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World's first computational psychiatry centre opens in London

World's first computational psychiatry centre opens in London | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Centre will use latest technology to gain insights into human cognition and learn how it becomes disrupted in disorders

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The worlds' first computational psychiatry centre has opened in London with a mission to shine a new light on human cognition and understand how it becomes disrupted in disorders such as depression and dementia.

Backed by a five-year €5m (£4.1m) investment from the Max Planck Society and UCL, the centre, which is named after its funders and will be based in London and Berlin, will use powerful modern technology in an effort to create more detailed models than ever before of how the human brain works.

Professor Ray Dolan, academic co-leader of the centre, said: "The brain is at some level an information processing machine and we have to understand what it's doing and how that information processor is working. We are trying to understand normal cognition with respect to the type of processes that go awry in psychiatric disorders and in ageing, we then intend to apply these models to understand ageing, depression or any other psychiatric disorders where we think the models may be appropriate. "


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P4 (predictive, preventive, personalized, partecipatory) medicine
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Zinc blood test could lead to early diagnosis of breast cancer

Zinc blood test could lead to early diagnosis of breast cancer | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Thanks to techniques normally used to analyze trace metal isotopes for studying climate change and planetary formation, early diagnosis of breast cancer could one day be possible via a simple bloo...

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'Huge breakthrough' in understanding how the immune system recognises cancer

'Huge breakthrough' in understanding how the immune system recognises cancer | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
US researchers have revealed the identity of molecules on the surface of cancer cells which allow the body's immune system to identify and destroy them.

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New device yields close-up look at cancer metastasis | KurzweilAI

New device yields close-up look at cancer metastasis | KurzweilAI | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Engineers at Johns Hopkins Institute for NanoBioTechnology (INBT) have invented a lab device to give cancer researchers an unprecedented microscopic look at metastasis (spread of tumor cells, causing more than 90 percent of cancer-related deaths), with the goal of eventually stopping the spread, described in their paper in the journal Cancer Report.

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Rescooped by Pasquale Valente from Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments
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Is Cancer Growth Nocturnal?

Is Cancer Growth Nocturnal? | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Scientists hope that their findings provide evidence that administering certain treatments in time with the body's day-night cycle could boost their efficiency.

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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, October 7, 11:36 AM

This study reveals there may be an advantage in considering the time of day when administering certain cancer treatments.

Professor Yosef Yarden of the Weizmann Institute of Science, one of the study's researchers, points out that "cancer treatments are often administered in the daytime, just when the patient's body is suppressing the spread of the cancer on its own."

You can read the full report published in the journal Nature Communications here - http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141003/ncomms6073/full/ncomms6073.html

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Clinical Applications of Circulating Tumor Cells in Lung Cancer Patients by CellSearch System

Clinical Applications of Circulating Tumor Cells in Lung Cancer Patients by CellSearch System | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

Abstract

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cells spread from the primary tumor into the bloodstream that might represent an important biomarker in lung cancer. The prognosis of patients diagnosed with lung cancer is generally poor mainly due to late diagnosis. Recent evidences have reported that tumor aggressiveness is associated with the presence of CTCs in the blood stream; therefore, several studies have focused their attention on CTC isolation, characterization, and clinical significance. So far, the CellSearch® system is the only approach approved by FDA for metastatic breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer intended to detect CTCs of epithelial origin in whole blood and to assess prognosis. To date, no specific biomarkers have been validated in lung cancer and the identification of novel tumor markers such as CTCs might highly contribute to lung cancer prognosis and management. In the present review, the significance of CTC detection in lung cancer is examined through the analysis of the published studies in both non-small cell and small cell lung cancers; additionally the prognostic and the clinical role of CTC enumeration in treatment monitoring will be reported and discussed.

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Rescooped by Pasquale Valente from Cancer - Advances, Knowledge, Integrative & Holistic Treatments
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Gene Discovered That May Lead to Stopping Metastasis in Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma and Other Cancers

Gene Discovered That May Lead to Stopping Metastasis in Lung Cancer, Mesothelioma and Other Cancers | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, September 13, 8:25 PM

In a study at the Salk Institute, Reuben Shaw, Professor of Molecular & Cell Biology says they have discovered a new anti-cancer gene that stops the spread of tumor cells throughout the body.

The Salk researchers realized that when lung cancer patients have an alteration in the LKB1 gene their tumors metastasized at a “much greater rate.” They then determined that LKB1 is capable of calling on another gene, DIXDC1, to manipulate the focal adhesions, freeing cancer cells to move about. LKB1, in effect, deactivated the standard workings of DIXDC1 that held the cells in place.

The researchers tested two methods to stop the communication between the two genes: block DIXDC1 directly, and delete LKB1. What they found instead was that by reactivating DIXDC1 cancer metastasis slowed.

Shaw noted that currently there are no treatments for cancers with mutations in LKB1 or DIXDC1. He believes treatments targeted to these two genes could be effective.

