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Majority of mathematicians belong to just 24 scientific families

Majority of mathematicians belong to just 24 scientific families | science | Scoop.it
Evolution of mathematics traced using unusually comprehensive genealogy database.

 

Most of the world’s mathematicians fall into just 24 scientific 'families', one of which dates back to the fifteenth century. The insight comes from an analysis of the Mathematics Genealogy Project (MGP), which aims to connect all mathematicians, living and dead, into family trees on the basis of teacher–pupil lineages, in particular who an individual's doctoral adviser was.

 

The analysis also uses the MGP — the most complete such project — to trace trends in the history of science, including  the emergence of the United States as a scientific power in the 1920s and when different mathematical subfields rose to dominance1.

 

“You can see how mathematics has evolved in time,” says Floriana Gargiulo, who studies networks dynamics at the University of Namur, Belgium and who led the analysis.

The MGP is hosted by North Dakota State University in Fargo and co-sponsored by the American Mathematical Society. Since the early 1990s, its organizers have mined information from university departments and from individuals who make submissions regarding themselves or people they know about.

 

As of 25 August, the MGP contained 201,618 entries. As well as doctoral advisers (PhD advisers in recent times) and pupils of academic mathematicians, the organizers record details such as the university that awarded the doctorate.

 

Previously, researchers had used the MGP to reconstruct their own PhD-family trees, or to see how many ‘descendants’ a researcher has (readers can do their own search here). Gargiulo's team wanted to make a comprehensive analysis of the entire database and divide it into distinct families, rather than just looking at how many descendants any one person has. After downloading the database, Gargiulo and her colleagues wrote machine-learning algorithms that cross-checked and complemented the MGP data with information from Wikipedia and from scientists' profiles in the Scopus bibliographic database.

 

This revealed 84 distinct family trees with two-thirds of the world’s mathematicians concentrated in just 24 of them. The high degree of clustering arises in part because the algorithms assigned each mathematician just one academic parent: when an individual had more than one adviser, they were assigned the one with the bigger network. But the phenomenon chimes with anecdotal reports from those who research their own mathematical ancestry, says MGP director Mitchel Keller, a mathematician at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, Virginia. “Most of them run into Euler, or Gauss or some other big name,” he says. Although the MGP is still somewhat US centric, the goal is for it to become as international as possible, Keller says.

 

Gargiulo’s team also looked at the dominance of mathematical subfields relative to each other. The researchers found that dominance shifted from mathematical physics to pure maths during the first half of the twentieth century, and later to statistics and other applied disciplines, such as computer science.

 

Idiosyncrasies in the field of mathematics could explain why it has the most comprehensive genealogy database of any discipline. “Mathematicians are a bit of a world apart,” says Roberta Sinatra, a network and data scientist at Central European University in Budapest who led a 2015 study that mapped the evolution of the subdisciplines of physics by mining data from papers on the Web of Science2.

 

Mathematicians tend to publish less than other researchers, and they establish their academic reputation not so much on how much they publish or on their number of citations, but on who they have collaborated with, including their mentors, she says. “I think it’s not a coincidence that they have this genealogy project."

 

At least one discipline is trying to catch up. Historian of astronomy Joseph Tenn of Sonoma State University in California plans by 2017 to launch the AstroGen project to record the PhD advisers and students of astronomers. “I started it," he says, "because so many of my colleagues in astronomy admired and enjoyed perusing the Mathematics Genealogy Project."

 


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Science & Transhumanisme
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Will technology allow us to transcend the human condition?

Will technology allow us to transcend the human condition? | science | Scoop.it
“ While it may sound like something straight out of a sci-fi film, the U.S. intelligence community is considering “human augmentation” and its possible implications for national security.”
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Global

Global | science | Scoop.it
SciDev.Net offers news,analysis and information about science and technology for global development; including agriculture, environment, health, governance, and more.
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What If Aliens Are Humans From The Future With Time Travel?

What If Aliens Are Humans From The Future With Time Travel? | science | Scoop.it
Philosoraptor: What If Aliens Are Humans From The Future With Time Travel?
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Daily Magazine
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Unanimous international consensus recommends specific measures for responsible conduct of gene drive research

Unanimous international consensus recommends specific measures for responsible conduct of gene drive research | science | Scoop.it

Gene drives are genetic elements - found naturally in the genomes of most of the world's organisms - that increase the chance of the gene they carry being passed on to all offspring, and thus, they can quickly spread through populations. Looking to these natural systems, researchers around the world, including some Wyss Institute scientists, are developing synthetic gene drives that could one day be leveraged by humans to purposefully alter the traits of wild populations of organisms to prevent disease transmission and eradicate invasive species.


