Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood]
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Effect of different seedling hosts on the growth of Indian sandalwood(Santalum album) at the nursery period | Subasinghe | Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium

Santalum album is a hemi-parasite, capable of developing haustoria to obtain nitrogen, phosphorous and other basic amino acids from the host species. Therefore an experiment was conducted for 24 weeks to identify the most effective seedling host/s for the better growth of S. album in the nursery period. The growth was measured in terms of seedling height, root collar diameter and number of leaf whorls of the main stem.

Poly pots were used for this experiment and the host species were planted a week prior to transplanting sandalwood seedlings. Six candidate host species (both legumes and non-legumes) were used for this experiment and sandalwood plants without a host species was used as a control. In addition to that, a fertiliser treatment without a host was also tested. Watering was done once in two days and an insecticide was applied whenever necessary.

Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to identify the growth differences between sandalwood plants grown with selected host species and treatments and it was proven that there were significant differences. The best sandalwood seedling height was attained by the plants grown with Desmodium triflorum up to the 24th week and then the plants grown with Mimosa pudica attained the same height. The best root collar diameter growth and the highest number of leaf whorls were produced by the plants grown with M. pudica and D. triflorum respectively. Control experiment and the fertliser treatment produced poor results. However, the use of M. pudica is practically difficult due to the presence of thorns on the stem. D. triflorum grows as a creeper along the surface and therefore difficult to maintain in pots.
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Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Santalum album in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Pharmaceutical Biology, Informa Healthcare

Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Santalum album in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Pharmaceutical Biology, Informa Healthcare | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Context: Santalum album Linn (Santalaceae), commonly known as Sandalwood is used traditionally for its antihyperlipidemic and diuretic activity.

Objective: This study investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of long-term oral administration of the Santalum album pet ether fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Materials and methods: Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 70 mg/kg body weight. Rats were treated with Santalum album pet ether fraction orally at a dose of 10 µg/kg body weight twice daily for 60 days. Metformin (30 mg/kg body weight) was used as positive control. Lipid profile and glycated hemoglobin were estimated. HPLC profiling of Santalum album pet ether fraction was carried out.

Results and discussion: Treatment of diabetic rats for 60 days demonstrated reduction in blood glucose level by 140 mg/dl. Metformin treated group showed a decrease in blood glucose by 70 mg/dl, as against an increase in diabetic control group by 125 mg/dl. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were decreased by 22, 31 and 44%, respectively, in treated diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL) increased by 46%. In case of metformin, the values were 11, 29 and 15% respectively, while HDL increased by 7%. Significant improvement in atherogenic index from 267 to 139% was observed in treated rats.

Conclusion: Santalum album pet ether fraction has potential antihyperlipidemic activity that can help in overcoming insulin resistance.

Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13880209.2011.604677

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ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Endogenous hormone levels and anatomical characters of haustoria in Santalum album L. seedlings before and after attachment to the host

ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Plant Physiology - Endogenous hormone levels and anatomical characters of haustoria in Santalum album L. seedlings before and after attachment to the host | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

The physiological and anatomical attributes of haustoria tissues in hemi-parasitic Santalumalbum L. seedlings, growing on the potential host, Kuhnia rosmarnifolia Vent., were investigated before and after attachment to the host. Quantization of endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), GA-like substances (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) was performed by HPLC. Histological preparations were used to characterize structural differences between pre- and post-attachment haustoria. The contents of GAs and ABA were higher in attached haustoria, with 3.61 and 3.50 μg g−1 fresh weight, respectively, and three times higher than in non-attached haustoria. Cytokinins, Z, ZR and IAA levels were also high, and their contents in attached haustoria increased 2.04-, 2.17-, and 2.82-fold more, respectively, than in non-attached haustoria. A high auxin-to-cytokinin ratio contributed to haustorial development of S. album. A numerous amount of starch in parenchyma cells around the meristematic region above the haustorial gland and the endophyte tissue of the post-attachment haustoria were reported in a Santalaceae member for the first time. Many lysosomes were present and large-scale digestion of host cells occurred at the interface between the parasite and host. The haustorial penetration in S. album into the host stele was suggested to be a function of mechanical force and enzymatic activity. Analysis of the endogenous hormone levels and the structural characters in S. album haustoria indicated that the haustoria were able to synthesize phytohormones, which appeared to be necessary for cell division and differentiation during haustorial development. These results suggest that endogenous hormones are involved in the haustorial development of S. album and in water and nutrient transport in the host–parasite association.

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Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment - Abstract + References

Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment - Abstract + References | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Young hypocotyl segments obtained from aseptically germinated seeds of Santalum album L. (5 weeks old) were used to induce callus formation. Growth of different calli types was induced on hypocotyls segments under different conditions. Resulting green calli were maintained on MS medium and Gamborg basal medium supplemented with 2,4D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) (0.5 µM) and Kin (Kinetin) (10 µM). Numerous concentrations of 2,4D and Kin were tested in combination with inducers of the sesquiterpene metabolism and one promising callus type was selected for mass production. This interesting type of callus has been used for searching functional genes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to sesquiterpenes molecules.

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Repellent Effect of Santalol from Sandalwood Oil Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae)

Repellent Effect of Santalol from Sandalwood Oil Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Hyun Sik Roh, Kye Chung Park, and Chung Gyoo Park (2012) Repellent Effect of Santalol from Sandalwood Oil Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Journal of Economic Entomology: Vol. 105, No.

 

Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were α-santalol (45.8%), β-santalol (20.6%), β-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-β-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae.

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Chemical composition of volatile oils from t... [Nat Prod Commun. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

The chemical composition of volatile compounds from pericarp oils of Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L., isolated by hydrodistillation and solvent extraction, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The pericarps yielded 2.6 and 5.0% volatile oil by hydrodistillation and n-hexane extraction, and they were colorless and yellow in color, respectively. A total of 66 volatile components were detected. The most prominent compounds were palmitic and oleic acids, representing about 40-70% of the total oil. Many fragrant constituents and biologically active components, such as alpha- and beta-santalol, cedrol, esters, aldehydes, phytosterols, and squalene were present in the pericarp oils. This is the first report of the volatile composition of the pericarps of any Santalum species.
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Phytochemistry - α-Santalol derivatives from Santalum album and their cytotoxic activities

Phytochemistry - α-Santalol derivatives from Santalum album and their cytotoxic activities | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

A bioassay-guided fractionation of the heartwood of Santalumalbum led to the isolation of seven α-santalol derivatives including (9S,10E)-9-hydroxy-α-santalal, (10R,11S)-10,11-dihydroxy-α-santalol, (9E)-11,13-dihydroxy-α-santalol, and (10E)-12-hydroxy-α-santalic acid. Their structures were determined on the basis of results of spectroscopic analysis, including two-dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds and derivatives were evaluated for cytotoxicity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and TIG-3 normal human diploid fibroblasts. Of these (9S,10E)-9-hydroxy-α-santalal, exhibited tumor-selective cytotoxicity. The apoptosis induction properties of sesquiterpenes with cytotoxic potency in HL-60 cells are also described.

 

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