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School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor
Tools, tips, resources, advice, and humor to support today's school leader and leaders, in general
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Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies

Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
Policies and interventions to promote mental health should be designed to effectively involve the work environment and process as a key arena for action [1]. The majority of people in developed and developing countries now live in cities and are formally or informally linked to workplaces where most of their productive lives are spent [2]. Studies have shown the importance of work stressors both in the generation and prevention of mental disorders [3], but there is still a lack of policies and interventions that effectively improve workers’ mental health and prevent disorders. Interestingly, even among mental health workers, work-related mental disorders are highly prevalent [4]. Thus, work environments and processes are key elements in public health.

Burnout syndrome is an important work-related disorder of psychosocial origin, caused when stressful working conditions are endured. Its presence has been associated with a worsened self-perception of health and a large amount of somatic comorbidity [5]. Burnout has traditionally been described as a relatively uniform entity in all individuals, with more or less consistent aetiology and symptoms [6]. According to the classical definition, this syndrome includes the dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and professional inefficacy [7], [8]. ‘Exhaustion’ is the feeling of not being able to offer any more of oneself at an emotional level; ‘cynicism’ represents a distant attitude towards work, those served by it, and colleagues; and ‘inefficacy’ is the feeling of not performing tasks adequately or being incompetent at work. These dimensions are strongly associated with each other, providing a unitary although three-dimensional definition of burnout [9].

Nevertheless, different burnout types have been proposed, according to the degree of dedication at work [10]. The ‘frenetic’ burnout type works increasingly harder, to the point of exhaustion, in search of success, and presents involvement, ambition and overload. The ‘under-challenged’ type has to cope with monotonous and unstimulating conditions that fail to provide satisfaction and feels indifference, boredom and lack of personal development. The ‘worn-out’ type gives up when faced with stress or the absence of gratification and shows lack of control, lack of acknowledgement and neglect [11], [12]. The dimensions of overload, lack of development and neglect, belonging to the frenetic, under-challenged and worn-out subtypes, respectively, comprise a definition of burnout that comes close to the standard perspective [9], [13]. ‘Overload’ refers to individuals’ feeling of risking health and personal life in the pursuit of good results and is significantly associated with exhaustion; ‘lack of development’ refers to the absence of personal growth experiences for individuals together with their desire to take on other jobs where they can better develop their skills and is markedly associated with cynicism; ‘neglect’ refers to individuals’ disregard as a response to any difficulty and is strongly associated with inefficacy [13], [14]. While approaching the standard definition, the dimensions referred to in the typological model show little relation to each other, which allows a differential characterisation of the syndrome to be made by means of clinical profiles [13].

In general, ‘burnout’ is a subject’s response to chronic work-related stress and is an attempt to adapt to or protect oneself from it [15]. Stress has been defined as the result of a relationship with the environment that the person appraises as significant for his or her well-being, and in which demands tax or exceed available coping resources. Coping is defined as cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the person’s resources [10], [16]. A person will be psychologically vulnerable to a particular situation if he or she does not possess sufficient coping resources to handle it adequately and places considerable importance on the threat implicit in the consequences of this inadequate handling. There are different general trends in coping with stress, such as cognitive or behavioural coping, cognitive or behavioural avoidance, emotion-focused coping or substance use [17]–[19]. From this perspective, burnout may be observed as a progressively developed condition resulting from the use of the ineffective coping strategies with which professionals try to protect themselves from work-related stress situations [20].

There is an accumulation of evidence linking coping styles with stress and burnout. At first, coping style was studied as a relatively stable characteristic of the person, regardless of the nature of the task or situation, showing that certain inflexible coping styles could be associated with higher levels of stress [21], [22]. Subsequently, the emphasis was placed on the relationship between the coping style and the situation [16]. Early research seemed to support the idea that problem-focused coping was a better strategy than emotion-focused coping for stress management. However, it was later found that there were sub-factors that did not allow the application of such a general conclusion [23]. Problem-focused coping is not an appropriate strategy to address stress if the situation is uncontrollable or chronic [24], as it could lead, in this case, to a progressive process of behavioural disengagement [25]. Emotional coping has been noted to be detrimental if it involves distancing, avoidance or denial regarding the situation but is an effective strategy if it involves a positive reappraisal [26], [27]. In the long term, the key factor for developing the burnout syndrome seems to be the degree of passivity that the subject acquires [19], [28], [29].