 

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Bert Vogelstein’s Liquid Biopsy Blood Test for DNA Could Stop Cancer | MIT Technology Review

Bert Vogelstein’s Liquid Biopsy Blood Test for DNA Could Stop Cancer | MIT Technology Review | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
He watched his brother die from a cancer no drug could cure. Now one of the world’s most renowned cancer researchers says it’s time for Plan B.
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‘Normal’ bacteria vital for keeping intestinal lining intact, preventing disorders | KurzweilAI

‘Normal’ bacteria vital for keeping intestinal lining intact, preventing disorders | KurzweilAI | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
These images show intestines of wild-type and knockout mice injected with dextran (red) and imaged using two-photon microscopy. DAPI (blue) shows stained cells
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Bacteria that aid in digestion keep the intestinal lining intact, scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and associates have found.

The findings, reported online in the journal Immunity, could yield new therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a wide range of other disorders.

The research involved the intestinal microbiome, which contains some 100 trillion bacteria. The role of these microorganisms in promoting or preventing disease is a major emerging field of study.

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Should We Be Thinking Differently About Cancer?

Should We Be Thinking Differently About Cancer? | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

After analyzing more than 3,500 tumors using different platforms, scientists propose cancers should be classified by molecular and genetic type instead of tissue of origin.


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Graham Player Ph.D.'s curator insight, August 8, 11:12 AM

Cancer is typically classified according to where the cancerous tissues originated. However new research from the University of California, San Francisco, is proposing cancer should instead be classified according to its genetic and molecular features.

Study author Chris Benz, a professor at the Buck Institute for Research on Aging in Novato, CA, points out that this study will improve design of clinical trials by helping to identify patients more likely to respond to new treatments based on the genomic reclassification of their tumors.

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Biomotor discovered in many bacteria and viruses

Biomotor discovered in many bacteria and viruses | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Nano-biotechnologists have reported the discovery of a new, third class of biomotor, unique in that it uses a "revolution without rotation" mechanism. These revolution biomotors are widespread among many bacteria and viruses.
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‘Rewired’ mice show signs of longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses | KurzweilAI

‘Rewired’ mice show signs of longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses | KurzweilAI | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

Mice lacking a specific protein (TRAP-1) live longer lives with fewer age-related illnesses, such as tissue degeneration, obesity, and spontaneous tumor formation, when compared with normal mice, researchers at The Wistar Institute have discovered.In healthy cells, TRAP-1 is an important regulator of metabolism and has been shown to regulate energy production in mitochondria, which are organelles that generate chemically useful energy for the cell.


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'Biological pacemaker' tested in lab

'Biological pacemaker' tested in lab | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Grow-your-own pacemakers are a step closer to reality, after pioneering experiments in pigs.
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Young mice blood may hold key to age-related diseases in humans - video

New studies suggest blood from young mice has rejuvenating effects on older mice, and may lead to new therapeutic approaches to age-related diseases in humans

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Rescooped by Pasquale Valente from DNA & RNA Research
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Warning Signs—Two studies identify pre-cancerous state in the blood

Warning Signs—Two studies identify pre-cancerous state in the blood | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

Researchers from the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Harvard Medical School and Harvard-affiliated hospitals have uncovered an easily detectable, “pre-malignant” state in the blood that significantly increases the likelihood that a person will go on to develop blood cancers such as leukemia, lymphoma or myelodysplastic syndrome.


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Trinity scientists make breakthrough in understanding Parkinson's disease - Science Codex

Trinity scientists make breakthrough in understanding Parkinson's disease - Science Codex | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
The scientists showed that the Parkin protein functions to repair or destroy damaged nerve cells, depending on the degree to which they are damaged People living with Parkinson's disease often have a mutated form of the Parkin gene, which may explain...

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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, November 15, 1:50 AM

 The problems in Parkinson's disease may be the failure to clear away sick nerve cells with faulty cellular battery packs, to make way for healthy replacements. Instead, sickly and dysfunctional nerve cells may accumulate, which effectively prevents the recruitment of fresh replacements.

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Study on effect of astragali radix polysaccharides in improving learning and memory functions in aged rats and its mechanism

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2014 Jun;39(11):2071-5. English Abstract; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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Abstract

To observe the effect of Astragali Radix polysaccharides (APS) on the learning and memory functions of aged rats, in order to explore its mechanism for improving the learning and memory functions. Natural aging female SD rats were selected in the animal model and randomly divided into the control group, the APS low-dose group (50 mg x kg(-1)), the APS high-dose group (150 mg x kg(-1)) and the piracetam-treated group (560 mg x kg(-1)). They were orally administered with the corresponding drugs for consecutively 60 days. Besides, a young control group was set. The learning and memory functions of the rats were tested by the open-field test and the Morris water maze task. The Western-blot method was used to observe the levels of relevant neural plasticity protein N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) in hippocampus, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), protein kinase (PKA), the phosphorylation level of CAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the protein expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF). In this study, the authors found that the learning and memory functions and the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression of the aged rat group were much lower than that of the young control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the aged rat group, the APS group showed the significant improvement in the impaired learning and memory functions of aged rats and the up-regulation in the hippocampus neural plasticity protein expression. The results showed that APS may improve the learning and memory functions of aged rats by increasing the expressions of relevant neural plasticity proteins.

