Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood]
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Evaluation of in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of α-santalol and sandalwood oil

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Abstract

Sandalwood finds numerous mentions across diverse traditional medicinal systems in use worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of sandalwood oil and its major constituent α-santalol. The in vivo anti-hyperglycemic experiment was conducted in alloxan-induced diabetic male Swiss albino mice models. The in vivo antioxidant experiment was performed in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced male Swiss albino mice models. Intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100 mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1 g/kg BW) for an week modulated parameters such as body weight, blood glucose, serum bilirubin, liver glycogen, and lipid peroxides contents to normoglycemic levels in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of α-santalol (100 mg/kg BW) and sandalwood oil (1 g/kg BW) for two weeks modulated parameters such as serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, superoxide dismutase, catalase, free sulfhydryl, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, liver lipid peroxide contents, and antioxidant capacity in d-galactose mediated oxidative stress induced mice. Besides, it was observed that the beneficial effects of α-santalol were well complimented, differentially by other constituents present in sandalwood oil, thus indicating synergism in biological activity of this traditionally used bioresource.

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WO2013001027A1 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL

WO2013001027A1 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
WIPO patent: The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (I) in the form of any one of its stereoisomers or mixtures thereof, wherein R represents a C2-C10 group of formula CORa wherein Ra is an alkyl or...
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Sandalwood worth Rs 6 crore seized in Rajkot district - Moneycontrol.com

Sandalwood worth Rs 6 crore seized in Rajkot district - Moneycontrol.com | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Sandalwood worth Rs 6 crore seized in Rajkot district
Moneycontrol.com
Rajkot, Dec 19 (PTI) A huge stock of sandalwood was today seized in a joint operation by Customs and local police at Tankara town in the district.
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Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains. Molecules, 2012, 17, 2259-2270

Structure-Odor Relationships of α­Santalol Derivatives with Modified Side Chains. Molecules, 2012, 17, 2259-2270 | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Abstract: The authors are sorry to report that some of the 13C-NMR data reported in their recently published paper [1] were incorrect. While this manuscript was in preparation and pending recording of some 13C-NMR spectra the data of α-santalol was used as a placeholder. Upon revising the manuscript according to the reviewers’ comments, they mistakenly thought that all spectral data had been replaced by the correct measured data. Consequently the authors wish to make at this time the following corrections to the paper.
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Effect of agro-climatic and edaphic factors on Santalum album L. population in Burdwan and Bankura forest divisions of West Bengal | Batabyal | World Journal of Science and Technology

The wood of Santalum album L. is precious which is used in various occasions almost of all religions, communities and races round the globe. The population is very much restricted in the tropical country like India due to specific environmental factors. An observation was noted for the growth and development of the sandal wood population grows in Burdwan and Bankura (South) forest divisions during 2011. The edaphic conditions of those areas were studied strictly. The aims and objects of this study were to achieve the agronomic no-how of the sandal wood population prevailing specific environments.

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Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of in vitro and in vivo extracts from East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) - Misra - 2012 - Letters in Applied Microbiology ...

Comparative phytochemical analysis and antibacterial efficacy of in vitro and in vivo extracts from East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) - Misra - 2012 - Letters in Applied Microbiology ... | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Keywords:

antibacterial;extracts;in vitro ;phytochemical;sandalwood oil;santalol;Santalum album ;TLC bioautography

Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample-derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, that is, callus, somatic embryo and seedlings, and in vivo from leaves of non-oil-yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees. Phytochemical evaluation of the extracts reveals that the tree is rich in terpenoids, saponin, phenolics and tannins. The antibacterial properties of the five extracts were compared with sandalwood oil by screening against nine Gram-negative and five Gram-positive bacterial strains by disc diffusion, agar spot and TLC bioautography methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for sandalwood oil was determined to be in the range of 0·078–5 μg ml−1 for most of the test micro-organisms screened. Bioautography results indicated the presence of potential antimicrobial constituents in somatic embryo extracts and sandalwood oil. Among the extracts screened, the somatic embryo extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity comparable only with sandalwood oil and matured tree leaves' extract. The findings presented here also suggest that apart from sandalwood oil, other parts of this tree across developmental stages are also enriched with antibacterial principles.

