Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood]
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Phytochemical Analyses and Evaluation of Antioxidant Efficacy of in vitro Callus Extract of East Indian Sandalwood Tree (Santalum album L.)

Phytochemical Analyses and Evaluation of Antioxidant Efficacy of in vitro Callus Extract of East Indian Sandalwood Tree (Santalum album L.) | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Abstract: The phytochemical constitution and antioxidant activity of in vitro grown callus cultures of East Indian Sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) were investigated. The extractive yield for a dichloromethane-methanolic (1:1) solvent mixture was 4.3 %. The phytochemical screening revealed the extract’s richness in phenolics (18.2 µg), terpenoids (16.4 µg), saponins (9.4 µg) and flavan-3-ols (7.4 µg) per milligram of extract, as major constituents. This extract showed antioxidant activity in ferric reducing assay power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), metal ion chelation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and in scavenging of hydroxyl radical (OH.), 2, 2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS.), di (phenyl) (2, 4, 6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium (DPPH.) and nitric oxide (NO.) free radical scavenging and reducing power assays that was comparable to sandalwood oil and reference antioxidant such as quercetin, gallic acid and α-tocopherol. We conclude that in vitro propagated callus shows immense potential as a renewable resource of antioxidant constituents.
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Sandalwood tree stolen from Regional Institute of Education - Times of India

Sandalwood tree stolen from Regional Institute of Education - Times of India | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Sandalwood tree stolen from Regional Institute of EducationTimes of IndiaBHUBANESWAR: Timber smugglers have stolen a sandalwood tree from the compound of Regional Institute of Education (RIE) here.
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FRIM signs MoU with Chinese forestry academy - New Straits Times

FRIM signs MoU with Chinese forestry academy - New Straits Times | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
New Straits TimesFRIM signs MoU with Chinese forestry academyNew Straits TimesThe MoU incorporates provisions for effective research, development and extension activities for tropical forestry and plantation establishment for selected valuable...
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Preparative Separation of α- and β-Santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-Santalols using Silver Nitrate-Impregnated Silica Gel Medium Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Analysis of Sandalwood Oil - Analy...

The major sesquiterpene constituents of East-Indian Sandalwood oil, (Z)-α- and (Z)-β- santalols have shown to be responsible for most of the biological activities and organoleptic properties of sandalwood oil. The work reported here describes strategic use of medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) for the separation of both α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols. Silver nitrate impregnated silica gel was used as stationary phase in MPLC for quantitative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols with mobile phase hexane and dichloromethane, respectively. The purities of α-santalene and (Z)-α-santalol obtained were >96% however, β-santalene and (Z)-β-santalol were obtained with their respective inseparable epi-isomers. Limits of quantification (LoQ) relative to FID detector were measured for important sesquiterpene alcohols of heartwood oil of S. album using serial dilutions of the standard stock solutions and demonstrated that the quality of the commercial sandalwood oil can be assessed for the content of individual sesquiterpene alcohols regulated by Australian Standard (AS2112-2003), International Organization for Standardization ISO 3518:2002 (E) and European Union (E. U.).
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Three new cyclic diarylheptanoids from Santalum album

Three new cyclic diarylheptanoids from Santalum album | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Santalum album L. is a tropical evergreen tree which is one of the most widespread members of the Santalaceae family in India, Malaysia, South China, and Australia. It is commonly known as sandalwood. The essential oil of sandalwood has been used as an aromatherapy as an antidepressant, sedative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, insecticide, and lung antiseptic. Previous phytochemical studies on this plant have been reported that it contained sesquiterpenoids, phenylpropanoids, diarylheptanoids, and lignans. As part of our continuing search for the discovery of new bioactive constituents from medicinal plant, we investigated an ethylacetate-soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of S. album. Three new cyclic diarylheptanoids along with six known compounds were isolated and identified. Their structures were determined on the basis of results of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data. Here, we report the isolation and structure elucidation of these three new cyclic diarylheptanoids.