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No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new 'sleep node' in the brain

No sedative necessary: Scientists discover new 'sleep node' in the brain | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
A sleep-promoting circuit located deep in the primitive brainstem has revealed how we fall into deep sleep. This is only the second 'sleep node' identified in the mammalian brain whose activity appears to be both necessary and sufficient to produce deep sleep.
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Stanford bioengineers close to brewing opioid painkillers | KurzweilAI

Stanford bioengineers close to brewing opioid painkillers | KurzweilAI | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Stanford Bioengineer Christina Smolke has been on a decade-long quest to genetically alter yeast so they can brew opioid medicines in stainless steel vats,

Stanford bioengineers have hacked the DNA of yeast, reprograming these simple cells to make opioid-based medicines* via a sophisticated extension of the basic brewing process that makes beer.

Led by Associate Professor of Bioengineering Christina Smolke, the Stanford team has already spent a decade genetically engineering yeast cells to reproduce the biochemistry of poppies, with the ultimate goal of producing opium-based medicines, from start to finish, in fermentation vats.

“We are now very close to replicating the entire opioid production process in a way that eliminates the need to grow poppies, allowing us to reliably manufacture essential medicines while mitigating the potential for diversion to illegal use,” said Smolke, who outlines her work in the August 24 edition of Nature Chemical Biology.

Smolke added five genes from two different organisms to yeast cells. Three of these genes came from the poppy itself, and the others from a bacterium that lives on poppy plant stalks.


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Do Gut Bacteria Rule Our Minds? | ucsf.edu

Do Gut Bacteria Rule Our Minds? | ucsf.edu | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
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Researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

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Pasquale Valente's curator insight, August 22, 4:57 AM

Researchers from UC San Francisco, Arizona State University and University of New Mexico concluded from a review of the recent scientific literature that microbes influence human eating behavior and dietary choices to favor consumption of the particular nutrients they grow best on, rather than simply passively living off whatever nutrients we choose to send their way.

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Implanted neuronal stem cells generate neurons and synapses, becoming a functioning part of mouse brain | KurzweilAI

Implanted neuronal stem cells generate neurons and synapses, becoming a functioning part of mouse brain | KurzweilAI | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

Part of a brain slice showing a functioning transplanted induced neural stem cell (green) fully integrated in the neuronal network of the brain (blue) (credit:


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Single injection reverses type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice without side effects

Single injection reverses type 2 diabetes symptoms in mice without side effects | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it

There are numerous research efforts underway to develop new treatments and improve the lives of people suffering type 2 diabetes, whose ranks have increased dramatically in recent decades due in large part to the so-called obesity epidemic. A new generation of safer and more effective diabetes drugs could be in the offing with researchers at the Salk Institute discovering that when mice with diet-induced diabetes were given a single injection of a protein, their blood sugar levels were restored to a healthy range for more than two days.

Although type 2 diabetes can sometimes be managed through a healthy diet and regular exercise in the initial stages, tablets that boost the body's production of insulin are generally prescribed as the disease progresses. Such tablets can have side effects, including nausea and diarrhea, and aren't suitable for everyone, such as pregnant women and those with severe liver, kidney or heart disease. They can also cause blood glucose levels to drop too low, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia.

Now Salk researchers have found that injecting obese mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes in humans with a single dose of protein FGF1 quickly restored their blood glucose levels to normal levels where they remained for more than two days. Importantly, even when given high doses, the mice suffered none of the side effects common to most current diabetes treatments, such as weight gain or heart and liver problems.


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Hieu Ngo's curator insight, August 6, 10:38 PM

There are so many diseases and health problems out there. Just as it seems when we might have gotten rid of a problem/disease, a new one pops up to take its place. Yet, this article shows that we can and will adapt as we have time and time again. Mankind will continue living on. Curing type 2 diabetes in mice is just a small step in curing type 2 diabetes in people. But sometimes, one small step can make all the difference.

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MP-MRI-US Fusion Targeted Biopsy: A Promising New Diagnostic Tool for Prostate Cancer

MP-MRI-US Fusion Targeted Biopsy: A Promising New Diagnostic Tool for Prostate Cancer | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
Specialized software now combines multiparametric MRI and transrectal ultrasound images to improve targeted biopsy of suspicious lesions. The technology has the potential to significantly improve localization and characterization of prostate cancer when added to a 12-core biopsy.
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WHO/Europe | Country profiles on noncommunicable diseases published

WHO/Europe | Country profiles on noncommunicable diseases published | Salus (Health) | Scoop.it
WHO has published profiles on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) for all Member States, including the 53 countries in the WHO European Region. Where data are available, the profiles estimate for each country the current burden of and recent trends in NCD mortality, the prevalence of selected major risk factors and the national health system’s capacity to respond. They update the profiles produced in 2011.
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