Science And Wonder
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Science And Wonder
Soul The Fuel of Science
Curated by LilyGiraud
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How to animate a digital model of a person from images collected from the Internet | KurzweilAI

How to animate a digital model of a person from images collected from the Internet | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
UW researchers have reconstructed 3-D models of celebrities such as Tom Hanks from large Internet photo collections. The models can also be controlled and
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Can DNA predict a face?

Can DNA predict a face? | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
DNA-based facial sketches are moving into the crime-solving arena. With current science, predictions of some features are better than others.
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Army ants’ ‘living’ bridges suggest collective intelligence | KurzweilAI

Army ants’ ‘living’ bridges suggest collective intelligence | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Creating living bridges, army ants of the species Eciton hamatum automatically assemble with a level of collective intelligence that could provide new
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More mysterious extragalactic signals detected

More mysterious extragalactic signals detected | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Five more fast radio bursts from other galaxies have shown up and one of them is a double.
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This app lets you target autonomous video drones with facial recognition | KurzweilAI

This app lets you target autonomous video drones with facial recognition | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Creating a selfie video with a drone and an app (credit: Neurala) Robotics company Neurala has combined facial-recognition and drone-control mobile software
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Alarm Clock Slaps You Awake : DNews

Alarm Clock Slaps You Awake : DNews | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
The Wake-Up Machine smacks you before you can hit the snooze. Continue reading →
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NIST team proves entanglement is really real

NIST team proves entanglement is really real | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Einstein was wrong about at least one thing: There are, in fact, "spooky actions at a distance," as now proven by researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

 

Einstein used that term to refer to quantum mechanics, which describes the curious behavior of the smallest particles of matter and light. He was referring, specifically, to entanglement, the idea that two physically separated particles can have correlated properties, with values that are uncertain until they are measured. Einstein was dubious, and until now, researchers have been unable to support it with near-total confidence.

 

As described in a paper posted online and submitted to Physical Review Letters (PRL), researchers from NIST and several other institutions created pairs of identical light particles, or photons, and sent them to two different locations to be measured. Researchers showed the measured results not only were correlated, but also—by eliminating all other known options—that these correlations cannot be caused by the locally controlled, "realistic" universe Einstein thought we lived in. This implies a different explanation such as entanglement.

 

The NIST experiments are called Bell tests, so named because in 1964 Irish physicist John Bell showed there are limits to measurement correlations that can be ascribed to local, pre-existing (i.e. realistic) conditions. Additional correlations beyond those limits would require either sending signals faster than the speed of light, which scientists consider impossible, or another mechanism, such as quantum entanglement.

 

The NIST results are more definitive than those reported recently by researchers at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands.

In the NIST experiment, the photon source and the two detectors were located in three different, widely separated rooms on the same floor in a large laboratory building. The two detectors are 184 meters apart, and 126 and 132 meters, respectively, from the photon source.

 

The source creates a stream of photon pairs through a common process in which a laser beam stimulates a special type of crystal. This process is generally presumed to create pairs of photons that are entangled, so that the photons' polarizations are highly correlated with one another. Polarization refers to the specific orientation of the photon, like vertical or horizontal (polarizing sunglasses preferentially block horizontally polarized light), analogous to the two sides of a coin.

 

Photon pairs are then separated and sent by fiber-optic cable to separate detectors in the distant rooms. While the photons are in flight, a random number generator picks one of two polarization settings for each polarization analyzer. If the photon matched the analyzer setting, then it was detected more than 90 percent of the time.

 

In the best experimental run, both detectors simultaneously identified photons a total of 6,378 times over a period of 30 minutes. Other outcomes (such as just one detector firing) accounted for only 5,749 of the 12,127 total relevant events. Researchers calculated that the maximum chance of local realism producing these results is just 0.0000000059, or about 1 in 170 million. This outcome exceeds the particle physics community's requirement for a "5 sigma" result needed to declare something a discovery. The results strongly rule out local realistic theories, suggesting that the quantum mechanical explanation of entanglement is indeed the correct explanation.

