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Structural factors in the odor of alpha-santalol derivatives.

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.
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Alpha-Santalol is a sesquiterpene that is a major constituent of sandalwood (Santalum album L.), and is responsible for its distinctive woody odor. We replaced the polycyclic moiety and hydroxyl group of alpha-santalol with other moieties, and we compared the odors of the E/Z-isomers and their saturated analogues. Our previous study of the structure-odor relationships of alpha-santalols bearing hydroxyl, formyl, formyloxy, and acetoxy functional groups showed there was a similarity in odor between the Z-isomer and its saturated analogue. We synthesized alpha-santalols with a benzyl group in place of the hydroxyl group, because many benzyl compounds have strong characteristic odors. We found similar odors for the E-isomer and its saturated analogue. In contrast, the odors of the alpha-santalol derivatives with a hydroxyl, formyl, formyloxy, or acetoxy group were different. We also replaced the bulky polycyclic moiety with a linear alkyl chain. The polycyclic moiety was the most important structural factor in the characteristic sandalwood odor. The synthesis of derivatives and the evaluation of their odor allowed us to identify the key structural factors in the odor of alpha-santalol.

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Immunolocalization of α-santalol in sandalwood

Immunolocalization of α-santalol in sandalwood | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Immunolocalization of α-santalol in sandalwood. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/10412905.2014.910709
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Abstract

Alpha-santalol is a key constituent of sandalwood essential oil and is responsible for most of its biological activities. The heartwood of a mature East Indian sandalwood tree accumulates this sesquiterpenoid-rich oil. Although gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)-based technologies are used to detect and quantify santalols from heartwoods and the essential oil, information on the sites of deposition of these molecules remains obscure. Recently, in vitro cells of sandalwood were shown to accumulate sandalwood oil constituents. However, no reports are available on the visualization of these small molecules in planta. Immunization of rabbits with a bovine serum albumin (BSA)–α-santalol conjugate resulted in the production of anti-α-santalol polyclonal antibody in six weeks, which showed high affinity and specificity. The success and extent of cross-linking of α-santalol with BSA was further confirmed by photometric, fluorometric and chromatographic methods. These polyclonal rabbit antibodies were used to immunolocalize α-santalol in sandalwood plant materials for the first time. Results indicate the localization of α-santalol to the vascular bundles of somatic embryos and leaves, whereas distribution was evident in secondary xylem, cortical parenchyma and epidermis of the mature stem. Furthermore, the polyclonal antibody is shown to be a useful tool in detection of both free and immobilized α-santalol for screening purposes.

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Isolation of Rigidoporus microporus, the Cause of WRD of Rubber, from Some Forest Associated Plants

Isolation of Rigidoporus microporus, the Cause of WRD of Rubber, from Some Forest Associated Plants
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Natural rubber while promoting export earnings and livelihood of people supplementthousands of hectares to the forest cover. Over the past decades, the rubber yield hassignificantly increased due to the cultivation of high yielding clones. However, latexproduction still faces serious economic losses due to many biotic constraints which includesignificant losses caused by pathogenic fungi. Among them, White root disease (WRD) isvery destructive in rubber plantations of Sri Lanka and in many other rubber growingcountries. This disease has been identified as one of the major causes for the loss of plantsduring the first five years after planting resulting in low productivity levels. Inspite of the factthat disease management strategies have been clearly outlined by the Rubber ResearchInstitute, the disease incidence is showing an increasing trend. One of the main reasons forthis has been identified as the increment of the host range. In this situation expansion of thehost range of R.micrporus was undertaken. R. microporus was isolated from the symptomatichost plants such as Mucuna bractiacta, Camellia sinensis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum,Artocarpus nobilis, Alstonia macrophyll growing in and around rubber plantations. Some ofthe above crops such as C. sinensis, C. zeylanicum are intercrops recommended by the RRIwhile A. nobilis and A. macrophylla are important forest crop species grown in the vicinity ofrubber cultivations. M. bractiata is also one of the most commonly grown cover cropsrecommended for rubber plantations. The pathogen was isolated, on to Malt Extract Agarafter surface sterilizing in 70% ethanol for 3 minutes. Pure cultures were obtained and thecultural characteristics were recorded for the five isolates separately. For comparativepurpose isolate from H. brasiliensis was employed. Colonies showed white flattened cultures.Isolates from M. bractiacta, C. sinensis, C. zeylanicum, H. brsiliensis and A. nobilis showedpuffy aerial growth while A. macrophylla showed clear concentric zones which are prominentfrom the lower side of the colonies. Among the isolates investigated, the fastest growth ratewas observed in the isolate from C. sinensis showing 1.262cm/day while the lowest growthrate 1.205 cm/day was shown by the rubber isolate. The pathogenecity of the isolatesobtained from the above hosts were proven against the respective hosts by following theKoch’s postulates under green house conditions. The cross infection abilities of the isolateswere also assessed and all isolates infected Hevea brasiliensis showing cross infectionabilities. Pathogenic and genetic variability among the different isolates are beinginvestigated.The information will be valuable in the development of improved managementstrategies against white root disease of rubber.
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Identification and structural characterization of a new pro-apoptotic cyclic octapeptide cyclosaplin from somatic seedlings of Santalum album L.

