Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood]
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Anthelmintic efficacy of Santalum album (Santalaceae) against monogenean infections in goldfish

Anthelmintic efficacy of Santalum album (Santalaceae) against monogenean infections in goldfish | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. are helminth ectoparasites that are a significant threat to the aquaculture industry. Existing treatments could cause the threats of anthelmintic resistance, risk of residues, environmental contamination, and toxicity to fish. Importantly, there is no report on a treatment against these two parasites. This study explored the possibility of using the extracts of Santalum album to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections in goldfish. Results showed that among the four extracts (chloroform, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) of S. album, the chloroform extract is the most effective and 40 mg/L is a safe and the lowest effective dosage. In addition, we found that Gyrodactylus elegans is more sensitive than Dactylogyrus intermedius when exposed to the extract of the medicinal plant. Finally, it is substantiated that bath treatment with long duration and multiple administrations could eliminate a greater proportion of monogenean infections. These findings show the potential for the development of effective and safe therapy to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections of fishes.

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ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT AND IN SILICO ADMET PREDICTION OF SANTALUM ALBU L

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Anti-ulcer Activity of Sandalwood Santalum albumL.) Stem Hydr -alcoholic Extract in Three Gastri -Ulceration Models of Wistar Rat

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Determination of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in Leaves of Santalum album L. by HPLC

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TLC-bioautographic evaluation of in vitro anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase potentials of sandalwood oil.

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.
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Sandalwood oil, rich in sesquiterpenoid alcohols, has been used in traditional medicinal systems as a relaxant and coolant. Besides, sandalwood oil is used as an ingredient in numerous skin fairness enhancing cosmetics. However, there is no available information on biological activities that relate to the above applications. Hence, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-cholinesterase potentials of sandalwood oil were probed by both TLC-bioautographic and colorimetric methods. Results obtained from colorimetric assays indicated that sandalwood oil is a potent inhibitor of tyrosinase (IC50 = 171 microg mL(-1)) and cholinesterases (IC50 = 4.8-58 microg mL(-1)), in comparison with the positive controls used in the assays, kojic acid and physostigmine, respectively. The TLC-bioautographic assays indicated that alpha-santalol, the major constituent of the oil, is a strong inhibitor of both tyrosinase and cholinesterase. These in vitro results indicate that there is a great potential of this essential oil for use in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, as well as in skin-care.

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RFID sensor network–based automation system for monitoring and tracking of sandalwood trees

RFID sensor network–based automation system for monitoring and tracking of sandalwood trees | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Radio frequency identification (RFID) emerges as one of the converging technologies. It is a powerful medium for identification of any object and leads all methods in auto ID umbrella. RFID is now key technology in the field of asset tracking. In India, sandalwood is considered to be an important national asset. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to monitor illegal cutting of sandalwood trees in the forest. In India, it is maintained by forest department. There are many problems in maintaining that since it is a very expensive one. Our forest department and police department face a number of challenges in safeguarding this important national asset. Main objective of this work is to monitor each tree continuously and to control smuggling. Latest RFID sensor network helps us to solve this problem. RFID tags are placed in the tree and using RFID readers it is continuously monitored. If the tree is cut by unauthorised person, sensors will trigger the transceiver to transmit tag ID and alert signal to the control room. For this, ZigBee network and mobile network are used.

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Precision metering of Santalum spicatum (Australian Sandalwood) seeds

Precision metering of Santalum spicatum (Australian Sandalwood) seeds | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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The development of a seed metering device to mechanise the seed-sowing process for sandalwood is reported. Amongst the mass flow and precision type seed meters considered, the ‘vacuum disc’ type precision meter was deemed most suitable. A vSets vacuum disc seed meter was modified to accommodate seeds whose diameter ranged from 13.5 to 23.5 mm. Nine custom made discs were tested over three vacuum levels. The discs were analysed for their ability to achieve a seed spacing of 200 mm at a ground speed of 4 km h−1. Accuracy was measured using the performance indices from ISO 7256/1-1984(E) as well as a modified coefficient of precision (CP3) index. Tests of twenty seven unique configurations were conducted with a sample of three hundred seeds. It was found that more than half of the configurations could singulate the seeds to a singulation level of 94%. Discs with seven 10 mm or 12 mm diameter holes, run at 17 kPa were found to be the most accurate configurations for the conditions considered and demonstrate that mechanisation of sandalwood seed sowing is possible.