So far, possible relationships between burnout types and coping strategies have not been explored. A better knowledge of the coping strategies associated with each burnout profile could promote the development of specific treatments and preventive programmes for the syndrome that might potentially be more effective [26]. In this context, the aim of this work was to estimate the explanatory power of the different styles of coping with stress on the development of different burnout subtypes, evaluating the contribution of specific coping strategies. In general terms, the hypotheses were established according to the degree of dedication at work shown by the different burnout subtypes. The frenetic burnout subtype is a highly dedicated profile, which means that the related overload could be associated with active coping strategies, such as those included in problem-focused coping. The under-challenged burnout subtype is a profile characterised by an intermediate dedication to work, meaning that the related lack of development could be associated with avoidance coping strategies. The worn-out burnout subtype is a profile characterised by a low level of dedication, meaning that the associated neglect could be due to a behavioural impairment related to the use of disengagement strategies. In essence, this grading of the levels of dedication could be pointing to different stages in the longitudinal development of the syndrome. Different coping strategies for stress could be contributing to each of these [10], [12].
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Adolescents’ development of skills for agency in youth programs : The Chronicle of Evidence-Based Mentoring

Adolescents’ development of skills for agency in youth programs : The Chronicle of Evidence-Based Mentoring | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
Sharrock's insight:

Results:

What youth learned: The analyses of youth interviews revealed 3 major themes for types of youth agency skills:

1) Mobilizing effort:learning to devote the energy and time to their work

- common theme reveals that successful work requires effort and they had gained abilities to deliberately mobilize and regulate that effort

2) Concrete organizing skills: learning rules to organize the tasks or elements of their projects

3) Strategic thinking:  “use of advanced executive skills to anticipate possible scenarios in the steps to achieving goals and to formulate flexible courses of action that take these possibilities into account”

- strategic thinking directs youth toward achievement of meaningful and challenging real-world goals and away from risk behavior (Romer, 2003).

 

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What We Have Learned About Gifted Children

What We Have Learned About Gifted Children | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it

The Gifted Development Center has been in operation since June, 1979, and we have assessed over 5,600 children in the last 30 years.  By concentrating totally on the gifted population, we have acquired a considerable amount of knowledge about the development of giftedness.  In 1994-1995, three noted researchers spent post-doctoral internships assisting us in coding our clinical data to enable statistical analysis:  Drs. Frank Falk and Nancy Miller of the University of Akron, and Dr. Karen Rogers of the University of St. Thomas.   Here are some of the highlights of what we have learned so far:

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excerpt: 

3. When parents fail to recognize a child’s gifts, teachers may overlook them as well.  Rita Dickinson (1970) found that half of the children she tested with IQs of 132 or above were referred for behavior problems and not seen as gifted by their teachers or parents.  Parent advocacy is critical for gifted children’s emotional and academic growth.  Associate Director, Bobbie Gilman’s (2008a) award-winning book, Academic Advocacy for Gifted Children: A Parent’s Complete Guide, can guide parents in effectively advocating for their children. Challenging Highly Gifted Learners (Gilman, 2008b) is an excellent book for teachers and parents."

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5 Great Tools That Showcase Your Skills To Recruiters

5 Great Tools That Showcase Your Skills To Recruiters | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
It has been widely documented that recruiters spend about 6-seconds on the average resume. It is no wonder; they are flooded with resumes on a daily basis.
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What's the Best Way to Motivate People?