Identification and structural characterization of a new pro-apoptotic cyclic octapeptide cyclosaplin from somatic seedlings of Santalum album L. | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Small cyclic peptides exhibiting potent biological activity have great potential for anticancer therapy. An antiproliferative cyclic octapeptide, cyclosaplin was purified from somatic seedlings of Santalum album L. (sandalwood) using gel filtration and RP-HPLC separation process. The molecular mass of purified peptide was found to be 858 Da and the sequence was determined by MALDI-ToF-PSD-MS as ‘RLGDGCTR’ (cyclic). The cytotoxic activity of the peptide was tested against human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell line in a dose and time-dependent manner. The purified peptide exhibited significant antiproliferative activity with an IC50 2.06 μg/mL. In a mechanistic approach, apoptosis was observed in differential microscopic studies for peptide treated MDA-MB-231 cells, which was further confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA fragmentation assay, cell cycle analysis and caspase 3 activities. The modeling and docking experiments revealed strong affinity (kcal/mol) of peptide toward EGFR and procaspase 3. The co-localization studies revealed that the peptide sensitizes MDA-MB-231 cells by possibly binding to EGFR and induces apoptosis. This unique cyclic octapeptide revealed to be a favorable candidate for development of anticancer agents.

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Biological Activities of East Indian Sandalwood Tree, Santalum album

The East Indian Sandalwood tree, Santalum album L.
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The East Indian Sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. has been widely used in folk medicine for treatment of common colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, heart ailments, general weakness, fever, infection of the urinary tract, inflammation of the mouth and pharynx, liver and gallbladder complaints and other maladies. With more than 200 constituents, the essential oil is emerging as a biologically valuable active source of phytochemicals. Therapeutic potentials associated with this oil and its constituents promise future health care applications, as shown by recent pharmacological investigations, such as the roles of santalols in combating cancer, tumor, viral diseases, microbes, oxidants, as well as neuroleptic, skin nourishing agent and as dietary factors, thus supporting its traditional uses. The aim of this review is to comprehend and put forth, available information on biological activities of this plant from a pharmacological point of view for future directions in clinical applications.

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Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F Cytochromes P450 Produce Santalols and Bergamotol

Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F Cytochromes P450 Produce Santalols and Bergamotol | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
PLOS ONE: an inclusive, peer-reviewed, open-access resource from the PUBLIC LIBRARY OF SCIENCE. Reports of well-performed scientific studies from all disciplines freely available to the whole world.
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Abstract

Sandalwood oil is one of the world’s most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests.

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Inhalation of Sandalwood Aromatherapy t Divert Pain Perception

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The Effect of Boron and Soaking on Germination of Sandalwood ( Santalum album Linn. ) Seed

The Effect of Boron and Soaking on Germination of Sandalwood ( Santalum album Linn. ) Seed
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Characteristic of sandalwood germination is very slow,it is due to  seed coat thickness (seed coat dormancy). Boron is an important nutrient that is required to improve the seed germination and vigor. The aim of this research was to test the effectiveness of boron in various concentrations and period of soaking to speed up the seed germination. The experimental design of research was factorial in Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The results of this research
showed that the initial treatment of sandalwood seed in boron soaking on 400 ppm concentration could accelerate the sandalwood seed germination one week earlier with 42% germination percentage while control was 34.6%. The optimal soaking of sandalwood seeds in boron  was 24 hours.
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Occurrence of a black mildew i Santalum album plantation at Anakulam