 
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α-Santalol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent with Potential to Target Various Pathways Involved in Photocarcinogenesis - Santha - Photochemistry and Photobiology - Wiley Online Library

α-Santalol, a Skin Cancer Chemopreventive Agent with Potential to Target Various Pathways Involved in Photocarcinogenesis - Santha - Photochemistry and Photobiology - Wiley Online Library | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

This study is designed to investigate the chemopreventive effect and molecular mechanisms of α-santalol on UVB-induced skin tumor development in SKH-1 hairless mouse, a widely used model for human photocarcinogenesis. A dose of UVB radiation (30mJ/cm2/day) that is in the range of human sunlight exposure was used for the initiation and promotion of tumor. Topical treatment of mice with α-santalol (10%, w/v in acetone) caused reduction in tumor incidence, multiplicity and volume. The anticarcinogenic action of α-santalol against UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis was found to be associated with inhibition of inflammation and epidermal cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis. α-Santalol pretreatment strongly inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperplasia and thickness of the epidermis, expression of proliferation and inflammation markers PCNA, Ki-67 and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2). Significant decrease in the expression of cyclins A, B1, D1 and D2 and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk)s Cdk1 (Cdc2), Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 and an up-regulated expression of CDK inhibitor Cip1/p21 was found in α-santalol pretreated group. Furthermore, an elevated level of cleaved caspase3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed in α-santalol treated group. Our data suggested that α-santalol is a safer and promising skin cancer chemopreventive agent with potential to target various pathways involved in photocarcinogenesis.

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Plant regeneration from leaf explants of mature sandalwood (Santalum album L.) trees under in vitro conditions - Online First - Springer

Plant regeneration from leaf explants of mature sandalwood (Santalum album L.) trees under in vitro conditions - Online First - Springer | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract

Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a small evergreen, hemi-parasitic tree having more than 18 woody species that are mostly distributed in South Asia, Australia, and Hawaii. Its economical importance is derived from its heartwood oil, but its difficult propagation makes conservation essential. The percentage of seed germination is poor and germination time exceeds 12 mo. Vegetative propagation can be accomplished by grafting, air layering, or with root suckers, but the production of clones is inefficient and time consuming. In this study, efficient plant regeneration was achieved via indirect organogenesis from callus cultures derived from leaf tissues of S. album. Callus induction was induced when leaf explants were cultured on woody plant media (WPM) supplemented with either thidiazuron (TDZ) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The highest callus frequency (100%) was obtained when leaf tissue was cultured in the medium with 0.4 mg l−1 TDZ. Fresh weight (141.92 mg) and dry weight (47 mg) of leaf-derived callus were highest in the medium supplemented with 0.8 mg l−1 TDZ. The WPM medium supplemented with 2.5 mg l−1 BA + 0.4 mg l−1 NAA was the most effective, producing the highest number of shoot buds (24.6) per callus. The highest number of shoots per explant (20.67) and shoot length (5.17 cm) were observed in media supplemented with 5.0 mg l−1 BA and 3.0 mg 1−1 Kn, respectively. Plantlets were rooted on WPM medium with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting percentage (91.67) and survival were achieved using WPM media with 1.5 mg l−1 IBA. All plantlets survived acclimatization, producing healthy plants in the greenhouse. The current investigation showed efficient in vitro regeneration capabilities of S. album from leaf explants.