Significance and Impact of the Study

This study constitutes the first systematic investigation on phytochemical composition and antimicrobial efficacy of sandalwood tree across in vitro and in vivo developmental stages screened against thirteen bacterial strains by four methods. Using a battery of antimicrobial assay techniques, it is possible to follow the differential bioactive metabolic richness of plant parts, to decipher, for example comparable efficacy of somatic embryo extracts and sandalwood oil.

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Microcloning of sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) from cultured leaf discs

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Species diversity of Coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in selected provenances of Sandal (Santalum album Linn.) and their role in pest control

ABSTRACT: Entomophagous coccinellids are perhaps the most familiar of all the predaceous beetle
groups. This charismatic group includes many beneficial species that are voracious predators of
pestiferous aphids, whiteflies, psyllids, scale insects etc. The role of coccinellids in biological control of
sandal insect pests is less studied. In the present study, surveys were conducted to identify the species
spectrum of coccinellids in six sandal provenances of south India. It revealed the presence of 25 species of
coccinellids in the sandal provenances. In the light of these findings, the importance of exploiting these
coccinellids for developing ecologically and environmentally sound insect pest management strategies in
sandal plantations is discussed.

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Green synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Santlum album and its antimicrobial activity

Silver nanoparticles are most efficient antimicrobial agents used in the modern medical
implications and medicines. In recent years nanoparticles are synthesized through different
modes- chemical, physical and biological. Biological modes of nanoparticles synthesis are
the most effective and non-toxic. In this paper we have elaborated our research work on
the green synthesis of nanoparticles from the leaf extract of Santalum album a very
effective plant used in Ayurveda to treat diabetes. The synthesized nanoparticles were
characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron
microscopy. Antimicrobial activity of biosynthesized Silver nanoparticles was evaluated
by means of inhibition zone analysis through well diffusion method.

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Revisiting sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathways leading to santalene and its analogues: a comprehensive mechanistic study - Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (RSC Publishing)

Santalene and bergamotene are the major olefinic sesquiterpenes responsible for the fragrance of sandalwood oil. Herein we report the details of density functional theory investigations on the biosynthetic pathway of this important class of terpenes. The mechanistic study has been found to be effective toward gaining significant new insight into different possibilities for the formation of the key intermediates involved in santalene and bergamotene biosynthesis. The stereoelectronic features of the transition states and intermediates for (i) ring closure of the initial bisabolyl cation, and (ii) skeletal rearrangements in the ensuing bicyclic carbocationic intermediates leading to (−)-epi-β-santalene, (−)-β-santalene, (−)-α-santalene, (+)-epi-β-santalene, exo-β-bergamotene, endo-β-bergamotene, exo-α-bergamotene, and endo-α-bergamotene are presented. Interesting structural features pertaining to certain new carbocationic intermediates (such as b) resulting from the ring closure of bisabolyl cation are discussed. Extensive conformational sampling of all key intermediates along the biosynthetic pathway offered new insight into the role of the isoprenyl side chain conformation in the formation of santalene and its analogues. Although the major bicyclic products in Santalum album appear to arise from the right or left handed helical form of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), different alternatives for their formation are found to be energetically feasible. The interconversion of the exo and endo isomers of bisabolyl cation and a likely epimerization, both with interesting mechanistic implications, are presented. The exo to endo conversion is identified to be energetically more favorable than another pathway emanating from the left handed helical FPP. The role of pyrophosphate (OPP−) in the penultimate deprotonation step leading to olefinic sesquiterpenes is also examined.

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A tangled web—interconnecting pathways to amorphadiene and the amorphene sesquiterpenes - Chemical Science (RSC Publishing)

Quantum chemical studies on the formation of amorphadiene and the amorphene sesquiterpenes are described. These natural products are commonly thought to arise from distinct pathways involving initial 1,6- and 1,10-cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate, respectively. We have found, using density functional calculations, that the pathway usually invoked for amorphadiene formation is not only energetically feasible, but is also the energetically favored pathway to the amorphenes as a result of a low energy (two-step) 1,5-hydride transfer involving an unusual carbocation containing a 3-center 2-electron [CHC]+ bonding array.