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Kerala plans to insert chips in sandalwood trees - TwoCircles.net

Kerala plans to insert chips in sandalwood trees - TwoCircles.net | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
FirstpostKerala plans to insert chips in sandalwood treesTwoCircles.net"Currently, we have to deploy 68 forest guards every night to see that these precious and invaluable sandalwood trees are protected.
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Ayurvedic Benefits Of Sandalwood - blog*spot

Ayurvedic Benefits Of Sandalwood - blog*spot | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Ayurvedic Benefits Of Sandalwood (Santalum album). Sanskrit Name: Candanam Other Name: None Sacred associations: associated with Lord Dharukavaneswarar; used for rituals and ceremonies and in temples.
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Forest Inventory in Sandalwood Plantations May 2012 | Outline Global

Forest Inventory in Sandalwood Plantations May 2012 | Outline Global | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Australia is the largest producer of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album), a threatened species native to South India and is grown in and around Kununurra in the north of Western Australia. Sandalwood prices have risen to over $1000 per ...
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Sandalwood seeds for oleochemical industry: Sustainability in Sandalwood agroforestry | Hettiarachchi | Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium

Western Australian Sandalwood (S. spicatum R.Br.) is a hemi-parasitic arid tree which depends upon a host tree throughout its life. Large scale plantations have been established to cater for the future global demand as a valuable timber crop. Sandalwood takes several years to yield quality timber. Seeds are considered as a secondary income from plantations situated in the semi-arid areas of Western Australia. Seeds are large and contain a hard shell. Kernel is rich in oil which consists of a rare fatty acid, namely Ximenynic acid. Use of this seed oil in oleochemical industry has been envisaged. Current studies will report on the effect of geographical source, seed size, storage time and host trees on sandalwood seed oil.
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Research into sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) regeneration establishment in the semi-arid and arid regions of Western Australia | Sawyer | Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Sympo...

At present, sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) harvesting occurs mainly from wild stands in the semi-arid and arid regions (typical annual rainfall 150-300 mm) of Western Australia. Wild sandalwood regeneration in these regions has been low since landuse change associated with European settlement. This is due to factors including drought, poor seed dispersal and grazing.

The objective of the study was to improve germination and establishment of sandalwood through understanding the relationship with rainfall and investigating soil and seed preparation techniques to utilize trace moisture levels. Two 25 Hectare plots either side of the semi-arid - arid divide were located. Into the plots 16 repetitions of the control and 96 repetitions of treatments were installed with a total of 5,600 seeds per year. Rainfall and other weather parameters were recorded at each site with an automated solar powered weather station. The study was replicated in 2008 and 2009.

The study concluded that there was a statistically significant relationship between germination and rainfall with the threshold proposed to be 264 mm per year. It also concluded that there was a statistically significant relationship between germination and soil preparation with the measures of ripping crust forming soils prior to sowing and the construction of water harvest banks (limans) having a positive effect. Information gained from these studies has led to the Western Australian State Government implementing a specialized seeding programme to increase sandalwood regeneration in the semi-arid region.
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Molecules | Free Full-Text | Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Abstract: (Z)-α-Santalol, which has a unique woody odor, is a main constituent of sandalwood essential oil. We investigated the structure-odor relationship of (Z)-α-santalol and its derivatives, focusing on the relationship between the structure of the side chain and the odor of the compounds. Various α-santalol derivatives (aldehydes, formates, and acetates) were synthesized from (Z)- and (E)-α-santalol, which were prepared from (+)-3-bromocamphor through modifications of a reported synthetic route. The Z- and E-isomers of α-santalols have different double-bond configurations in the side chain. Analogues with saturated side chains were also prepared from the corresponding α-santalols, and the odors of the all the prepared compounds were evaluated. We found that the odors of the Z-isomers (woody) were similar to those of the corresponding saturated compounds, but clearly different from the odors of the corresponding E-isomers (odorless, fresh, or fatty). These results indicate that the relative configuration of the side chain with respect to the santalane frame plays an important role in the odor of α-santalol. E-configuration in the side chain eliminates the woody odor character of α-santalol and its examined derivatives, whereas the Z-configuration or saturation of the carbon side chain does not.
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Theoretical calculations on carbocations involved in the biosynthesis of bergamotenes and related terpenes—the same and not the same - Chemical Communications (RSC Publishing)

Subtle differences between carbocation rearrangements leading to the pinene/camphene, ylangene/sativene and bergamotene/santalene terpenes are revealed.
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Microcloning of sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) from cultured leaf discs