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Growth and Yield of White Sandal (Santalum Album L.) in South West Bengal | Das | The Indian Forester

Growth and Yield of White Sandal (<I>Santalum Album</I> L.) in South West Bengal | Das | The Indian Forester | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Growth and Yield of White Sandal ( Santalum Album L.) in South West Bengal
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Abstract

 

West Bengal has patches of sandal trees mainly in and around Range and Beat Office compounds of South West Bengal to ensure protection. Information on growth pattern of the species would be of immense help in evaluating the expected yield. Height and girth of standing sandal trees and 51 felled trees was taken in Hirbundh Beat of Khatra range of Bankura (South) Division, West Bengal. A sandal wood tree attained an average height of 10.20 m and girth of 83.00 cm at the ageof 35 years. A average yield per tree was recorded 214.51 kg and av. price per tree was 1,90,000.00 while maximum yield recorded from one tree was 415 kg which fetched a avenue of 4,35,000.00 in 2010. It indicate considerable scope of sandal wood cultivation in West Bengal in the place where proper protection is ensured.
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Essential oil content and composition of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) in Sri Lanka - Springer

Essential oil content and composition of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album) in Sri Lanka - Springer | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Santalum album (Indian Sandalwood) is found in the mountainous regions of the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Few studies have been conducted on sandalwood ecology in this region, and ours is the first recorded study of essential oil content and chemical composition of heartwood. We harvested two trees with State permission and took cross-sections for analysis. We demonstrated a difference in the heartwood formation and oil yield of the trees. The composition of the oil was found to be consistent between trees and along the trunk of the tree. Main aromatic compounds were santalols and other compounds are recorded in lesser quantities. Results of this study comply with the other published work on sandalwood elsewhere. This initial study on S. album in Sri Lanka provided promising results for the future of sandalwood agroforestry.

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HERBAL COSMETICS USED FOR SKIN AND HAIR

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ABSTRACT
The concept of beauty and cosmetics is as ancient as mankind and civilization. Women are obsessed with looking beautiful. So, they use various beauty products that have herbs to look charming and young. Indian herbs and its significance are popular worldwide. An herbal cosmetic have growing demand in the world market and is an invaluable gift of nature. Herbal formulations always have attracted considerable attention because of their good activity and comparatively lesser or nil side effects with synthetic drugs. Herbs and spices have been used in maintaining and enhancing human beauty. Indian women have long used herbs such as Sandalwood and Turmeric for skin care, Henna to color the hair, palms and soles; and natural oils to perfume their bodies. Not too long ago, elaborate herbal beauty treatments were carried out in the royal palaces of India to heighten sensual appeal and maintain general hygiene. The herbal cosmetics manufactured and used commonly for daily purpose include herbal face wash, herbal conditioner, herbal soap, herbal shampoo etc. The industry is now focusing on the growing segment with a vast scope of manifold expansion in coming years. Herbal cosmetics are defined as the beauty products which posses desirable physiological activity such as healing, smoothing appearance, enhancing and conditioning properties because of herbal ingredient. Here we reported the introduction, classification, common herbs used in cosmetics.

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Plant regeneration from leaf explants of mature sandalwood (Santalum album L.) trees under in vitro conditions - Online First - Springer

Plant regeneration from leaf explants of mature sandalwood (Santalum album L.) trees under in vitro conditions - Online First - Springer | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is a small evergreen, hemi-parasitic tree having more than 18 woody species that are mostly distributed in South Asia, Australia, and Hawaii. Its economical importance is derived from its heartwood oil, but its difficult propagation makes conservation essential. The percentage of seed germination is poor and germination time exceeds 12 mo. Vegetative propagation can be accomplished by grafting, air layering, or with root suckers, but the production of clones is inefficient and time consuming. In this study, efficient plant regeneration was achieved via indirect organogenesis from callus cultures derived from leaf tissues of S. album. Callus induction was induced when leaf explants were cultured on woody plant media (WPM) supplemented with either thidiazuron (TDZ) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The highest callus frequency (100%) was obtained when leaf tissue was cultured in the medium with 0.4 mg l−1 TDZ. Fresh weight (141.92 mg) and dry weight (47 mg) of leaf-derived callus were highest in the medium supplemented with 0.8 mg l−1 TDZ. The WPM medium supplemented with 2.5 mg l−1 BA + 0.4 mg l−1 NAA was the most effective, producing the highest number of shoot buds (24.6) per callus. The highest number of shoots per explant (20.67) and shoot length (5.17 cm) were observed in media supplemented with 5.0 mg l−1 BA and 3.0 mg 1−1 Kn, respectively. Plantlets were rooted on WPM medium with different concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting percentage (91.67) and survival were achieved using WPM media with 1.5 mg l−1 IBA. All plantlets survived acclimatization, producing healthy plants in the greenhouse. The current investigation showed efficient in vitro regeneration capabilities of S. album from leaf explants.