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Preparative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols using silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel medium pressure liquid chromatography and analysis of sandalwood oil - Analy...

The major sesquiterpene constituents of East-Indian sandalwood oil (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols have shown to be responsible for most of the biological activities and organoleptic properties of sandalwood oil. The work reported here describes the strategic use of medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) for the separation of both α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols. Silver nitrate impregnated silica gel was used as the stationary phase in MPLC for quantitative separation of α- and β-santalenes and (Z)-α- and (Z)-β-santalols with mobile phases hexane and dichloromethane, respectively. The purities of α-santalene and (Z)-α-santalol obtained were >96%; however, β-santalene and (Z)-β-santalol were obtained with their respective inseparable epi-isomers. Limits of quantification (LoQ) relative to the FID detector were measured for important sesquiterpene alcohols of heartwood oil of S. album using serial dilutions of the standard stock solutions and demonstrated that the quality of the commercial sandalwood oil can be assessed for the content of individual sesquiterpene alcohols regulated by Australian Standard (AS2112-2003), International Organization for Standardization ISO 3518:2002 (E) and European Union (E. U.).

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Differential Extraction and GC-MS based Quantification of Sesquiterpenoids from Immature Heartwood of East Indian Sandalwood Tree | B. Misra | Journal of Natural Sciences Research

Abstract

The East Indian sandalwood tree yields the costliest heartwood and essential oil that are used in traditional medicine, aromatherapy and in cosmetic and fragrance industries. Steam distillation is the traditional method employed for extraction of the sesquiterpenoid rich essential oil from chips of matured heartwood. However, there is no information available on the comparative extractability of sesquiterpenoids when different solvents are employed. Thus we used four different solvents to extract, detect and quantify fourteen major sesquiterpenoids from immature heartwood, by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC- MS) method employing an ion trap quadruple (ITQ) mass analyzer. Results suggest that, with increasing solvent polarity the diversity of sesquiterpenoids decreased, but the quantities of santalols increased. Moreover, n-hexane remained the best extraction solvent for santalols, i.e., yielding up to 92.6 % of total sesquiterpenoids quantified. Furthermore, Z-?-trans-bergamotol, Z-epi-?-santalol and Z-?-santalols were found to be the most abundant constituents of immature heartwood.

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Shikimic Acid (Tamiflu Precursor) Production in Suspension Cultures of East Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) in Air-lift Bioreactor

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Shikimic acid is the key precursor for industrial synthesis of the potent neuraminidase inhibitor, oseltamivir (Tamiflu) that has tremendous importance in the treatment of flu. Plant and microbial sources are the only sources of shikimic acid. We report, suspension cultures of Indian Sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) grown in air-lift bioreactor and shake-flask cultures as alternative and renewable resource of shikimic acid. Hot aqueous and ethanolic preparations of biomass and spent media yielding shikimic acid and quinic acid were further characterized by TLC and LC-ESI-MS/ MS analyses. Suspension cultures in Erlenmeyer shake flask and air-lift bioreactor of 50 mL and 2 L volumes, yielded 0.07 and 0.08 % (w/w) shikimic acid, respectively, in 2-3 weeks. Significantly, we propose that alternative plant cell cultures, sans rigorous genetic manipulation can be exploited commercially for shikimic acid production.

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WO2013001026A1 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL

WO2013001026A1 PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF BETA-SANTALOL | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
WIPO patent: The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of a compound of formula (I) in the form of any one of its stereoisomers or mixtures thereof, and wherein R represents a C2-C10 group of formula CORa wherein Ra is an alkyl...
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Establishing a platform cell factory through engineering of yeast acetyl-CoA metabolism

Establishing a platform cell factory through engineering of yeast acetyl-CoA metabolism | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Abstract

Production of fuels and chemicals by industrial biotechnology requires efficient, safe and flexible cell factory platforms that can be used for production of a wide range of compounds. Here we developed a platform yeast cell factory for efficient provision of acetyl-CoA that serves as precursor metabolite for a wide range of industrially interesting products. We demonstrate that the platform cell factory can be used to improve the production of α-santalene, a plant sesquiterpene that can be used as a perfume by four-fold. This strain would be a useful tool to produce a wide range of acetyl-CoA-derived products.