Leaf discs of sandalwood were cultured on different fortifications of MS medium to judge their
in vitro response. In vitro morphogenesis, (somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis)
leading to plantlet regeneration was influenced considerably by plant growth regulators.
Among various medium experimented MSD.5Td (MS + 1.0mg.l-1 2,4-D + 0.5mg.l-1 TDZ)
supported maximum direct somatic embryogenesis (11.44%), indirect somatic embryogenesis
(54.23%) and mean numbers of somatic embryo(s) per explant (160.08), whereas culture
medium MS2D.5Td (MS + 2.0mg.l-1 2,4-D + 0.5mg.l-1 TDZ) promoted indirect organogenesis
(20.38%). Inoculation medium MS2Td.5N (MS + 2.0mg.l-1 TDZ + 0.5 mg.l-1 NAA) proved
superior for direct organogenesis (9.48%) and regeneration of plantlets via direct organogenesis
(36.69%). MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg.l-1 TDZ and 1.0 mg.l-1 GA3 proved superior for
plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis (163.63%) while regeneration medium
MSTd.5GA.5N (MS +1.0 mg.l-1 TDZ+ 0.5 mg.l-1 GA3 +0.5 mg. l-1 NAA) regenerated plantlets
via indirect organogenesis (141.25%). The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized and
established successfully in the field.

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Comparative Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Efficacy Of In Vitro And In Vivo Extracts From East Indian Sandalwood Tree - Mi - Letters in Applied Microbiology - Wiley Online Library

Comparative Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Efficacy Of In Vitro And In Vivo Extracts From East Indian Sandalwood Tree - Mi - Letters in Applied Microbiology - Wiley Online Library | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Abstract

Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, i.e., callus, somatic embryo, seedlings and in vivo from leaves of non-oil yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees. Phytochemical evaluation of the extracts reveals that the tree is rich in terpenoids, saponin, phenolics and tannins. The antibacterial properties of the five extracts were compared with sandalwood oil by screening against nine Gram negative and five Gram positive bacterial strains by disc diffusion, agar spot and TLC-bioautography methods. MIC for sandalwood oil was determined to be in the range of 0.078- 5 μg ml−1 for most test microorganisms screened. Bioautography results indicated the presence of potential antimicrobial constituents in somatic embryo extracts and sandalwood oil. Among the extracts screened, the somatic embryo extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity comparable only to sandalwood oil and matured tree leaves extract. The findings presented here also suggest that apart from sandalwood oil, other parts of this tree across developmental stages are also enriched with antibacterial principles.

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Law in works for sandalwood trade - Hindustan Times

Law in works for sandalwood tradeHindustan TimesThe Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) is formulating a special legislation for regulating the trade and cultivation of sandalwood in the country.
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EP2012052111 INTERMEDIATES FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL

EP2012052111 INTERMEDIATES FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it


Pub. No.: WO/2012/110375 International Application No.: PCT/EP2012/052111
Publication Date: 23.08.2012 International Filing Date: 08.02.2012

IPC: C07C 29/58 (2006.01), C07C 33/14 (2006.01), C07C 33/44 (2006.01), C07C 45/51 (2006.01), C07C 45/62 (2006.01), C07C 47/225 (2006.01)

Applicants: FIRMENICH SA [CH/CH]; 1, route des Jeunes P. O. Box 239 CH-1211 Geneva 8 (CH) (For All Designated States Except US).
CHAPUIS, Christian [CH/CH]; (CH) (For US Only)
Inventors: CHAPUIS, Christian; (CH)
Agent: CARINA, Riccardo; Firmenich SA 1, route des Jeunes P. O. Box 239 CH-1211 Geneva 8 (CH)
Priority Data: 11154605.7 16.02.2011 EP

Title (EN) INTERMEDIATES FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL
(FR) INTERMÉDIAIRES DANS LA PRÉPARATION DU BÉTA-SANTALOL
Abstract: (EN)The present invention concerns a process tor the preparation of a compound of formula (I) in the form of any one of its stereoisomers or mixtures thereof, and wherein the dotted line may represents an additional bond and Ra represents a hydrogen atom or a Si(Rb)3 or (Rb)2COH group, each Rb representing C1-6 alkyl group or a phenyl group. The invention concerns also the compound (I) as well as its use for the synthesis of β-santalol or of derivatives thereof.
(FR)La présente invention concerne un procédé de préparation d'un composé de formule (I) pouvant prendre la forme de l'un quelconque de ses stéréoisomères ou des mélanges de ceux-ci, et dans laquelle la ligne en pointillés peut représenter une liaison supplémentaire et Ra représente un atome d'hydrogène ou un groupe Si(Rb)3 ou (Rb)2COH, chaque Rb représentant un groupe alkyle en C1 à C6 ou un groupe phényle. L'invention concerne également le composé (I) ainsi que son utilisation dans la synthèse du β-santalol ou de dérivés de celui-ci.