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Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree

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AbstractBackground

Volatile aroma compounds are important characteristics determining essential oil quality. The heartwood of sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. deposits the sandalwood oil with enormous therapeutic potentials. The majority of the biological activities are attributed to the sesquiterpenoid alcohols i.e. santalols and hence, there is the need to explore the presence of other volatile bioactive constituents from heartwood.

Methods

We used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method employing an ion trap quadrupole (ITQ) mass analyzer to identify and quantify volatiles from solvent extracted heartwood oil of the East Indian sandalwood tree, S. album L.

Results

A total of 46 constituents composed of a great variety of n-alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, aldehydes, naphthalene derivatives, methyl esters, alcohols, carotenoid degradation products, and acetates were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, i.e., Z-α-santalol and epi-β-santalol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the major constituents in the extracted oil.

Conclusion

Results indicate that GC–ITQ–MS is a robust tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents of the heartwood of sandalwood tree. Furthermore, the constituents reported may lead to the discovery of novel phytopharmaceuticals from sandalwood tree.

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Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree

Journal of Pharmacy Research, Volume null, Issue null, Pages null, null, Authors:Biswapriya B. Misra; Shibendu S. Das; Satyahari Dey
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract Background

Volatile aroma compounds are important characteristics determining essential oil quality. The heartwood of sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. deposits the sandalwood oil with enormous therapeutic potentials. The majority of the biological activities are attributed to the sesquiterpenoid alcohols i.e. santalols and hence, there is the need to explore the presence of other volatile bioactive constituents from heartwood.

Methods

We used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method employing an ion trap quadrupole (ITQ) mass analyzer to identify and quantify volatiles from solvent extracted heartwood oil of the East Indian sandalwood tree, S.album L.

Results

A total of 46 constituents composed of a great variety of n-alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, aldehydes, naphthalene derivatives, methyl esters, alcohols, carotenoid degradation products, and acetates were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, i.e., Z-α-santalol and epi-β-santalol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the major constituents in the extracted oil.

Conclusion

Results indicate that GC–ITQ–MS is a robust tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents of the heartwood of sandalwood tree. Furthermore, the constituents reported may lead to the discovery of novel phytopharmaceuticals from sandalwood tree.

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Culture of East Indian Sandalwood Tree Somatic Embryos in Air-Lift Bioreactors for Production of Santalols, Phenolics and Arabinogalactan Proteins

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Abstract

The East Indian Sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. yields one of the costliest heartwood and precious essential oil. Unsurprisingly, this endangered forest species is victimized due to unmet global demands, poaching, over harvesting, and an epidemic mycoplasmal spike disease. The in vitro micropropagation endeavors have resulted in defined in vitro stages such as somatic embryos that are amenable to mass production in bioreactors. We report on somatic embryo production in a 10 L air-lift type bioreactor, and compared the growth and biochemical parameters with that of a 2 L air-lift type bioreactor. For the 10 L bioreactor with the biomass (475.7±18 g FW, P <0.01), concomitantly santalols (5.2±0.15 mg L−1; P <0.05), phenolics (31±1.6 mg L−1), and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) (39±3.1 mg L−1; P <0.05) are produced in 28 d. In addition, we identified and quantified several santalols and phenolics by means of HPTLC and RP-HPLC analyses, respectively. Results indicate that 10 L capacity air-lift bioreactors are capable of supporting somatic embryo cultures, while the extra cellular medium provides opportunities for production of raw industrial materials such as santalols, phenolics, and AGPs. This will prove useful for further optimization and scale-up studies of plant-produced metabolites.