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Sandalwood - growing industry for Northern Australia

Sandalwood - growing industry for Northern Australia | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Informit is an online service offering a wide range of database and full content publication products that deliver the vast majority of Australasian scholarly research to the education, research and business sectors.
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Abstract: One of the more unusual crops being grown successfully in WA - on the Ord - is Indian sandalwood (Santalum album). Plantations have been established by Tropical Forestry Services Pty Ltd (TFS), a WA company that manages them on behalf of retail and institutional investors. In fact, TFS has the distinction of managing the largest sustainable supply of Indian sandalwood in the world. It has 7000 ha in WA , is currently developing 3000 ha in the NT and is looking to expand into Queensland.

In this article John Doble, water manager with TFS and based at Kununurra, provides some background to sandalwood and its irrigation management challenges.
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Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree

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AbstractBackground

Volatile aroma compounds are important characteristics determining essential oil quality. The heartwood of sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. deposits the sandalwood oil with enormous therapeutic potentials. The majority of the biological activities are attributed to the sesquiterpenoid alcohols i.e. santalols and hence, there is the need to explore the presence of other volatile bioactive constituents from heartwood.

Methods

We used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method employing an ion trap quadrupole (ITQ) mass analyzer to identify and quantify volatiles from solvent extracted heartwood oil of the East Indian sandalwood tree, S. album L.

Results

A total of 46 constituents composed of a great variety of n-alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, aldehydes, naphthalene derivatives, methyl esters, alcohols, carotenoid degradation products, and acetates were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, i.e., Z-α-santalol and epi-β-santalol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the major constituents in the extracted oil.

Conclusion

Results indicate that GC–ITQ–MS is a robust tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents of the heartwood of sandalwood tree. Furthermore, the constituents reported may lead to the discovery of novel phytopharmaceuticals from sandalwood tree.

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Volatile profiling from heartwood of East Indian sandalwood tree

Journal of Pharmacy Research, Volume null, Issue null, Pages null, null, Authors:Biswapriya B. Misra; Shibendu S. Das; Satyahari Dey
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:
Abstract Background

Volatile aroma compounds are important characteristics determining essential oil quality. The heartwood of sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. deposits the sandalwood oil with enormous therapeutic potentials. The majority of the biological activities are attributed to the sesquiterpenoid alcohols i.e. santalols and hence, there is the need to explore the presence of other volatile bioactive constituents from heartwood.

Methods

We used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method employing an ion trap quadrupole (ITQ) mass analyzer to identify and quantify volatiles from solvent extracted heartwood oil of the East Indian sandalwood tree, S.album L.

Results

A total of 46 constituents composed of a great variety of n-alkanes, sesquiterpenoids, fatty acids, aldehydes, naphthalene derivatives, methyl esters, alcohols, carotenoid degradation products, and acetates were identified. Oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, i.e., Z-α-santalol and epi-β-santalol and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were identified as the major constituents in the extracted oil.

Conclusion

Results indicate that GC–ITQ–MS is a robust tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile constituents of the heartwood of sandalwood tree. Furthermore, the constituents reported may lead to the discovery of novel phytopharmaceuticals from sandalwood tree.

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Culture of East Indian Sandalwood Tree Somatic Embryos in Air-Lift Bioreactors for Production of Santalols, Phenolics and Arabinogalactan Proteins

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Abstract

The East Indian Sandalwood tree, Santalum album L. yields one of the costliest heartwood and precious essential oil. Unsurprisingly, this endangered forest species is victimized due to unmet global demands, poaching, over harvesting, and an epidemic mycoplasmal spike disease. The in vitro micropropagation endeavors have resulted in defined in vitro stages such as somatic embryos that are amenable to mass production in bioreactors. We report on somatic embryo production in a 10 L air-lift type bioreactor, and compared the growth and biochemical parameters with that of a 2 L air-lift type bioreactor. For the 10 L bioreactor with the biomass (475.7±18 g FW, P <0.01), concomitantly santalols (5.2±0.15 mg L−1; P <0.05), phenolics (31±1.6 mg L−1), and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) (39±3.1 mg L−1; P <0.05) are produced in 28 d. In addition, we identified and quantified several santalols and phenolics by means of HPTLC and RP-HPLC analyses, respectively. Results indicate that 10 L capacity air-lift bioreactors are capable of supporting somatic embryo cultures, while the extra cellular medium provides opportunities for production of raw industrial materials such as santalols, phenolics, and AGPs. This will prove useful for further optimization and scale-up studies of plant-produced metabolites.