 

The NIST experiment closed the three major loopholes as follows:

 

Fair sampling: Thanks to NIST's single-photon detectors, the experiment was efficient enough to ensure that the detected photons and measurement results were representative of the actual totals. The detectors, made of superconducting nanowires, were 90 percent efficient, and total system efficiency was about 75 percent.

 

No faster-than-light communication: The two detectors measured photons from the same pair a few hundreds of nanoseconds apart, finishing more than 40 nanoseconds before any light-speed communication could take place between the detectors. Information traveling at the speed of light would require 617 nanoseconds to travel between the detectors.

 

Freedom of choice: Detector settings were chosen by random number generators operating outside the light cone (i.e., possible influence) of the photon source, and thus, were free from manipulation. In fact, the experiment demonstrated a "Bell violation machine" that NIST eventually plans to use to certify randomness.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Helen Teague's curator insight, November 17, 2015 12:56 PM

The implication of "a different explanation such as entanglement."

Very real.

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Decoding The Universe: The Great Math Mystery - Space Documentary 2015

Decoding The Universe: The Great Math Mystery - Space Documentary 2015 Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCWd9r8-8HJVHmDESq_Xob6w?sub_confirmation=1...
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Nanobots: The rise of the molecular nanomachines

Nanobots: The rise of the molecular nanomachines | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it

Nanomachines --- including nano-sized motors, rockets and even cars --- are many orders of magnitude smaller than a human cell, but they have huge promise.

 

Controlling Motion at the Nanoscale Level: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/a...
Switches: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/n...
Shuttles: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/b...
Turnstiles: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/i...
Elevators: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/j...
Nanocars:http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/j...
Nanorockets: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eRxyN...
Nanorockets: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021... ;
Nanomotors: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021...
Nanocars: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021...
Nanocars: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/n...
Nanobots: http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/j...
Nanosubmaries: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NfNQU...


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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"Brainprints" Pick Out an Individual from the Crowd - Scientific American

"Brainprints" Pick Out an Individual from the Crowd - Scientific American | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Researchers identify people by the way their brains are wired
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A Massive Global Effort Maps How the Brain is Wired - Scientific American

A Massive Global Effort Maps How the Brain is Wired - Scientific American | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
With innovative tools, connectome scientists are tracing the superhighways and footpaths of the brain
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The Surprising Physics of Pulling a Bike With a Rubber Band | WIRED

The Surprising Physics of Pulling a Bike With a Rubber Band | WIRED | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
If I pull forward on a bike at the bottom of the front wheel, which way will it move? Can you use physics to justify your answer?
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Military's Prosthetic Hand Can Feel : Discovery News

Military's Prosthetic Hand Can Feel : Discovery News | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Scientists wired electrodes into a patient's sensory cortex, the part of the brain that identifies tactile sensations.
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Czech firm presents new model of wall radar

Czech firm presents new model of wall radar | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Czech firm presents wall radar capable of detecting slightest movement, such as breathing, for use in hostage and search and rescue operations. Elly Park reports.
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Biologists induce flatworms to grow heads and brains of other species | KurzweilAI

Biologists induce flatworms to grow heads and brains of other species | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Tufts biologists induced one species of flatworm ---- G. dorotocephala, top left --- to grow heads and brains characteristic of other species of flatworm, top
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First real-time imaging of neural activity invented | KurzweilAI

First real-time imaging of neural activity invented | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
A series of images from a Duke engineering experiment show voltage spreading through a fruitfly neuron over a matter of just 4 milliseconds, a hundred times
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How to control information leaks from smartphone apps | KurzweilAI

How to control information leaks from smartphone apps | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
A Northeastern University research team has found “exten­sive” leakage of users’ information --- device and user iden­ti­fiers, loca­tions, and
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How We Are All a Little Neandertal

