Terciana: Calentura intermitente que repite cada tercer día.Cuartana: Calentura, casi siempre de origen palúdico, que entra con frío, de cuatro en cuatro días. (Diccionario de la Lengua Española). Fue el médico militar francés Alphonse Laveran, del que hablaré en otro capítulo de esta serie, quien demostró en 1880, con la ayuda de un microscopio no muy potente, … Seguir leyendo
Aunque suene a una obra de literatura fantástica, lo conseguido estos días por un equipo de investigadores dispara la imaginación sobre los posibles usos y efectos. Han conseguido regenerar recuerdos y habilidades de aprendizaje de ratones ancianos inyectando en el cerebro sangre del cordón umbilical humano.
Objective To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide.
Design Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability.
Setting Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers.
Participants 548 721 individuals born 1987-91.
Main outcome measures Estimates of suicide risk at ages 15-24 calculated as incidence rate ratios adjusted for time at risk and confounders.
Results Adjusted incidence rate ratios for the relation between childhood adversity and suicide during adolescence and young adulthood ranged from 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.4) for residential instability to 2.9 (1.4 to 5.9) for suicide in the family. There was a dose-response relation between accumulating childhood adversity and risk: 1.1 (0.9 to 1.4) for those exposed to one adversity and 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) and 2.6 (1.9 to 3.4) for those exposed to two and three or more adversities, respectively. The association with increased risk of suicide remained even after adjustment for school performance and childhood psychopathology.
Conclusion Childhood adversity is a risk factor for suicide in adolescence and young adulthood, particularly accumulated adversity. These results emphasise the importance of understanding the social mechanisms of suicide and the need for effective interventions early in life, aiming to alleviate the risk in disadvantaged children.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is mixed evidence from correlational studies that breastfeeding impacts children’s development. Propensity score matching with large samples can be an effective tool to remove potential bias from observed confounders in correlational studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of breastfeeding on children’s cognitive and noncognitive development at 3 and 5 years of age.
METHODS: Participants included ∼8000 families from the Growing Up in Ireland longitudinal infant cohort, who were identified from the Child Benefit Register and randomly selected to participate. Parent and teacher reports and standardized assessments were used to collect information on children’s problem behaviors, expressive vocabulary, and cognitive abilities at age 3 and 5 years. Breastfeeding information was collected via maternal report. Propensity score matching was used to compare the average treatment effects on those who were breastfed.
RESULTS: Before matching, breastfeeding was associated with better development on almost every outcome. After matching and adjustment for multiple testing, only 1 of the 13 outcomes remained statistically significant: children’s hyperactivity (difference score, –0.84; 95% confidence interval, –1.33 to –0.35) at age 3 years for children who were breastfed for at least 6 months. No statistically significant differences were observed postmatching on any outcome at age 5 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Although 1 positive benefit of breastfeeding was found by using propensity score matching, the effect size was modest in practical terms. No support was found for statistically significant gains at age 5 years, suggesting that the earlier observed benefit from breastfeeding may not be maintained once children enter school.
Aunque un número creciente de guías y sociedades médicas internacionales ya proponen el enfoque quirúrgico para el tratamiento de la diabetes de tipo 2 no controlada, subsisten barreras para el acceso a dicha intervención.
This report looks at the large amounts of mental health related discussion taking place on public online forums, and explores whether computational techniques can provide robust, actionable insight from these conversations.
The report was written by the Centre for the Analysis of Social Media (CASM) at Demos in partnership with The King’s Fund. It was funded by the Wellcome Trust
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