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Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F Cytochromes P450 Produce Santalols and Bergamotol

Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F Cytochromes P450 Produce Santalols and Bergamotol | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Sandalwood oil is one of the world’s most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests.

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The Berries of Santalum album L. as a New Source of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside and Chemical Profiling during Different Stages of Berry Development

The Berries of Santalum album L. as a New Source of Cyanidin-3-Glucoside and Chemical Profiling during Different Stages of Berry Development | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Changes during development of Santalum album L. berries were studied with respect to contents of pigment, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, organic acids, colour and biomass. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (anthocyanin pigment) content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (pink) to matured stage (black). Carbohydrates and proteins contents also increased during berry development. Phenols contents got reduced on maturation of the berries while total organic acids contents increased. Colour parameters such as L, b and chroma values decreased, whereas a value increased from green to pink stage, then decreased on ripening of the berries. Although berry size increased but seed weight did not change indicating biomass increase. From the present study, it is concluded that only the black (or matured) berries of S. album may be harvested for maximum yield of anthocyanin pigment.

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Phytosociology and ecology of Santalum album L. Santalaceae in Pondicherry and its environs

Kadamban, D.; Balachandran, N., 2005: Phytosociology and ecology of Santalum album L. Santalaceae in Pondicherry and its environs (Phytosociology and ecology of Santalum album L.
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α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in ...

α-Santalol, a derivative of sandalwood oil, induces apoptosis in ... | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
The primary objectives of the current study were to investigate the cancer preventive properties of α-santalol on human prostate cancer cells PC-3 (androgen independent and P-53 null) and LNCaP (androgen dependent and P-53 wild-type), ...
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Structural factors in the odor of alpha-santalol derivatives.

Europe PubMed Central (Europe PMC) is an archive of life sciences journal literature.
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's insight:

Alpha-Santalol is a sesquiterpene that is a major constituent of sandalwood (Santalum album L.), and is responsible for its distinctive woody odor. We replaced the polycyclic moiety and hydroxyl group of alpha-santalol with other moieties, and we compared the odors of the E/Z-isomers and their saturated analogues. Our previous study of the structure-odor relationships of alpha-santalols bearing hydroxyl, formyl, formyloxy, and acetoxy functional groups showed there was a similarity in odor between the Z-isomer and its saturated analogue. We synthesized alpha-santalols with a benzyl group in place of the hydroxyl group, because many benzyl compounds have strong characteristic odors. We found similar odors for the E-isomer and its saturated analogue. In contrast, the odors of the alpha-santalol derivatives with a hydroxyl, formyl, formyloxy, or acetoxy group were different. We also replaced the bulky polycyclic moiety with a linear alkyl chain. The polycyclic moiety was the most important structural factor in the characteristic sandalwood odor. The synthesis of derivatives and the evaluation of their odor allowed us to identify the key structural factors in the odor of alpha-santalol.

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Prolonged anxiolytic-like activity of sandalwood (Santalum album L.) oil in stress-loaded mice