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IBM Research: Why games matter to Artificial Intelligence

IBM Research: Why games matter to Artificial Intelligence | science | Scoop.it
“ Dr. Gerald Tesauro, the IBM Research scientist who taught Watson how to make wagers when its Jeopardy!, has been named an Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) Fellow. His development of ...”
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Amazing Science
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Scientists have discovered a new state of matter, called 'Jahn-Teller metals'

Scientists have discovered a new state of matter, called 'Jahn-Teller metals' | science | Scoop.it

An international team of scientists has announced the discovery of a new state of matter in a material that appears to be an insulator, superconductor, metal and magnet all rolled into one, saying that it could lead to the development of more effective high-temperature superconductors.

Why is this so exciting? Well, if these properties are confirmed, this new state of matter will allow scientists to better understand why some materials have the potential to achieve superconductivity at a relativity high critical temperature (Tc) - "high" as in −135 °C as opposed to −243.2 °C. Because superconductivity allows a material to conduct electricity without resistance, which means no heat, sound, or any other form of energy release, achieving this would revolutionise how we use and produce energy, but it’s only feasible if we can achieve it at so-called high temperatures.

As Michael Byrne explains, when we talk about states of matter, it’s not just solids, liquids, gases, and maybe plasmas that we have to think about. We also have to consider the more obscure states that don’t occur in nature, but are rather created in the lab - Bose–Einstein condensate, degenerate matter, supersolids and superfluids, and quark-gluon plasma, for example.

By introducing rubidium into carbon-60 molecules - more commonly known as 'buckyballs' - a team led by chemist Kosmas Prassides from Tokohu University in Japan was able to change the distance between them, which forced them into a new, crystalline structure. When put through an array of tests, this structure displayed a combination of insulating, superconducting, metallic, and magnetic phases, including a brand new one, which the researchers have named 'Jahn-Teller metals'.

Named after the Jahn-Teller effect, which is used in chemistry to describe how at low pressures, the geometric arrangement of molecules and ions in an electronic state can become distorted, this new state of matter allows scientists to transform an insulator - which can’t conduct electricity - into a conductor by simply applying pressure.

There’s a whole lot of lab-work to be done before this discovery will mean anything for practical energy production in the real world, but that’s science for you. And it’s got people excited already, as chemist Elisabeth Nicol from the University of Guelph in Canada told Hamish Johnston at PhysicsWorld: "Understanding the mechanisms at play and how they can be manipulated to change the Tc surely will inspire the development of new superconducting materials".


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Alternativas: impresión 3D, hardware libre drones y otras tecnologías.
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The Big Idea: Organ Regeneration

The Big Idea: Organ Regeneration | science | Scoop.it
“ In the future people who need a body part may get their own back--regrown in the lab from their own cells.”
Via Kalani Kirk Hausman, Juanjo Pina
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Astronomy image analysis algorithms adapted to cancer screening method - Phys.Org

Astronomy image analysis algorithms adapted to cancer screening method - Phys.Org | science | Scoop.it
Astronomy and oncology do not make obvious bedfellows, but the search for new stars and galaxies has surprising similarities with the search for cancerous cells. This has led to new ways of speeding up image analysis in cancer research.
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from TAL effector science
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Microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA in cells and animals using TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA in cells and animals using TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | science | Scoop.it

(via T. Schreiber, thx)

Nakade et al, 2014

Genome engineering using programmable nucleases enables homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene knock-in. However, the labour used to construct targeting vectors containing homology arms and difficulties in inducing HR in some cell type and organisms represent technical hurdles for the application of HR-mediated knock-in technology. Here, we introduce an alternative strategy for gene knock-in using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) mediated by microhomology-mediated end-joining, termed the PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) system. TALEN-mediated PITCh, termed TAL-PITCh, enables efficient integration of exogenous donor DNA in human cells and animals, including silkworms and frogs. We further demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PITCh, termed CRIS-PITCh, can be applied in human cells without carrying the plasmid backbone sequence. Thus, our PITCh-ing strategies will be useful for a variety of applications, not only in cultured cells, but also in various organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates.


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Fesquet didier's curator insight, November 21, 2014 7:55 AM

and other strategy fo Ki experiments

 

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Japan: Humans Might Soon be Taking Life-Like Androids as Partners in Marriage - International Business Times UK

Japan: Humans Might Soon be Taking Life-Like Androids as Partners in Marriage - International Business Times UK | science | Scoop.it
Life-like robots are taking Japan by storm and will soon be seen as actresses and clones of the departed.
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Ebola vaccine works, needs booster: Study - The Times of India

Ebola vaccine works, needs booster: Study - The Times of India | science | Scoop.it
New monkey studies show that one shot of an experimental Ebola vaccine can trigger fast protection, but the effect waned unless the animals got a booster shot made a different way.
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Creating the Future
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The coming medical revolution. We need HYPERINNOVATION to fix Health Care Crisis

