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South Korean Researchers Turn Rice Husks Into Silicon Battery Anodes DailyTech Rice is a staple crop of much of the world, but it's also a big waste generator. On average 20 percent of rice by weight is discarded.
To provide a clean and affordable source of energy and prevent deforestation, Tanzanian resident Bjarne Laustsen has developed a pressing machine to turn agricultural residues into pellets. In Tanzania, 1 kg of pellets (made from maize cobs and stalks, rice and coffee husks, cashew nut shells, wheat and barley straw, cotton and simsim stalks, sugarcane leaves and bagasse) sells for Tsh350 (€0.15), around half the price of charcoal. Laustsen has also developed a stove, called Jiko Bomba - Swahili for best stove - that can burn the pellets and costs Tsh20,000 (€9). “The stove has no smoke while lighting or using, unlike firewood which has constant smoke,” says Arusha resident Magdalena Ayo.
“With huge amounts of agricultural biomass destroyed each year as farmers prepare farms for planting, the new technology will benefit a lot of people in Tanzania and other African countries,” explains Agripina Kiwalae Mboya, who used to look for firewood in her local forest. “We should worry about our future generation, because if we don’t address the problem now, we shall leave no good climate for them,” Ayo adds.
Treehugger Rice-husks could build better batteries Treehugger "To find out, Choi's team chemically converted the rice husk silica – or silicon dioxide – into pure silicon and then fashioned battery electrodes out of the material.
Rice husks could contribute to high performance batteries Energy Harvesting Journal A team of researchers from several Korean universities have discovered a way of converting silica from rice husks into silicon for use in high performance lithium...
Indigenous method of Rodent Management in RiceContributed by rkmp.drr on Fri, 2011-06-24 10:23
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1. In rice fields, nearer to the bunds big mud pots are immersed to half of its height. Half of the mud pots are filled with water and chaffy paddy is put into it. The chaffy paddy mixed with the water emit a type of smell like the grain storage structure. Attracted by this smell, the rats jump into the pot but can’t come out of it as it is half empty. Farmers then catch the rats and kill them. This practice is prevalent in Kerala. Reported by Abraham(1997) 2. Generally rats attack the rice crop at vegetative, ripening and harvesting stages and creates maximum damage to the crop. To control the rats, farmers use 10 kilograms of kuvalaikai (Cannabis sativa L) seeds, crushed into pieces and tied in a gunny bag. While irrigating the rice fields, the gunny bag is kept in the channel. The juice from the crushed seeds and the obnoxious smell mix into the water and spread into the whole field. This acts as a repellent driving away the rats from the fields and protecting the rice crop. This is very popular among the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000) 3. Farmers use 3 liters of motor oil mixed it with water while irrigating the field. Rats do not like the smell of motor oil and hence keep away from the rice fields. Reported by Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000) 4. Ten kilograms of fresh cow dung is mixed with 1½ liters of kerosene and the mixture is made into small balls and allowed to dry upto 75% moisture content. Then the balls are kept near the burrows at 10 feet interval. The smell emitting from the balls acts as a repellant and drives away the rats from rice fields. Reported by Abraham(1997) 5. Three-fourth ripened papaya fruits are cut into pieces and kept near the rat burrows and bunds of the rice fields. When rats eat the papaya pieces, the milk of the papaya pieces get into the gums of the rat. This milk not only disturbs the rats but also create some injury in the gums of the rat. This will prevent them from attacking the rice crop. They also cannot sharpen their teeth by cutting the tillers leading to excess growth of teeth and disturbing their food collection. Reported by Ulluwishewa(1993) 6. Roasted groundnut powder and mixed with little amount of jaggery and cement is used to kill the rats. This mixture is kept on the bunds of rice fields. Few hours after consuming it, the cement get solidified like concrete and affect the digestive system of the rats which ultimately leads to their death. This practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Kanagasababathy(1993) 7. Chappathi made up of wheat flour can be made into small pieces and it can be mixed with honey or jaggery and cement. Rats like this chappathi pieces due to the sweet taste. But after few hours of eating they die because the cement get solidified. This practiced in Karnataka. Reported by Hegde(1997) 8. At the time of tillering and booting stages of rice crop, the pods of groundnut, castor seed shells, or husks of pearl millet/ finger miller/ paddy are spread at the rate of 10 bags per acre. If practiced twice with a gap of ten days the rats can be controlled. It is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Vijaylakshmi and Sundar(1998) 9. Roasted gingley powder or groundnut powder mixedwith five percent jaggery in liquid form and five percent fused bulb powder is kept in the rice field. Ten minutes after eating the mixture the rats will die. This is practiced in Uttar Pradesh. Reported by Narain Singh(2000) 10. Small pieces of cotton wicks soaked with jaggery solution are kept on the