Prolonged anxiolytic-like activity of sandalwood (Santalum album L.) oil in stress-loaded mice | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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The fragrance of Santalum album L. (sandalwood) has been used as a sedative. However, few reports have investigated the anxiolytic activity of sandalwood fragrance. Therefore, in this study, we examined the anxiolytic-like activity of hexane-extracted sandalwood oil (SAO). Male ICR mice, aged 5 weeks at the start of each experiment, were used. To mimic its clinical use, the effect of SAO after stress loading was investigated. Mice were individually housed in cages for 1 week and subjected to loaded water-immersion stress for 24 h. Next, SAO inhalation (i.h.) was initiated 90 min prior to the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. As a result, significant anxiolytic-like activity was observed at 4 μl/l air SAO i.h. In contrast, anxiolytic-like activity was not observed in non-stressed control mice. Additionally, mice were subjected to SAO i.h prior to water-immersion stress for 24 h in order to investigate its prolonged effect. As a result, significant anxiolytic-like activity was observed at 4 μl/l air SAO i.h. In contrast, anxiolytic-like activity was not observed in non-stressed control mice. The above results indicate that the anxiolytic-like activity of SAO i.h. is revealed under stress conditions and is prolonged for at least 24 h. Since the main components of SAO are (Z)-α-santalol (51.1%) and (Z)-β-santalol (28.5%), it is proposed that they are involved in mediating the characteristic anxiolytic-like activity of SAO. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Molecular regulation of santalol biosynthesis in Santalum album L.

Molecular regulation of santalol biosynthesis in Santalum album L. | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Santalum album L. commonly known as East-Indian sandal or chandan is a hemiparasitic tree of family santalaceae. Santalol is a bioprospecting molecule present in sandalwood and any effort towards metabolic engineering of this important moiety would require knowledge on gene regulation. Santalol is a sesquiterpene synthesized through mevalonate or non-mevalonate pathways. First step of santalol biosynthesis involves head to tail condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) with its allylic co-substrate dimethyl allyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) to produce geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP; C10 — a monoterpene). GPP upon one additional condensation with IPP produces farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP; C15 — an open chain sesquiterpene). Both the reactions are catalyzed by farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS). Santalene synthase (SS), a terpene cyclase catalyzes cyclization of open ring FPP into a mixture of cyclic sesquiterpenes such as α-santalene, epi-β-santalene, β-santalene and exo bergamotene, the main constituents of sandal oil. The objective of the present work was to generate a comprehensive knowledge on the genes involved in santalol production and study their molecular regulation. To achieve this, sequences encoding farnesyl diphosphate synthase and santalene synthase were isolated from sandalwood using suppression subtraction hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis technology. Functional characterization of both the genes was done through enzyme assays and tissue-specific expression of both the genes was studied. To our knowledge, this is the first report on studies on molecular regulation, and tissue-specific expression of the genes involved in santalol biosynthesis.

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Occurrence of a black mildew i Santalum albu plantation a Anakulam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

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Biomimetic Synthesis of Santalin A,B and Santarubin A,B, the Major Colorants of Red Sandalwood

Biomimetic Synthesis of Santalin A,B and Santarubin A,B, the Major Colorants of Red Sandalwood | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Better late than never! Almost 200 years after Pelletier’s pioneering studies on the chemical constituents of red sandalwood, the major santalins and santarubins have been synthesized. This efficient approach integrates a Knochel isoflavonoid synthesis with Friedel–Crafts allylations or olefin metatheses, and a final biomimetic reaction cascade that furnishes the venerable benzoxanthenone dyes in a single operation (see scheme).

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Anthelmintic efficacy of Santalum album (Santalaceae) against monogenean infections in goldfish

Anthelmintic efficacy of Santalum album (Santalaceae) against monogenean infections in goldfish | Santalum album [Indian Sandalwood] | Scoop.it
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Abstract

Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. are helminth ectoparasites that are a significant threat to the aquaculture industry. Existing treatments could cause the threats of anthelmintic resistance, risk of residues, environmental contamination, and toxicity to fish. Importantly, there is no report on a treatment against these two parasites. This study explored the possibility of using the extracts of Santalum album to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections in goldfish. Results showed that among the four extracts (chloroform, methanol, ethyl acetate, and water) of S. album, the chloroform extract is the most effective and 40 mg/L is a safe and the lowest effective dosage. In addition, we found that Gyrodactylus elegans is more sensitive than Dactylogyrus intermedius when exposed to the extract of the medicinal plant. Finally, it is substantiated that bath treatment with long duration and multiple administrations could eliminate a greater proportion of monogenean infections. These findings show the potential for the development of effective and safe therapy to treat Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodactylus sp. infections of fishes.

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ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT AND IN SILICO ADMET PREDICTION OF SANTALUM ALBU L

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Anti-ulcer Activity of Sandalwood Santalum albumL.) Stem Hydr -alcoholic Extract in Three Gastri -Ulceration Models of Wistar Rat

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