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Comparative Phytochemical Analysis and Antibacterial Efficacy Of In Vitro And In Vivo Extracts... - Abstract - Europe PubMed Central

Sandalwood oil has been found in numerous therapeutic applications in traditional medicines such as Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurveda. However, there are no comparative accounts available in the literature that focused on in vitro and in vivo tree sample derived extracts. Combined dichloromethane and methanol extracts were obtained from in vitro samples, i.e., callus, somatic embryo, seedlings and in vivo from leaves of non-oil yielding young and oil-yielding matured trees. Phytochemical evaluation of the extracts reveals that the tree is rich in terpenoids, saponin, phenolics and tannins. The antibacterial properties of the five extracts were compared with sandalwood oil by screening against nine Gram negative and five Gram positive bacterial strains by disc diffusion, agar spot and TLC-bioautography methods. MIC for sandalwood oil was determined to be in the range of 0.078- 5 μg ml(-1) for most test microorganisms screened. Bioautography results indicated the presence of potential antimicrobial constituents in somatic embryo extracts and sandalwood oil. Among the extracts screened, the somatic embryo extracts showed the strongest antibacterial activity comparable only to sandalwood oil and matured tree leaves extract. The findings presented here also suggest that apart from sandalwood oil, other parts of this tree across developmental stages are also enriched with antibacterial principles. © 2012 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

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Revisiting sesquiterpene biosynthetic pathways leading to santalene and its analogues: a comprehensive mechanistic study - Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (RSC Publishing)

Santalene and bergamotene are the major olefinic sesquiterpenes responsible for the fragrance of sandalwood oil. Herein we report the details of density functional theory investigations on the biosynthetic pathway of this important class of terpenes. The mechanistic study has been found to be effective toward gaining significant new insight into different possibilities for the formation of the key intermediates involved in santalene and bergamotene biosynthesis. The stereoelectronic features of the transition states and intermediates for (i) ring closure of the initial bisabolyl cation, and (ii) skeletal rearrangements in the ensuing bicyclic carbocationic intermediates leading to (−)-epi-β-santalene, (−)-β-santalene, (−)-α-santalene, (+)-epi-β-santalene, exo-β-bergamotene, endo-β-bergamotene, exo-α-bergamotene, and endo-α-bergamotene are presented. Interesting structural features pertaining to certain new carbocationic intermediates (such as b) resulting from the ring closure of bisabolyl cation are discussed. Extensive conformational sampling of all key intermediates along the biosynthetic pathway offered new insight into the role of the isoprenyl side chain conformation in the formation of santalene and its analogues. Although the major bicyclic products in Santalum album appear to arise from the right or left handed helical form of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), different alternatives for their formation are found to be energetically feasible. The interconversion of the exo and endo isomers of bisabolyl cation and a likely epimerization, both with interesting mechanistic implications, are presented. The exo to endo conversion is identified to be energetically more favorable than another pathway emanating from the left handed helical FPP. The role of pyrophosphate (OPP−) in the penultimate deprotonation step leading to olefinic sesquiterpenes is also examined.

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Cyanidin-3-glucoside, nutritionally important constituents and in vitro antioxidant activities of Santalum album L. Berries

Cyanidin-3-glucoside, nutritionally important constituents and in vitro antioxidant activities of Santalum album L. Berries | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

Anthocyanins are ubiquitous plant pigments. They are hydrophilic, and have high tinctorial value hence, used as natural food colorant. The main aim of this study was characterization of Santalumalbum L. berries for its pigment content, nutritionally important phytoconstituents and functional attributes. Major pigment identified was cyanidin-3-glucoside (0.21% FW) as confirmed by spectral characteristics including LC-MS. Nutrients such as total carbohydrates (10.0 g), proteins (0.9 g), free amino acids (0.8 g), oil (1.5 g), ascorbic acid (1.5 μg), tocopherols (0.3 mg) and niacin (5.2 mg) per 100 g berries were determined along with total soluble solids (13.4°Brix) and phenols (3.1 mg GAE/g). Reducing power and DPPH· scavenging assays showed highest activity in methanol extract, which also efficiently protected bleaching of β–carotene (EC50 285 μg/mL) in β–carotene-linoleate model. Pigment rich crude extract was not toxic to HepG2 cells during 24 h exposure, whereas cyanidin-3-glucoside was cytotoxic (IC50 0.1 μg/mL).