Designated States: AE, AG, AL, AM, AO, AT, AU, AZ, BA, BB, BG, BH, BR, BW, BY, BZ, CA, CH, CL, CN, CO, CR, CU, CZ, DE, DK, DM, DO, DZ, EC, EE, EG, ES, FI, GB, GD, GE, GH, GM, GT, HN, HR, HU, ID, IL, IN, IS, JP, KE, KG, KM, KN, KP, KR, KZ, LA, LC, LK, LR, LS, LT, LU, LY, MA, MD, ME, MG, MK, MN, MW, MX, MY, MZ, NA, NG, NI, NO, NZ, OM, PE, PG, PH, PL, PT, QA, RO, RS, RU, RW, SC, SD, SE, SG, SK, SL, SM, ST, SV, SY, TH, TJ, TM, TN, TR, TT, TZ, UA, UG, US, UZ, VC, VN, ZA, ZM, ZW.
African Regional Intellectual Property Org. (ARIPO) (BW, GH, GM, KE, LR, LS, MW, MZ, NA, RW, SD, SL, SZ, TZ, UG, ZM, ZW)
Eurasian Patent Organization (EAPO) (AM, AZ, BY, KG, KZ, MD, RU, TJ, TM)
European Patent Office (EPO) (AL, AT, BE, BG, CH, CY, CZ, DE, DK, EE, ES, FI, FR, GB, GR, HR, HU, IE, IS, IT, LT, LU, LV, MC, MK, MT, NL, NO, PL, PT, RO, RS, SE, SI, SK, SM, TR)
African Intellectual Property Organization (OAPI) (BF, BJ, CF, CG, CI, CM, GA, GN, GQ, GW, ML, MR, NE, SN, TD, TG).

Publication Language: English (EN)
Filing Language: English (EN)

 

 

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SELECTION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF SANTALUM ALBUM L. CALLI FOR INDUCTION OF SESQUITERPENES

SELECTION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF SANTALUM ALBUM L. CALLI FOR INDUCTION OF SESQUITERPENES | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Young hypocotyl segments obtained from aseptically germinated seeds of Santalum album L. (5 weeks old) were used to induce callus formation. Growth of different calli types was induced on hypocotyls segments under different conditions. Resulting green calli were maintained on MS medium and Gamborg basal medium supplemented with 2,4D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) (0.5 µM) and Kin (Kinetin) (10 µM). Numerous concentrations of 2,4D and Kin were tested in combination with inducers of the sesquiterpene metabolism and one promising callus type was selected for mass production. This interesting type of callus has been used for searching functional genes in the biosynthetic pathway leading to sesquiterpenes molecules.

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Toowoomba Plants: Scrub Sandalwood

Toowoomba Plants: Scrub Sandalwood | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Scrub Sandalwood. Santalum obtusifolium. This little-appreciated bush tucker plant grows in the Ravensbourne area, on red soil. Its summer fruits are delicious. Just 1cm diameter, they are dark red, and juicy, with a single ...
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Hooked on Pheromones: Sandalwood (Santalum album)

Sandalwood (Santalum album). Sandalwood has a very long history - over 4000 years of use - and is mentioned in Sanskrit and Chinese manuscripts. The oil was used in religious ritual, and many deities and temples were ...
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Kerala plans to insert chips in sandalwood trees - Mathrubhumi

Sandalwood or Santalum album is a parasitic tree having a fragrant and close-grained yellowish heartwood. Sandalwood oil, also known as 'liquid gold', is extracted from the roots and wood of sandalwood.
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Food Chemistry - Qualitative and quantitative analysis in sandalwood oils using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques

Food Chemistry - Qualitative and quantitative analysis in sandalwood oils using near infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Sandalwood oil is an essential oil which finds very wide application in the flavor and fragrance, pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study is to use the potential of near infrared spectroscopy as a rapid analytical technique for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of purity in sandalwood oils. The quality and efficacy of sandalwood oils, even though come from the same species, are somewhat different according to growing conditions (origin) and poor extraction methods. Classification of sandal oils based on their NIR spectra is performed by principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and self organising map (Kohonen neural network). All these techniques clearly differentiate the oils according to the area from which the sandalwood has been cut. Support vector machine regression (SVM R) is used to predict the purity of the oils.