How We Are All a Little Neandertal | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Human DNA is 1 to 2% Neandertal, or more, depending on where your ancestors lived. Svante Pääbo, founder of the field of paleogenetics and winner of a 2016 Breakthrough Prize, explains why that matters
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'Water Bug' Robot Digests Pollution, Converts it to Electricity : DNews

'Water Bug' Robot Digests Pollution, Converts it to Electricity : DNews | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
The Row-Bot was capable of generating more energy than it needed. Continue reading →
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Building a Brainbow

Building a Brainbow | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Scientists use a genetic technique to illuminate neurons in up to 90 different colors.
For more on this, check out “ The Brainbow Connection ,” a photo essay by Diana Kwon and Liz Tormes in the latest issue of Scientific American MIND .
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Neuroscientists identify brain region that holds objects in memory until they are spotted

Neuroscientists identify brain region that holds objects in memory until they are spotted | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it

Neuroscientists identify brain region that holds objects in memory until they are spotted.

 

Imagine you are looking for your wallet on a cluttered desk. As you scan the area, you hold in your mind a mental picture of what your wallet looks like.


MIT neuroscientists have now identified a brain region that stores this type of visual representation during a search. The researchers also found that this region sends signals to the parts of the brain that control eye movements, telling individuals where to look next.


This region, known as the ventral pre-arcuate (VPA), is critical for what the researchers call “feature attention,” which allows the brain to seek objects based on their specific properties. Most previous studies of how the brain pays attention have investigated a different type of attention known as spatial attention — that is, what happens when the brain focuses on a certain location.


“The way that people go about their lives most of the time, they don’t know where things are in advance. They’re paying attention to things based on their features,” says Robert Desimone, director of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research. “In the morning you’re trying to find your car keys so you can go to work. How do you do that? You don’t look at every pixel in your house. You have to use your knowledge of what your car keys look like.”


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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How to 3-D print a heart | KurzweilAI

How to 3-D print a heart | KurzweilAI | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
Coronary artery structure being 3-D bioprinted (credit: Carnegie Mellon University College of Engineering) Carnegie Mellon scientists are creating
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Scientists find worms can safely eat the plastic in our garbage - ScienceAlert

Scientists find worms can safely eat the plastic in our garbage - ScienceAlert | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it
All you can eat, fellas!
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UK scientists seek permission to genetically modify human embryos with CRISPR-CAS

UK scientists seek permission to genetically modify human embryos with CRISPR-CAS | Science And Wonder | Scoop.it

Researchers apply for licence months after Chinese team become first to announce they have altered DNA.  Scientists in Britain have applied for permission to genetically modify human embryos as part of a research project into the earliest stages of human development.

 

The work marks a controversial first for the UK and comes only months after Chinese researchers became the only team in the world to announce they had altered the DNA of human embryos. Kathy Niakan, a stem cell scientist at the Francis Crick Institute in London, has asked the government’s fertility regulator for a licence to perform so-called genome editing on human embryos. The research could see the first genetically modified embryos in Britain created within months.

 

Donated by couples with a surplus after IVF treatment, the embryos would be used for basic research only. They cannot legally be studied for more than two weeks or implanted into women to achieve a pregnancy.

 

Though the modified embryos will never become children, the move will concern some who have called for a global moratorium on the genetic manipulation of embryos, even for research purposes. They fear a public backlash could derail less controversial uses of genome editing, which could lead to radical new treatments for disease.

 

Niakan wants to use the procedure to find genes at play in the first few days of human fertilization, when an embryo develops a coating of cells that later form the placenta. The basic research could help scientists understand why some women lose their babies before term.

 

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) has yet to review her application, but is expected to grant a licence under existing laws that permit experiments on embryos provided they are destroyed within 14 days. In Britain, research on embryos can only go ahead under a licence from an HFEA panel that deems the experiments to be justified.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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