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Growth of Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) as primary plant in agroforestry system in Sanirin Village, Balibo Subdistrict, Bobonaro District, Timor Leste | Wijayanto | Jurnal Silvikultur Tropika

Abstract

One of Forest and Land Participatory Rehabilitation Program (RHLP) is the implementation of agroforestry system. Agroforestry chosen as the solution of optimal land utilization so it would provide additional output value of either physical or financial results.This research aims to study more the growth of Sandalwood (S. album) as primary tree in some agroforestry. Field activities done at Sanirin Village, Balibo Sub District, and Bobonaro District. The observed dimensions of main crop were height, diameter, length and width of the tree canopy. Biophysical environmental conditions of soil properties and tree canopy closure were also observed. Data was taken from several agroforestry patterns. The data then analysed descriptively to the growth parameters of main crops associated with the pattern of developed agroforestry and its management techniques.

There are there types of agroforestry pattern, named AF1, AF2 and AF3. Each of AFs has combination of crops such
as AF1 combination of S. album,Tectona grandis L., Sweteniasp., Aquilarium sp., Cajanus cajan, Zea mays, Cucurbita pepo, AF2 combination S. album,Sesbania sp., Cajanus cajan, Zea mays, Cucurbita pepo and AF3 is combination of S. album, Tectona grandis L., Swetenia sp., Zea mays, Manihot utilisima. The AF3 has worst performance in height and diameter growth, while AF2 is having best performance in height and diameter growth. In the crown covered, the AF2 type is gained highest percentage compared to the others. The results showed that the growth of primary tree in agroforestry pattern to produce cassava is the lowest thanto the others .The availability of P and K elements suspected to be the cause of low growth of primary crop. Land management activities are only focused on the productivity of agricultural crops caused the crops and the main crop is uneven.

 

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Mixed Plantation of Santalum album and Dalbergia odorifera in China

Santalum album L.(East Indian Sandalwood or Sandal), an evergreen hemi-parasite tree species
belonging to the Santalaceae family, is very famous for its fragrant heartwood which contains sandal
oil that have many uses in perfumes, cosmetics, medicines, etc. (Srinivasan et al. 1992). Sandal was
introduced to southern China since 1962, and now there are about 2000 ha of sandal plantations in
southern China, most of which are established during the past 10 years. The cultivation technology of
sandal including seed storage, seed germination, seedling raising, site selection, fertilization, nutrient
management, host selection and management had been systematic studied; and a set of highly
efficient cultivation techniques was well built up in the past decade (Liu 2009, Liu et al. 2009, 2010a,
2010b).

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Simultaneous determination of vitexin and isovitexin in rat plasma after oral administration of Santalum album L. leaves extract by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry - Yan - 2012 - Bio...

Simultaneous determination of vitexin and isovitexin in rat plasma after oral administration of Santalum album L. leaves extract by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry - Yan - 2012 - Bio... | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

ABSTRACT

An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of vitexin and isovitexin in rat plasma, using puerarin as the internal standard (IS). Plasma samples extracted with protein precipitation procedure were separated on a Diamonsil® C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 0.1% formic acid (45:55, v/v). The detection was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring mode in positive electrospray ionization source. The optimized mass transition ion-pairs for quantitation were m/z 431.2 → 311.1 for vitexin and isovitexin, and m/z 415.1 → 295.1 for IS. The total run time was 7.5 min for each injection. The calibration curves were linear (r2 > 0.99) over the investigated concentration range (2.00–2000 ng/mL) and the lower limits of quantification were 2.00 ng/mL in rat plasma sample. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were no more than 14.9% and the relative errors were within the range of −3.2–2.1%. The extraction recoveries for both compounds were between 89.3 and 97.3%. The robust LC-MS/MS method was further applied in the pharmacokinetic study in Sprague–Dawley rats after oral administration of Santalum album L. leaves extract at a dose of 116 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Detection and quantification of adulteration in sandalwood oil through near infrared spectroscopy - Analyst (RSC Publishing)

