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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
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OsCPK20 positively regulates Arabidopsis resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and rice resistance against Magnaporthe grisea - Online First - Springer

OsCPK20 positively regulates Arabidopsis resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and rice resistance against Magnaporthe grisea - Online First - Springer | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Calcium-dependent protein kinases are important decoders of calcium signals in plants, which are involved in plant immunity. We report isolation and functional characterization of a pathogen-responsive OsCPK20 gene in rice. The expression of OsCPK20 in rice was significantly induced following treatment with a Magnaporthe grisea elicitor. Transgenic rice plants containing constitutively active OsCPK20 exhibited enhanced resistance to blast fungus M. grisea. We also found thatOsCPK20 was significantly induced by drought stress, indicating that OsCPK20 might be involved in plant response to drought stress.

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Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice

Effect of root and leaf applications of soluble silicon on blast development in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

This study aimed to compare root and foliar supply of soluble silicon (Si) on rice resistance to blast. The application of soluble Si to the roots increased Si concentration in leaf tissues as compare to plants grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. There was no increase in leaf Si concentration after soluble Si spray, regardless if the leaves were washed or not before analysis. X-ray microanalysis revealed that Si deposition was very similar on the leaf epidermis of plants sprayed with soluble Si, root amended with soluble Si or grown in soil amended with calcium silicate. The lesion size, the number of lesions per cm2 of leaf and the area under blast progress curve were reduced for rice plants grown in soil that received the application of soluble Si or was amended with calcium silicate. The results of this study showed that the supply of soluble Si to the roots or its spray onto to the rice leaves can decrease blast symptoms.

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Nitric oxide: an effective weapon of the plant or the pathogen? - Molecular Plant Pathology -

Nitric oxide: an effective weapon of the plant or the pathogen? -  Molecular Plant Pathology - | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Abstract

An explosion of research in plant NO biology during the last two decades has revealed that nitric oxide (NO) is a key signal involved in plant development, abiotic stress responses and plant immunity. In the course of evolutionary changes microorganisms parasitizing on plants have developed highly effective offensive strategies, in which NO seems to be implicated as well. NO production was evidenced in several plant pathogens including fungi, but the origin of NO seems to be as puzzling as in plants. So far, published studies are spread over multiple species of pathogenic microorganisms in various developmental stages; however, the data clearly indicate that pathogen-derived NO is an important regulatory molecule involved not only in developmental processes, but also in pathogen virulence and its survival in the host. This review is also focused on the search for potential mechanisms, by which pathogens convert NO message into a physiological response or detoxify both endo- and exogenous NO. Finally, reaching for the data available from the model bacteria and yeast, a basic draft for the mode of NO action in phytopathogenic microorganisms is proposed.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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XVI IS-MPMI 2014, Rhodes, Greece

XVI IS-MPMI 2014, Rhodes, Greece | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
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Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, October 31, 2013 9:39 AM

MPMI is always my favorite conference. Great topics. Great speakers. Great locations. I hope to see you there!

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Sensitivity of non-exposed and exposed populations of Magnaporthe oryzae from rice to tricyclazole and azoxystrobin

Rice blast management is based predominantly on the application of fungicides, however, only little is known about responses of pathogen populations to the most widely used fungicides. In this work, the baseline sensitivity of the Italian M. oryzae population to tricyclazole and azoxystrobin in terms of mycelium growth was determined, and the possible adaptation of the pathogen population after several years of repeated exposure to fungicide treatments was evaluated. The shift of the pathogen sensitivity towards these fungicides has not occurred. Therefore, both azoxystrobin and tricyclazole can be used to manage rice blast in Italy, but it will be important to continue monitoring M. oryzae population to early detect possible azoxystrobin resistance.

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Genetic variation and evolution of the Pit blast resistance locus in rice

Genetic variation and evolution of the Pit blast resistance locus in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Resistance (R) gene Pit in rice, encodes a protein with nucleotide binding sites–leucine rich repeat domain, prevents infections by strains of Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene for gene manner. Here, we analyzed the open reading frame (ORF) of Pit in 26 varieties and nine accessions of wild rice relatives. Translation of these ORFs revealed a total of 11 Pit variants, seven of which were novel. These results suggest that Pit is an ancient gene that exists before formation of rice domestication subgroups

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Overexpression of constitutively active OsCPK10 increases Arabidopsis resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and rice resistance against Magnaporthe grisea

Overexpression of constitutively active OsCPK10 increases Arabidopsis resistance against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and rice resistance against Magnaporthe grisea | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
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Rice WRKY13 Regulates Crosstalk between Abiotic and Biotic Stress Signaling Pathways by Selective Binding to Different cis-Elements

