Study the structure of population and its characteristics for better planning.
Demographers study the various characteristics of the population like birth rate, death rate, migratory patterns of the population, median age and structure of the population etc. Thus demographers are the people who study the populations of different areas and people. Demographers collect statistical data, analyze the data to identify any trends and based on such trends determine the future structure and characteristics of the population group studied. Such information is valuable to the planners, Government and various other private consultants for planning their projects. For example if the Government wants to start a particular program for employment, it first needs to know how many people would be unemployed and in need of such programs, what is the median age and median income of such population group and how that population group stands in respect to the total population of that particular area.
Thus, these demographic studies are helping in implementing various programs of the Government. In the similar fashion, demography studies are used by the planner to plan ahead for the future. Say for example, transportation planners use the demographic data to determine how many people are going to inhabit a particular area say after ten years, and plan the transport infrastructure accordingly. In the similar manner, housing stock and other facilities that are going to be provided in a particular area are determined by the demographic studies. Thus, population and demographic studies are a precursor for any major program to be launched for one should have clarity about the number of people which are going to be benefitted by that program and the particular target group is identified. Demographers are sometimes called population sociologists. Demographers are also used by the Immigration and Naturalization Service to plan effective immigration policies. The Environmental Protection Agency employs demographers to study the effect of population pressure on various resources and environmental degradation. Corporations and market research organizations also use the services of demographers to study the size of the potential market, the makeup of the potential market such as age groups and the influx of people to a particular area so as to determine the actual size of the market.
Gender studies are a field of interdisciplinary studies which concentrates on women’s studies, feminism, gender and politics. Men’s studies are also included in the field of gender studies. Hence, sometimes gender studies are offered together with the study of sexuality. These discipline study gender and sexuality in the fields of literature and language, history, political science, sociology, anthropology, cinema and media studies, human development, law and medicine. Thus, gender studies cover a vast area of studies and identify different ways and means men and women are portrayed and perceived in the society. This becomes essential to know both the genders equally well so that ways and means can be devised to understand their problems better.