logically progress. These are their predictions.
Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
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Matter will be created from light within a year, claim scientists

Matter will be created from light within a year, claim scientists | science | Scoop.it
Researchers have worked out how to make matter from pure light and are drawing up plans to demonstrate the feat within the next 12 months.In a neat demonstration of E=mc2, physicists believe they can create electrons and positrons from colliding photons."We have shown in principle how you can make matter from light," said Steven Rose at Imperial. "If you do this experiment, you will be taking light and turning it into matter."The scientists are not on the verge of a machine that can create everyday objects from a sudden blast of laser energy. The kind of matter they aim to make comes in the form of subatomic particles...
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Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, May 19, 3:39 PM

Can matter be created from light? UK scientists say yes, and they figured out an experiment to prove the theory...

T. Blank's curator insight, May 21, 4:09 PM

WOW!

Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Innovation, Big Data, Open Data, Internet of Things, Smart Homes & Cities, 3D printing, Digital Transformation
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How Machines Learned To Recognize Our Faces So Well--And What's Next

How Machines Learned To Recognize Our Faces So Well--And What's Next | science | Scoop.it
“ Thanks to deep learning, computers recently matched humans at facial recognition. That's just the beginning.”
Via Celine Sportisse
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New Technology Helps Brain Signals Move Paralyzed Hand

New Technology Helps Brain Signals Move Paralyzed Hand | science | Scoop.it

An innovative device sends brain signals directly to muscles, skipping over the spinal cord of the injured patient (New technology helps brain signals move paralyzed hand.
http://t.co/1vHHDDOK5p)  SE


Via Joel Barker
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First Life With 'Artificial' DNA Unveiled

First Life With 'Artificial' DNA Unveiled | science | Scoop.it
“ For billions of years, the history of life has been written with just four letters — A, T, C and G, the labels given to the DNA subunits contained in all organisms. That alphabet has just grown longer, researchers announce, with the creation of...”
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Impressive 23 Million-Year-Old Fossil Discovered - Wunderground.com (blog)

Impressive 23 Million-Year-Old Fossil Discovered - Wunderground.com (blog) | science | Scoop.it
“ Times of India Impressive 23 Million-Year-Old Fossil Discovered Wunderground.com (blog) A photo of a gecko preserved in amber taken at the Australian Fossil and Mineral Museum on July 2, 2011. (Wikimedia Commons/PG Palmer).”
Via Catherine Russell
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New Immunotherapy Could Fight a Range of Cancers

New Immunotherapy Could Fight a Range of Cancers | science | Scoop.it
A new method for using immunotherapy to specifically attack tumor cells that have mutations unique to a patient’s cancer has been developed by scientists at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. The researchers demonstrated that the human immune system can mount a response against mutant proteins expressed by cancers that arise in epithelial cells which can line the internal and external surfaces (such as the skin) of the body. These cells give rise to many types of common cancers, such as those that develop in the digestive tract, lung, pancreas, bladder and other areas of the body.
The research provides evidence that this immune response can be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in patients, according to the scientists. The study appeared in the journal Science.
“Our study deals with the central problem in human cancer immunotherapy, which is how to effectively attack common epithelial cancers,” said Steven Rosenberg, chief of the Surgery Branch in NCI’s Center for Cancer Research. “The method we have developed provides a blueprint for using immunotherapy to specifically attack sporadic or driver mutations, unique to a patient’s individual cancer.”
All malignant tumors harbor genetic alterations, some of which may lead to the production of mutant proteins that are capable of triggering an antitumor immune response. Research led by Rosenberg and his colleagues had shown that human melanoma tumors often contain mutation-reactive immune cells called tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, or TILs. The presence of these cells may help explain the effectiveness of adoptive cell therapy (ACT) and other forms of immunotherapy in the treatment of melanoma.
In ACT, a patient’s own TILs are collected, and those with the best antitumor activity are grown in the laboratory to produce large populations that are infused into the patient. However, prior to this work it had not been clear whether the human immune system could mount an effective response against mutant proteins produced by epithelial cell cancers. These cells comprise more than 80% of all cancers. It was also not known whether such a response could be used to develop personalized immunotherapies for these cancers.
In this study, Rosenberg and his team set out to determine whether TILs from patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancers could recognize patient-specific mutations. They analyzed TILs from a patient with bile duct cancer that had metastasized to the lung and liver and had not been responsive to standard chemotherapy. The patient, a 43-year-old woman, was enrolled in an NIH trial of ACT for patients with gastrointestinal cancers.

Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Ebola vaccine works, needs booster: Study - The Times of India

Ebola vaccine works, needs booster: Study - The Times of India | science | Scoop.it
New monkey studies show that one shot of an experimental Ebola vaccine can trigger fast protection, but the effect waned unless the animals got a booster shot made a different way.
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The coming medical revolution. We need HYPERINNOVATION to fix Health Care Crisis

The coming medical revolution. We need HYPERINNOVATION to fix Health Care Crisis | science | Scoop.it
Technology has the potential to transform our concept of sickness. There’s nothing in the 2,000-plus page [Healthcare] bill that gets into this kind of hyper innovative individual medicine, biosensor leveraging, genome and all these sorts of things – it doesn’t really show up. But it is a great opportunity to make medicine and healthcare more affordable. For example, it’s estimated that about a third of the $350 billion spent a year on prescriptions is a total waste. So there’s a great opportunity there, with gene-specific drugs. If we do the 20 million echocardiograms, and almost as many abdominal and fetal ultrasounds, for free with ultrasound pocket devices, there are billions of dollar we could save there. With sensors, if we could get tens of millions of people in this country to manage or prevent their diabetes that could have enormous financial implications. And it’s the same for high blood pressure: 50 percent of people with high blood pressure do not have it adequately managed, so they’re vulnerable for strokes and heart attacks. If we can manage it with a simple cellphone sensor, that would be an enormous potential to lower costs for stroke disabilities, heart attack, heart failure, all those sorts of things.
Via Robert J. Berger
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Researchers Make a Circuit So Flexible, It Can Wrap Around a Vein

Researchers Make a Circuit So Flexible, It Can Wrap Around a Vein | science | Scoop.it
“ If we really want to get the dream of implantable electronics off the ground, we'll need to figure out how to make circuit boards flexible enough to morph and move with our bodies. Thankfully, a team at The University of Texas at Dallas seems to have solved that, with thin film transistors that are flexible enough to wrap around a nerve or blood vessel.”
Via Kalani Kirk Hausman
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Graphene nanoribbons could be the savior of Moore’s Law

Graphene nanoribbons could be the savior of Moore’s Law | science | Scoop.it
With each new generation of microchips, transistors are being placed closer and closer together. This can only go on so long before there’s no more room to improve, or something revolutionary has to come along to change everything. One of the materials that might be the basis of that revolution is none other than graphene. Researchers at the University of California at Berkeley are hot on the trail of a form of so-called nanoribbon graphene that could increase the density of transistors on a computer chip by as much as 10,000 times.
Via Szabolcs Kósa, Kalani Kirk Hausman
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Thierry Bodhuin's curator insight, February 18, 4:10 AM

Moore's law may continue ... 

 

Yaroslav Writtle's curator insight, February 18, 6:44 AM

Interesting stuff - wonder what could this mean for computing capacity 10 years down the line?

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MIT creates graphite ‘solar sponge’ that converts sunlight into steam with 85% efficiency

MIT creates graphite ‘solar sponge’ that converts sunlight into steam with 85% efficiency | science | Scoop.it
“MIT is reporting that it has created a new, cheap material -- using a microwave, no less -- that converts sunlight into steam with an amazing 85% efficiency. This could have major repercussions in the realms of desalination and sterilization, and perhaps for concentrated solar thermal power generation as well.”
Via Sepp Hasslberger
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Sepp Hasslberger's curator insight, July 25, 5:37 AM

This is basic research - not ready to use quite yet, but a neat idea anyway and it could well turn out useful.