The coming medical revolution. We need HYPERINNOVATION to fix Health Care Crisis | science | Scoop.it
Technology has the potential to transform our concept of sickness. There’s nothing in the 2,000-plus page [Healthcare] bill that gets into this kind of hyper innovative individual medicine, biosensor leveraging, genome and all these sorts of things – it doesn’t really show up. But it is a great opportunity to make medicine and healthcare more affordable. For example, it’s estimated that about a third of the $350 billion spent a year on prescriptions is a total waste. So there’s a great opportunity there, with gene-specific drugs. If we do the 20 million echocardiograms, and almost as many abdominal and fetal ultrasounds, for free with ultrasound pocket devices, there are billions of dollar we could save there. With sensors, if we could get tens of millions of people in this country to manage or prevent their diabetes that could have enormous financial implications. And it’s the same for high blood pressure: 50 percent of people with high blood pressure do not have it adequately managed, so they’re vulnerable for strokes and heart attacks. If we can manage it with a simple cellphone sensor, that would be an enormous potential to lower costs for stroke disabilities, heart attack, heart failure, all those sorts of things.
Via Robert J. Berger
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Daily Magazine
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Scientists create life without fertilising an egg - FT.com

Scientists create life without fertilising an egg - FT.com | science | Scoop.it
Scientists have produced healthy offspring without fertilising an egg in a breakthrough that overturns the fundamental principles of embryology.

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Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology

Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology | science | Scoop.it

Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine

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NEW Space Documentary 2014 HD Future Space Travel technologies NEW Science

doku, Dokumentarfilm, berichten, Politik, Deutsch, free, documentary, full hd, 1080p, germany, ger. Solar system watch more video here: * Like and subscribe for.
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Theory of DNA Science MESSAGE FROM GOD BBC Science Documentary

Theory of DNA Science MESSAGE FROM GOD BBC Science Documentary.
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Reinventing Health Care: The Coevolution of Biology, Technology and Culture

We are living in a sci-fi world full of bionic limbs, wonder drugs, 3D-printed organs, lab-grown muscles, and brain-computer interfaces. 

The quality and longevity of life have never been more assured, as the field of health reaches a new zenith every day. 

Gene sequencing, brain mapping, and vitals tracking are quantifying and personalizing health faster than we can process it — and supercomputers are helping us make sense of it all, leading to new breakthroughs. 


Via Kenneth Mikkelsen
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Kenneth Mikkelsen's curator insight, February 28, 2015 1:40 AM

We are witnessing exponential growth in the field of health. We will all become citizen doctors, bionically enhanced and genetically hacked. 

This coevolution of technology and biology — accelerated by culture — will lead us to become the masters of our evolutionary destiny.


Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Artificial Intelligence
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How You Can Train Your Mind To Do The Impossible - Huffington Post

How You Can Train Your Mind To Do The Impossible - Huffington Post | science | Scoop.it
“ How You Can Train Your Mind To Do The Impossible Huffington Post Buddhist monks can achieve a harmony between themselves and the world around them by breaking the psychological wall of self/other, expressed as by particular changes in the neural...”
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from Alternativas: impresión 3D, hardware libre drones y otras tecnologías.
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Advancements and applications of nanoprinting | 3D Printer

Advancements and applications of nanoprinting | 3D Printer | science | Scoop.it
“ It’s easy to appreciate big 3D printers, but what about the technologies that produce objects so small that they can’t be seen with the naked eye.”
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from :: Science Innovation :: Research News ::
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Light-activated drug could reduce side effects of diabetes medication

Light-activated drug could reduce side effects of diabetes medication | science | Scoop.it

Scientists have created a drug for type 2 diabetes that is switched on by blue light, which they hope will improve treatment of the disease. The drug would be inactive under normal conditions, but a patient could in theory switch it on using blue LEDs stuck to the skin. Only a small amount of light would need to penetrate the skin to change the drug's shape and turn it on. This change is reversible, so the drug switches off again when the light goes off.


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Big Data and Bacteria: Mapping the New York Subway’s DNA

Big Data and Bacteria: Mapping the New York Subway’s DNA | science | Scoop.it
An 18-month project to map the microbes that populate the New York City subway system—which include the germs that cause food poisoning, meningitis and even bubonic plague—shows how commuters pass on bacteria from the food they eat, the pets or...
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Rescooped by Margarida Sá Costa from photo@planet5D
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Engineering Photography Beautifully Reveals the Intersection of Science and Art

Engineering Photography Beautifully Reveals the Intersection of Science and Art | science | Scoop.it
From images of graphene flowers and foam to a portrait of a self-taught engineer fixing one of his elephant pumps that is providing clean water for a villa

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7 Ways To Boost Your Happiness, According To Science

7 Ways To Boost Your Happiness, According To Science | science | Scoop.it
Happiness is an elusive goal; everyone seems to want it, but if it were easy to attain, the whole world would be happy and we wouldn't need to keep searching for it.
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From OM To OMG: Science, Your Brain, And The Productive Powers Of Meditation

From OM To OMG: Science, Your Brain, And The Productive Powers Of Meditation | science | Scoop.it
Using fMRI scans, we can now see what meditation does to the brain. The author suggests it can lead to a happier, more productive, and creative life...
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