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Accumulation patterns of phenylpropanoids and enzymes in East Indian sandalwood tree undergoing developmental progression in vitro

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Pengaruh Boron dan Perendaman terhadap Perkecambahan dan Pengaruh Arang Sekam dan Boron terhadap Pertumbuhan Bibit Cendana (Santalum album) Linn.

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Characteristic of sandalwood germination is very slow and it is belong to slow growing tree spesies. The aim of this research was to test the effectiveness of boron on various concentrations and period of soaking to speed up the seed germination and to study the effect of combination treatment between boron and rice husk charcoal on the growth of sandalwood seedlings. The experimental design of research was factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results of this research showed that the initial treatment of sandalwood seed in boron soaking on 400 ppm concentration could accelerate the sandalwood seed germination one weeks earlier with 42% germination percentage while control was 34.6%. The optimal Soaking of sandalwood seeds was 24 hours. Rice husk charcoal addition on 7.5% (w/w) in the growing medium and boron on 400 ppm concentration produced the best seedling quality index (SQI) of sandalwood seedling with the SQI value of 30 and 29 points, while the interaction of both got SQI at 26 points and 9 points for control

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Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album

Ontogenesis of the collapsed layer during haustorium development in the root hemi-parasite Santalum album | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

The structure and development of collapsed layers of the haustorium were studied in Santalum album Linn. Through light and transmission electron microscopy, it was shown that the collapsed layers originated from starch-containing cells when the haustorium developed an internal gland, thickened gradually and ultimately developed into the mantle, which, combined with the sucker, buckled the host root. We report on the presence of inter-collapsed layers for the first time. These layers develop after penetration into the host and are located between the intrusive tissues and the vascular meristematic region, gradually linking the collapsed layers and remains around the sucker. The proliferation of cells in the meristematic region and the ‘host tropism’ of cortical layers contribute to pressure within the haustorium and result in development of the collapsed layers. Besides, starch-containing cells that turn into collapsed layers are vulnerable to pressure as they lack a large vacuole, have uneven cell wall thickness and a loose cell arrangement. We proposed that the functions of collapsed layers are to efficiently assure that cell inclusion and energy concentrate at the inner meristematic region and are recycled to affect penetration, reinforce the physical connection between the sandalwood haustorium and host root, and supply space for haustorial development.

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PLOS ONE: Antineoplastic Effects of α-Santalol on Estrogen ...

PLOS ONE: Antineoplastic Effects of α-Santalol on Estrogen ... | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Abstract. Anticancer efficacy and the mechanism of action of α-santalol, a terpenoid isolated from sandalwood oil, were investigated in human breast cancer cells by using p53 wild-type MCF-7 cells as a model for estrogen ...
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CSIRO PUBLISHING - The Rangeland Journal

CSIRO PUBLISHING - The Rangeland Journal | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
The Rangeland Journal publishes papers of scientific merit for a readership of scientists, educators, managers and users.
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Abstract

Harvesting of sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) occurs mainly from wild stands in the semi-arid and arid regions (typical annual rainfall 150–300 mm) of Western Australia. Regeneration of wild sandalwood in these regions is believed to be low since the occurrence of changes in land use associated with European settlement. This is thought to be due to factors including drought, poor seed dispersal and grazing. The objective of the study was to increase the germination and establishment of sandalwood through exploring seed response to rainfall. Additionally, the potential of soil-preparation techniques to utilise trace amounts of moisture was investigated. Two 25-ha plots were located either side of the semi-arid–arid divide. Into the plots 16 replicates of the control and 96 replicates of treatments were installed and sown with 11 200 seeds. Rainfall and other weather parameters were recorded at each site with an automated weather station. The study was replicated in 2008 and 2009. It was concluded from the study that there was a statistically significant relationship between germination and rainfall. It is proposed that the germination threshold is 264 mm per year which coincides with the long-term annual rainfall average of Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. Furthermore, a statistically significant relationship between germination and soil preparation was demonstrated. Ripping crust-forming soils before sowing and the construction of water-harvest banks had a positive effect. Information gained from these studies has led to the Western Australian State Government implementing a seeding program to increase sandalwood regeneration in the semi-arid region.