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Neurosurgeons successfully implant 3D printed skull (Wired UK)

Neurosurgeons successfully implant 3D printed skull (Wired UK) | science | Scoop.it
“A 22-year-old woman from the Netherlands who suffers from a chronic bone disorder has had the top section of her skull removed and replaced with a 3D printed implant”
Via Charles Young
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Charles Young's curator insight, March 27, 5:25 PM

This is very cool, one of the first instances I have seen of 3D printed items being used in Surgery. The tip of the iceberg no doubt.

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10 Digital Health Trends for the Next 20 Years

The Digital Health Revolution is upon us. Here are the ten trends that will impact each and everyone of us in the coming years to help us live healthier, stronger and smarter lives. 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
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Kenneth Mikkelsen's curator insight, July 13, 1:11 PM

Fine Slideshare presentation by Stephen Davies.


Follow Stephen on Twitter here: @stedavies


Karlos Svoboda's curator insight, September 5, 5:33 AM

Digital health revolution does mean lose my privacy now. 

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Earth may have underground 'ocean' three times that on surface

Earth may have underground 'ocean' three times that on surface | science | Scoop.it
... a vast reservoir of water, enough to fill the Earth’s oceans three times over, may be trapped hundreds of miles beneath the surface, potentially transforming our understanding of how the planet was formed.The water is thought to be locked up in a mineral called ringwoodite about 660km (400 miles) beneath the crust of the Earth. Geophysicist Steve Jacobsen from Northwestern University in the US co-authored the study published in the journal Science and said the discovery suggested Earth’s water may have come from within, driven to the surface by geological activity, rather than being deposited by icy comets hitting the forming planet as held by the prevailing theories.
Via Sepp Hasslberger
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Eric Chan Wei Chiang's curator insight, June 15, 4:24 AM

NASA's New Horizons Pluto-Kuiper Belt probe observed that Charon, Pluto's moon may have underground oceans beneath its icy surface. This could suggest the presence of extraterrestrial life. Read the Scoop here: http://sco.lt/8o1ElV

 

This new finding may also cause climate change models to revise their predictions of sea level rise. Read related Scoops below:

http://www.scoop.it/t/aquascaping-and-nature/?tag=Climate+Change

John Myers's comment, July 18, 5:08 PM
Not hollow as the water is contained within a mineral. Funny how this makes the global flood stories possible..."the well springs of the deep broke forth". Don't shoot me...just an observation! Maybe ancient people weren't so ignorant.
Sepp Hasslberger's comment, July 22, 11:24 AM
"the water is contained within a mineral" - that's conjecture. They know there's water, but no one could go down there to see, so whether it's an ocean or is in a mineral we don't really know.
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The future of biosensing wearables -

The future of biosensing wearables - | science | Scoop.it

This has been a year marked with pessimism about the future of biosensing wearables. We’re not buying it.

For the past 15 months, Rock Health has been conducting industry research on the growing wearables and biosensors market, and we mean growing. Venture funding of biosensors and wearable technology increased 5X from 2011-2013—more than double the growth of digital health overall during the same period. The merging of these two spaces into a singular category—biosensing wearables—is where we see the most potential to impact healthcare.

Today there are an overwhelming number of trending wearables, but not all of them are capable of measuring or telling us something about our health. Similarly, there are plenty of biosensors that measure physiological inputs but do not have a wearable form factor. That’s why biosensing wearables are exciting: they allow for continuous physiological monitoring in a wide range of wearable form factors.


ABI research predicts that in 2014, 90 million wearable computing devices will be shipped, of which approximately 74 million will be biosensing. However, the purchase of a biosensing wearable device does not currently equate to long-term usage. According to a survey by Endeavor Partners, the rate of engagement for activity trackers drops below 50% within 18 months. To combat this phenomenon and scale beyond early adopters, we identified three axes—functionality, reliability, and convenience—on which companies should innovate in order to provide consumers with high utility. Moreover, as biosensing wearables advance across all these three axes, there is significant potential to disrupt not only the consumer electronic markets but also the healthcare markets.