bunds of the rice fields. After eating the jaggery solution coated wicks the rats will die due to suffocation in its respiratory system. Reported by C.A. Mathew(1998) 11. Half a kilogram of jatropha seed powder is boiled in 2-3 liters of water. After filtering the decoction, one kilogram of sorghum is added and cooked again. The cooked seeds of sorghum is spread on the bunds of the rice fields where rat menace is prevalent. After eating the cooked sorghum seed the rats will die instantly. This very popular in Tamil nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Reported by Prakash(2000) 12. Fumigating rat burrows with Milagu (Pepper Corns: Piper nigrum L ) and Tippili (Jawa Pepper Corn : Piper longum ) will instantly kill the rats in rice fields. This practice is prevalent in Kerala. Reported by Hegde(2000) 13. By growing glyricida plant near the rice godowns rat’s movement can be controlled. Spreading the leaves of glyricidia inside the paddy store room and closing all the windows and ventilation points, also helps to control rats. The smell from the leaves of glyricidia acts as a repellent. Reported by Patel(1994) 14. Between the bunds and the main rice field, 3 feet gap is to be maintained and in this gap, empty bottles are kept with the mouth of the bottles facing opposite to the wind direction. When the air enters into the glass bottle it creates a type of noise which is highly allergic to the rodents. Hence, a minimum rat attack can be noticed. Karnataka farmers are practicing this technique. Reported by Abraham(1998) 15. In rice fields, farmers erect nine feet stick or coconut stalk in reverse position. This is acts as a bird perch. At night time, owl or other nocturnal birds will sit and prey on the rats. This one of the cost effective measures of rat control followed by rice farmers. Reported by K.Lakshmana(2000) 16. A paste made by grinding neem seeds and wild Puthina is made into small balls and kept near the burrows in the rice field. After eating these balls the rats become sterile, hence their multiplication (reproductive behavior) will be checked. This is used by the farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Vijaylakshmi and Sundar(2008) 17. Fully cooked parboiled paddy is mixed with furadon granules and spread in the bunds, near burrows and other rat infested places in the rice fields. Rats are attracted to the smell of parboiled rice and eat it. After consuming the parboiled paddy, the rat will die within hours. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Kanagasabapathi(1993) 18. Three kilograms of sorghum seeds are tied in a cloth bag and soaked in 4 liters of water wherein one kilogram of urea is dissolved. After eight hours the sorghum seeds are taken out of the urea dissolved water. The sorghum seeds are spread near the burrows of the rice field. Soon after consuming the sorghum seeds the rats die. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by VE.Sabarathinam(1998) 19. Polythene papers (usually the fertilizer bags) are tied in bamboo sticks and kept in the rice fields at regular interval. When the wind blows, the paper (polythene bags) create a type of sound, which control the rat movement in rice fields. This technique is very popular in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Reported by VE. Sabarathinam(1998) 20. Scare crow (like effigy) made up of paddy straw and covered with white cloth is kept in the paddy field. Rats get scared by seeing the scare crow and evade attacking the rice crop. It is practiced in all the rice growing areas in India. Reported by VE. Sabarathinam(1998) 21. At evening time crackers are burst on the paddy field bunds to scare the rodents. Reported by Yadav(1993) 22. Moultings by snakes are kept on the bunds of the rice field. Seeing the moulting of snakes in rice field rats shift their habitat from the rice fields, which ultimately reduce the damage of rice crop by rats. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Reported by Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000) 23. Farmers believe that the presence of the Gaviribethi snake improves crop yields because it preys on rodents. Reported by K. Lakshmana(2000) 24. The fruits of Kaunj posses small hairs which cause itching in animals as well as in humans when contacted. The fruit skins of kaunj are kept in the rat holes. This causes severe itching in rats when they come in contact with these fruits. The raw material is locally available in Uttar Pradesh as grows abundantly in wild conditions. Reported by Madhavanand Joshi(2000) 25. Leaves of bharalkans (Saccharum spontaneum) are collected from bunds of the fields or road sides. Five to six leaves are placed on the bunds in a continuous row on all sides of the field. The serrated margins of bharalkans cause injury to the rats and thus prevents them from damaging fields. The practice is followed in Manda villge of Bareilley district in Uttar Pradesh, and is used for the last 45 years. Reported by Sher Singh (2000) 26. 3’–4’ long pieces of bhara grass are kept on the bunds continuously. This prevents entrance of rats to fields. Many villages and blocks of districts of Badaun, Bareilly, Rampur and Shajahanpur in Uttar Pradesh follow this practice. Reported by Husan Afzal(1999)
Better batteries from rice husk The Hindu Lithium-ion (Li) batteries are important for modern technological progress because they power the electronics and hybrid electric vehicles industries, and are an important component of renewable energy...
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