rodonnell-hixenbaugh: Roman Terracotta Provacator Gladiator An ancient Roman terracotta statuette upper part of a provacator gladiator. www.hixenbaugh.net
Julio Peña's insight:
Interesting little figurine. While looking at the three pictures included in the link I noticed a couple of things: a) A small pugio? b) Is his shield 4-sectional or is that artistic convention? c) If one sees in the back as in the picture above one may notice the straps which I think are holding the "manica".
In the late Republican and early Imperial era, the armament of a provocator ("challenger") mirrored legionary armature. In the later Imperial period, their armament ceased to reflect its military origins, and changes in armament followed changes in arena fashion only. Provocatores have been shown wearing a loincloth, a belt, a long greave on the left leg, a manica on the lower right arm, and a visored helmet without brim or crest, but with a feather on each side. They were the only gladiators protected by a breastplate (cardiophylax) which is usually rectangular, later often crescent-shaped. They fought with a tall, rectangular shield and the gladius. They were paired only against other provocatores."
Family matters, Economy, culture and biology: fertility and its constraints in Roman Italy Saskia Hin (Leiden University and Stanford University) Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics, October (2007) Abstract This article approaches the...
LYDIA, Sardis. Diva Claudia Octavia. Died AD 62. Æ (18mm, 6.11 g, 12h). Mindios, strategos for the second time. ΘEAN OKTAOYIAN, draped bust right, wearing wreath of grain ears / Veiled female standing right, holding scepter.
Julio Peña's insight:
From the site:
"Beloved by the populace but hated by her husband, Claudia Octavia’s marriage to her stepbrother Nero was an unhappy one. When an affair with his mistress Poppaea Sabina resulted in pregnancy, Nero divorced Octavia and had her banished to the island of Pandateria on a false (and ironic) charge of adultery. The Roman population demanded for her return, but she was soon after executed on the order of Poppaea. cngcoins.com"