Rice WRKY13 Regulates Crosstalk between Abiotic and Biotic Stress Signaling Pathways by Selective Binding to Different cis-Elements | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Rice WRKY13 plays a vital role in the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress signaling pathways by suppressing abiotic stress resistance and activating disease resistance. However, it is not clear how WRKY13 directly regulates this crosstalk. Here, we show that WRKY13 is a transcriptional repressor. During rice response to drought stress and bacterial infection, WRKY13 selectively bound to certain site- and sequence-specific cis-elements on the promoters of SNAC1, the overexpression of which increases drought resistance, and WRKY45-1, the knockout of which increases both bacterial disease and drought resistance.

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Comparison between the resistance to blast in panicles exserted from the main culm and primary tillers as measured in six rice varieties - Online First - Springer

Three rice japonica varieties Jiajing3768, Xiushui09, and Xiushui63 and three rice indica varieties Qianyou930, Liangyoupeijiu, and Liangyou6326 were used to analyze the resistance to neck blast, comparing panicles excised from the main culm and from the first primary tiller. Disease incidence in the necks, disease incidence in the rachis nodes, lesion length in the necks, and number of conidia in the necks were measured after artificial inoculation of excised neck pieces. Resistance to neck blast was higher in the panicles excised from the main culm than from the first primary tiller for the varieties Jiajing3768, Xiushui63, and Liangyou6326. However, the opposite was true for Xiushui09 and Liangyoupeijiu. In Qianyou930, the type of panicles had no significant influence on the resistance to neck blast.

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Summa Phytopathologica - Diagrammatic scale for the assessment of blast on wheat spikes

Summa Phytopathologica - Diagrammatic scale for the assessment of blast on wheat spikes | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The correct quantification of blast caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae on wheat (Triticum aestivum) spikes is an important component to understand the development of this disease aimed at its control. Visual quantification based on a diagrammatic scale can be a practical and efficient strategy that has already proven to be useful against several plant pathosystems, including diseases affecting wheat spikes

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Nature Reviews Microbiology: Focus on Plant Microbe Interactions (2013)

Nature Reviews Microbiology: Focus on Plant Microbe Interactions (2013) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Microbial ecology: A bacterial decoy skews plant defences

Christina Tobin Kåhrström

 

Symbiosis: Non-legumes answer the rhizobial call

Rachel David

 

RNA silencing suppression by plant pathogens: defence, counter-defence and counter-counter-defence

Nathan Pumplin & Olivier Voinnet

 

On the front line: structural insights into plant–pathogen interactions

Lennart Wirthmueller, Abbas Maqbool & Mark J. Banfield

 

Geminiviruses: masters at redirecting and reprogramming plant processes

Linda Hanley-Bowdoin, Eduardo R. Bejarano, Dominique Robertson & Shahid Mansoor

 

Going back to the roots: the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere

Laurent Philippot, Jos M. Raaijmakers, Philippe Lemanceau & Wim H. van der Putten

 

Filamentous plant pathogen effectors in action

Martha C. Giraldo & Barbara Valent


Via Nicolas Denancé, Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Steve Marek's curator insight, October 17, 2013 12:49 PM

Great Review Issue!

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Sugar homeostasis mediated by cell wall invertase GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1) plays a role in pre-existing and induced defence in rice - Sun - 2013 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online ...

Sugar homeostasis mediated by cell wall invertase GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1) plays a role in pre-existing and induced defence in rice - Sun - 2013 - Molecular Plant Pathology - Wiley Online ... | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Sugar metabolism and sugar signalling are not only critical for plant growth and development, but are also important for stress responses. However, how sugar homeostasis is involved in plant defence against pathogen attack in the model crop rice remains largely unknown. In this study, we observed that the grains of gif1, a loss-of-function mutant of the cell wall invertase gene GRAIN INCOMPLETE FILLING 1 (GIF1), were hypersusceptible to postharvest fungal pathogens, with decreased levels of sugars and a thinner glume cell wall in comparison with the wild-type. Interestingly, constitutive expression of GIF1 enhanced resistance to both the rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The GIF1-overexpressing (GIF1-OE) plants accumulated higher levels of glucose, fructose and sucrose compared with the wild-type plants. More importantly, higher levels of callose were deposited in GIF1-OE plants during pathogen infection. Moreover, the cell wall was much thicker in the infection sites of the GIF1-OE plants when compared with the wild-type plants. We also found that defence-related genes were constitutively activated in the GIF1-OE plants. Taken together, our study reveals that sugar homeostasis mediated by GIF1 plays an important role in constitutive and induced physical and chemical defence.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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BMC Plant Biology | Full text | Genome-wide identification of WRKY45-regulated genes that mediate benzothiadiazole-induced defense responses in rice