It’s a crowded market, but there’s a growing tail of opportunity for biosensing wearables. We’re also pretty confident this space will continue to develop as tech giants like Apple, Samsung, and Googlestart playing in the sandbox.

Today, most biosensing wearable companies are responsible for both the hardware and software components of their product, which has created a siloed ecosystem. And it can be daunting for a startup team to master the entire stack. The solution? A platform (though we’re not quite there yet). While a few data aggregators have attempted to become the platform that increases data liquidity, we seem to have simply built more fragmentation on top of the universe of devices.

This is where the tech giants come into play. Both Apple and Samsung have announced health platforms designed to capitalize on their existing consumer scale to attract industry players. If there is a successful scaled platform, this can help overcome the current software challenges associated with fragmentation. Pure software players could define valuable use cases without worrying about choosing a specific type of biosensing wearable. Similarly, hardware companies could build for a specific use case and be able to connect to multiple endpoints through the scaled platform, thereby eliminating the current challenge of having to be a “full stack” company (owning and having to be exceptional at hardware, software, and integration).

Hopefully, this means biosensing wearables will leverage their consumer learnings and evolve into highly functional and accurate devices with applications across the industry. We’re just at the beginning stages.

Want the details? Watch the video of webinar broadcast here.


Via Valeria Duflot
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7 Predictions for Your Brain in 2050

What can we expect in terms of innovations based on their research in the next, say, 35 years? That was the topic of a discussion at New York City's Hunter College Thursday night as part of the World Science Festival. Host Robert Krulwich, a longtime reporter who's perhaps best known as one of the silvery voices behind the Radiolab podcast, asked a panel of researchers and neuroscientists how, based on current research and the trajectory of neuroscience, we might expect innovations in terms of the human brain to logically progress. These are their predictions.


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
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Robobees: Harvard Project Funds The Engineering Of Robotic Bees Soon To Be In Flight

Robobees: Harvard Project Funds The Engineering Of Robotic Bees Soon To Be In Flight | science | Scoop.it
With the alarming decline in the honey bee population sweeping our globe, fear of the multi-billion dollar crop industry collapsing has been on many people’s minds. To tackle this issue, Harvard’s School of Engineering and Applied Sciences has been working with staff from the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Northeastern University’s Department of Biology to develop robot bees. And according to a new video just released, these insectoid automatons have already taken flight. The collaborators envision that the Nature-inspired research could lead to a greater understanding of how to artificially mimic the collective behavior and “intelligence” of a bee colony; foster novel methods for designing and building an electronic surrogate nervous system able to deftly sense and adapt to changing environments; and advance work on the construction of small-scale flying mechanical devices. More broadly, the scientists anticipate the devices will open up a wide range of discoveries and practical innovations, advancing fields ranging from entomology and developmental biology to amorphous computing and electrical engineering.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Eli Levine's curator insight, May 16, 2:14 PM

If we're able to figure out how to artificially mimic bee colonies, imagine what we could do with our human societies to improve effectiveness, efficiency and to clear away our delusions and non-self preservationist behavior (in terms of the larger social self that we're all apart of).

 

Imagine a world where we have coordination and cooperation, rather than competition and violence.  Imagine a world where we work to solve common problems that exist on the various scales of human society, from local to global. 

 

Imagine if we're able to eliminate the petty, chimpish aspects of our brains and psychology, to live happier, healthier lives as a more survivable and adaptable species.

 

Just think of the possibilities that we could then do, to advance both the universe and ourselves safely (because, if we're able to perceive dangers accurately, why should we advance in such dangerous fashions?)

 

I may not be down for the first generation of implants.  But I would be down for the fourth, fifth or sixth generation.

 

That's just me.

 

Think about it.

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47-million-year-old fossil of hummingbird ancestor found - and it still has pollen in its stomach!

47-million-year-old fossil of hummingbird ancestor found - and it still has pollen in its stomach! | science | Scoop.it
“ Daily Mail 47-million-year-old fossil of hummingbird ancestor found - and it still has ... Daily Mail The world's oldest fossil of a pollinating bird has been unearthed (pictured).”
Via Catherine Russell
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