The confirmation of authenticity of essential oils and the detection of adulteration are problems of increasing importance in the perfumes, pharmaceutical, flavor and fragrance industries. This is especially true for ‘value added’ products like sandalwood oil. A methodical study is conducted here to demonstrate the potential use of Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy along with multivariate calibration models like principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square regression (PLSR) as rapid analytical techniques for the qualitative and quantitative determination of adulterants in sandalwood oil. After suitable pre-processing of the NIR raw spectral data, the models are built-up by cross-validation. The lowest Root Mean Square Error of Cross-Validation and Calibration (RMSECV and RMSEC % v/v) are used as a decision supporting system to fix the optimal number of factors. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP % v/v) in the prediction sets are used as the evaluation parameters (R2 = 0.9999 and RMSEP = 0.01355). The overall result leads to the conclusion that NIR spectroscopy with chemometric techniques could be successfully used as a rapid, simple, instant and non-destructive method for the detection of adulterants, even 1% of the low-grade oils, in the high quality form of sandalwood oil.

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Phylogenetic Relationships of Santalum album and its Adulterants as Inferred from Nuclear DNA Sequences

AbstractThe East Indian sandalwood, Santalum album, valued for its fragrant oil yielding heartwood is a major ingredient in indigenous medicines and perfumes. Scarcity of sandal has led to illegal felling of sandal trees, and adulteration of sandalwood and oil. This study represents the first molecular phylogeny of S. album and its adulterant species Osyris wightiana, Erythroxylum monogynum, Buxus sempervirens, Ximenia americana, Osyris lanceolata, and Chukrasia tabularis through 18S and 26S rDNA sequencing. In the Maximum Parsimony (MP) tree for 18S and 26S rDNA data sets, moderate to high bootstrap support was obtained for the nodes. For 18S rDNA data sets, the tree had B. sempervirens and X. Americana as the upper branch, with E. monogynum branched separately to the cluster. The lower branch had S. album and O. wightiana with O. lanceolata joining separately to both clades of the tree. In the MP tree for 26S rDNA datasets, S. album and O. wightiana formed the major cluster with X. americana clustering separate and B. sempervirens and O. wightiana as the lower branch with C. tabularis clustering separate to the tree. The molecular data presented here provided useful information for resolving the phylogenetic relationship of these plants. Inferences from this study are in accordance with Cronquist’s system of classification of flowering plants where all the species originate from a single phylogenetic tree of Rosidae.

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RECENT ASPECT OF ETHNOBOTANICAL APPLICATION AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERBS SANTALUM ALBUM

RECENT ASPECT OF ETHNOBOTANICAL APPLICATION AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TRADITIONAL INDIAN HERBS SANTALUM ALBUM | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it

The health benefits of Sandal Wood Essential Oil can be attributed to its properties like anti septic, antiinflammatory, anti phlogistic, anti spasmodic, astringent, cicatrisant, carminative, diuretic, disinfectant, emollient, expectorant, hypotensive, memory booster, sedative and tonic.Sandalwood is an evergreen tree that is indigenous to India, the Sandal Oil and paste of Sandal is used in medicines, skin and beauty treatments and numerous industrial products including mouth fresheners, edibles, incense sticks, room fresheners, deodorants, perfumes, soaps, lotions, creams and others. It has some really remarkable medicinal properties.The medical properties reside in the oil, which can be pressed from the wood or extracted with alcohol or water. The antiseptic and disinfectant properties of the oil are similar to those of cubeb oil. The oil is used for bronchitis and for inflammation and infections in mucous tissue. A decoction of the wood may be helpful for indigestion, nephritis, gall stones, gonorrhea, sunstroke, prostatitis, urinary antiseptic for cystitis, urethritis, vaginitis, and fever; externally, for acute dermatitis, herpes zoster, skin problems, especially those of bacterial origin. In traditional medicine, sandalwood oil has been used for a wide variety of conditions, ranging from an antiseptic and astringent to the treatment of headache, stomachache, and urogenital disorders. Sandalwood has been documented to have diuretic and urinary antiseptic properties, but mainly the oil extracted from the wood has been used as a fragrance enhancer. Good clinical studies are lacking in support of the medicinal effects of sandalwood oil.Research has found that sandalwood essential oil improves as it ages.

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