What's the Best Way to Motivate People? | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
The fact that motivational courses have flourished for decades means that people want to be more motivated. At the moment there are increasing reasons to feel exhausted, unmotivated, and eventually
Sharrock's insight:

from the article:

 

Seven Major Motivators

1. Having your work be noticed and appreciated.

2. Setting long-term goals that lead to satisfying results.

3. Doing work that you are passionate about.

4. Feeling that your bosses are loyal to you.

5. Open communications between workers and managers.

6. Feeling that you have job security.

7. Mastering a skill.

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Singing while tensed can help avoid depression and anxiety. - UberFacts

Singing while tensed can help avoid depression and anxiety. - UberFacts | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it

The researched power of song.

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Stranger in a Strange Land: Agency Skills in a Corporate World - ERE.net

Stranger in a Strange Land: Agency Skills in a Corporate World - ERE.net | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it

Indeed, companies hire executive search firms for this very reason: they need a pirate but can’t afford to have one associated with their brand. So they contract an outside vendor and gain the skills while sparing the brand.

Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "When their approach to recruiting butts up against layers of bureaucracy, they realize they’re in a land where process and predictability are prized over results. It’s more important to ensure that the process shows that every candidate was treated equally than to get a hire. Mediocrity is acceptable, and they are handcuffed with no way to use their skills. In short, their creative, aggressive strengths are at odds with an HR culture. The bottom line realization is that if you’re really talented, you’ll leave."

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» “I Think I Can, I Think I Can” How Self-Efficacy Relates to Performance - Adventures in Positive Psychology

» “I Think I Can, I Think I Can” How Self-Efficacy Relates to Performance - Adventures in Positive Psychology | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it

“ Do you know the story of The Little Engine that Could? “As it neared the top of the grade, which had so discouraged the larger engines, it went more slowly. However, it still kept saying, I--think--I--can, I--think--I--can.”


Via Jamie Williamson, Brad Merrick
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Brad Merrick's curator insight, March 20, 2014 7:36 AM
The importance of the inner voice in telling ourselves we can do it!
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Robert Fisher Teaching Thinking homepage

This article explores what metacognition is, why it is important and how it develops in children. It argues that teachers need to help children develop metacognitive awareness, and identifies the factors which enhance metacognitive development. Metacognitive thinking is a key element in the transfer of learning. The child's development of metacognitive skills is defined as meta-learning. Meta-teaching strategies can help mediate the metacognitive skills of children, help to stimilate children's metacognitive thinking. The article draws upon reserch currently being undertaken in London schools on raising achievement in thinking and learning through developing the metacognition of children as learners in schools.


Sharrock's insight:

excerpt: "Brown claims that two versions of metacognition are often confused, namely 'the essential distinction between self regulation during learning' and 'knowledge of, or even mental experimentation with, one's own thoughts' (Brown et al 1983). Adey & Shayer (1994) agree with this distinction, which they categorise as going beyond, and going above, the present learning behaviour. Going beyond one's present repertoire of reasoning is linked to 2,3 and 4 in Brown's list above. This can be equated with what Newman et al (1989) call 'construction zone activity', a concept derived from Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development, which refers to mental activity, usually of a collaborative nature, which involves children going beyond their present levels of competence. 

 
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10 Years of Silence: How long it took Mozart, Picasso and Kobe Bryant to be Successful

10 Years of Silence: How long it took Mozart, Picasso and Kobe Bryant to be Successful | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
How long does it take to become elite at your craft? And what do the people who master their goals do differently than the rest of us? That’s what John Hayes, a cognitive psychology professor at Carnegie Mellon University, wanted to know.

Via Ryan Hines
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Ryan Hines's curator insight, January 20, 2014 2:50 PM

I tend not to collect these types of articles but this one jumped out at me with its emphasis on focus and experience.

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The 4-step guide to Critical Thinking Skills

The 4-step guide to Critical Thinking Skills | School Leadership, Leadership, in General, Tools and Resources, Advice and humor | Scoop.it
Here is a guide to critical thinking skills complete with four (count 'em, 4!) steps accompanied by fill-in-the-blank questions designed to pique your interest and illustrate how each step works.

Via Luwalaga, Deborah Arnold
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