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α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells by causing caspase-3 activation

The anticancer effects of α-santalol, a major component of sandalwood oil, have been reported against the development of certain cancers such as skin cancer both in vitro and in vivo. The primary objectives of the current study were to investigate the cancer preventive properties of α-santalol on human prostate cancer cells PC-3 (androgen independent and P-53 null) and LNCaP (androgen dependent and P-53 wild-type), and determine the possible mechanisms of its action. The effect of α-santalol on cell viability was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. Apoptosis induction was confirmed by analysis of cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation using both an apoptotic ELISA kit and a DAPI fluorescence assay. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 (active) ELISA kit. PARP cleavage was analyzed using immunoblotting. α-Santalol at 25–75 μM decreased cell viability in both cell lines in a concentration and time dependent manner. Treatment of prostate cancer cells with α-santalol resulted in induction of apoptosis as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining of apoptotic cells by DAPI. α-Santalol treatment also resulted in activation of caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. The α-santalol-induced apoptotic cell death and activation of caspase-3 was significantly attenuated in the presence of pharmacological inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, the present study reveals the apoptotic effects of α-santalol in inhibiting the growth of human prostate cancer cells.

 

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CHANGE OF SEED GERMINATION RATE WITH STORAGE TIME OF Santalum album l. (INDIAN SANDALWOOD) SEEDS | Gamage | Proceedings of International Forestry and Environment Symposium

Not like other trees species, Indian sandalwood (S. album) nurseries needs more space due to the requirement of spaces for seedling hosts and field hosts in addition to the space required for the sandalwood seedlings. Therefore the number of seedlings that can be raised in a sandalwood nursery is comparatively low. Moreover, sandalwood seeds can be obtained only twice per year and due to those reasons, storage of seeds becomes a necessity. The dried sandalwood seeds are mostly stored in cotton bags. The aim of the current study was to identify the change of germination rate with the storage period under the above mentioned storage method.
For this purpose, seeds collected soon after falling to the ground were stored in cotton bags after preliminary cleaning. Then the seeds were germinated on weekly basis after a pre-treatment with 0.05% gibberelic acid (GA3). Water was used instead of GA3 for the control experiment. As the storage time increased it was observed that the number of seeds germinated decreased. The maximum germination percentage of >80% was observed when the storage period was 3 weeks. Germination of 50% was achieved at the 7thweek of storage and the germination rate was zero percent after 28 weeks of storage under the GA3 treatment. The control experiment indicated comparatively a lower germination rate than the treatment with the GA3.
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Determination of the absolute stereochemistr... [Nat Prod Commun. 2012] - PubMed - NCBI

Determining the absolute stereochemistry of organic compounds in solution remains a challenge. We investigated the use of Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy to address this problem. The absolute configurations of (+)-(R)- and (-)-(S)-limonene were determined by ROA spectroscopy, which can be applied to smaller amounts of sample as compared with vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. This ROA method was also applied to (+)-(E)-alpha-santalol and shown to be successful in the determination of the absolute configuration of this compound. ROA spectroscopy shows promise as a useful tool for determining the absolute stereochemistry of many natural compounds.
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Metabolic Engineering - Dynamic control of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for the production of plant sesquitepene α-santalene in a fed-batch mode

Metabolic Engineering - Dynamic control of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for the production of plant sesquitepene α-santalene in a fed-batch mode | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Microbial cells engineered for efficient production of plant sesquiterpenes may allow for sustainable and scalable production of these compounds that can be used as e.g. perfumes and pharmaceuticals. Here, for the first time a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain capable of producing high levels of α-santalene, the precursor of a commercially interesting compound, was constructed through a rationally designed metabolic engineering approach. Optimal sesquiterpene production was obtained by modulating the expression of one of the key metabolic steps of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, squalene synthase (Erg9). To couple ERG9 expression to glucose concentration its promoter was replaced by the HXT1 promoter. In a second approach, the HXT2 promoter was used to express an ERG9 antisense construct. Using the HXT1 promoter to control ERG9 expression, it was possible to divert the carbon flux from sterol synthesis towards α-santalene improving the productivity by 3.4 fold. Combining this approach together with the overexpression of a truncated form of 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and deletion of lipid phosphate phosphatase encoded by LPP1 led to a strain with a productivity of 0.18 mg/gDCW h. The titer was further increased by deleting DPP1 encoding a second FPP consuming pyrophosphate phosphatase yielding a final productivity and titer, respectively, of 0.21 mg/gDCW h and 92 mg/l of α-santalene.

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