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Developmental variations in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) - Online First - Springer

Developmental variations in sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis in East Indian sandalwood tree (Santalum album L.) - Online First - Springer | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

The East Indian sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. is known for its fragrant heartwood and essential oil. The major bioactive principles of sandalwood oil, i.e., sesquiterpenoids (C15 isoprenoids), are known as ‘santalols’ and are globally used in medicinal, cosmetic, dietary, and aromatherapeutic applications. However, there are no available reports on the biosynthesis and metabolism of isoprenoids in this forest tree. Hence, we provide detailed insights into sesquiterpenoid metabolism across several in vitro and in vivo developmental stages. Since no molecular information was available, several genes encoding enzymes participating in early and critical steps of isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were isolated using degenerate primers, and their expression patterns across the developmental stages were studied by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results indicate that the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway is differentially regulated with development and in tissue-specific manner. Accumulation of plastidial isoprenoid pigments increased with development, while the amounts of farnesylated intermediates decreased with maturation, thereby possibly indicating conversion into sesquiterpenoids. A differential expression pattern was observed for hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and 1-deoxyxyulose-5-phosphate synthase at the levels of transcripts and proteins, indicating post-transcriptional regulation. Transcript levels of farnesyl pyrophsophate, sesquiterpene and monoterpene synthases were quantitatively higher in callus, and lower in matured tree leaves. Sesquiterpene synthase activity across different developmental stages indicated a tissue-specific conversion and accumulation. Henceforth, the results would facilitate characterization of routes of sandalwood oil biosynthesis and for future improvement of sesquiterpenoid content in this tree.

Communicated by M. Buckeridge

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Actividad anti-ulcerosa del tallo de Sándalo (Santalum album L.) en extractos hidro-alcoholicos en tres modelos de ulceración gástrica de ratas Wistar

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Resumen
Sándalo (Santalum album L.) se utiliza en diversos sistemas de medicina tradicional, como el Ayurveda, Siddha y Unani para tratar una amplia gama de  dolencias. En la medicina Unani, Safed Sandal se usa para tratar úlceras gástricas, por lo tanto, el presente estudio se realizó para confirmar esta afirmación.  Una prueba de límite según las directrices de la OCDE se llevó a cabo a una dosis de 5000 mg/kg para determinar la dosis tóxica aguda del extracto  hidroalcohólico del tallo de S. álbum (SASE). Dos dosis de prueba de SASE (250 y 500 mg/kg) se sometieron al estudio de la actividad anti-úlcera por tres  modelos in vivo, a saber: la inmersión en agua – estrés de restricción, y la ulceración gástrica inducida por etanol e indometacina, en ratas Wistar albinas. Un  inhibidor de la bomba de protones, omeprazol 10 mg/kg y el antagonista de los receptores H2, ranitidina 50 mg/kg fueron empleados como fármacos estándar.  Los resultados revelaron un aumento de la protección gástrica como una disminución significativa (p < 0.001) en el número promedio de úlceras, la gravedad  de las úlceras y el índice de úlcera acumulativo se observó en los grupos de prueba. Evidencias histopatológicas apoyaron las conclusiones anteriores. El  efecto anti úlcera observado por efecto de SASE a 500 mg/kg fue comparable a la de fármacos estándar utilizados en los experimentos que indican un  significativo potencial anti-úlcera, especialmente a mayores concentraciones. 
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Strat Taju da Kompetis Pertumbuha Cendan (Santalu albu Linn d Pula Timo Her Kurniawa 10 STRAT TAJU DA KOMPETIS PERTUMBUHA CENDAN Santalu albu Linn. D PULA TIMO (Crow Stratu an Growt Competitio o ...

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Growth and Yield of White Sandal (Santalum Album L.) in South West Bengal | Das | The Indian Forester

Growth and Yield of White Sandal (<I>Santalum Album</I> L.) in South West Bengal | Das | The Indian Forester | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Growth and Yield of White Sandal ( Santalum Album L.) in South West Bengal
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