BMC Plant Biology | Full text | Genome-wide identification of WRKY45-regulated genes that mediate benzothiadiazole-induced defense responses in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The rice transcription factor WRKY45 plays a crucial role in salicylic acid (SA)/benzothiadiazole (BTH)-induced disease resistance. Its knockdown severely reduces BTH-induced resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae(Xoo). Conversely, overexpression of WRKY45 induces extremely strong resistance to both of these pathogens. To elucidate the molecular basis of WRKY45-dependent disease resistance, we analyzed WRKY45-regulated gene expression using rice transformants and a transient gene expression system.

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Estimation of Blast Severity on Rye and Triticale Spikes by Digital Image Analysis

Estimation of Blast Severity on Rye and Triticale Spikes by Digital Image Analysis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In Brazil, more efficient methods are a necessity for evaluating blast severity on spikes in the breeding programs of rye, triticale, wheat, and barley. The objective of this work was to determine the feasibility of assessing blast severity based on the analysis of digital images of symptomatic rye and triticale spikes. Blast severity was determined using the program ImageJ to analyze the obtained images. Two methods of image analysis were used: selection of symptomatic areas using a mouse cursor (SCU) and selection of symptomatic areas using image segmentation (SIS).  The obtained data indicate that the evaluation of blast severity on spikes based on image segmentation is feasible and reliable.

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Application of resistance gene analog markers to analyses of genetic structure and diversity in rice

Application of resistance gene analog markers to analyses of genetic structure and diversity in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Plant disease resistance gene analog (RGA) markers were designed according to the conserved sequence of known RGAs and used to map resistance genes. We used genome-wide RGA markers for genetic analyses of structure and diversity in a global rice germplasm collection. Of the 472 RGA markers, 138 were polymorphic and these were applied to 178 entries selected from the USDA rice core collection. However, unlike SSR markers, the RGA markers failed to differentiate temperate japonica, tropical japonica, and aromatic subgroups. Genetic differentiation obtained using RGA markers may be useful for defining genetic diversity of a suite of random R genes in plants, as many studies show a differentiation of resistance to a wide array of pathogens. 


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CEBiP is the major chitin oligomer-binding protein in rice and plays a main role in the perception of chitin oligomers

CEBiP is the major chitin oligomer-binding protein in rice and plays a main role in the perception of chitin oligomers | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

CEBiP, a plasma membrane-localized glycoprotein of rice, directly binds with chitin elicitors (CE) To further clarify the function of CEBiP, we produced CEBiP-disrupted rice plants by applying an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated gene-targeting system based on homologous recombination, which has recently been developed for rice. Nevertheless, we observed a significant decrease in disease resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of rice blast disease, only when the cebipleaf sheaths were inoculated with a weakly virulent strain, suggesting that CE perception during the infection process of M. oryzae is limited. The response to peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharides incebip cells was not affected, strongly suggesting that CEBiP is a CE-specific receptor.

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Relationship between Disease Resistance and Rice Oxalate Oxidases in Transgenic Rice

Relationship between Disease Resistance and Rice Oxalate Oxidases in Transgenic Rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Differential expression of rice oxalate oxidase genes (OsOxO1-4) in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) in response to biotic stress was assayed using RT-PCR. OsOxO4 was induced transiently at 12 h in plants inoculated with the pathogens of bacterial blight and that of the wounding control. Inoculation with the rice blast pathogen induced OsOxO2 expression compared to the mock spray control. Overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 in rice resulted in elevated transcript levels of the respective transgene as well as OsOxO3 in leaves compared to that in untransformed wild type (WT). In a line of RNA-i transgenic rice plants (i-12), expression of all four OsOxO genes except that of OsOxO2 was severely inhibited. Oxalate oxidase (OxO, EC 1.2.3.4) activity in plants overexpressing OsOxO1 or OsOxO4 was substantially higher than that in WT and the RNA-i lines. It was found that transgenic rice plants with substantially higher OxO activity were not more resistant to rice blast and bacterial blight than WT. In contrast, some RNA-i lines with less OxO activity seemed to be more resistant to rice blast while some overexpressing lines were more susceptible to rice blast than WT. Therefore, OxO might not be a disease resistance factor in rice.

 

 


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Identification of blast resistance in a core collection of foxtail millet germplasm

Identification of blast resistance in a core collection of foxtail millet germplasm | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Blast, also known as leaf spot, caused by Pyricularia grisea, is a serious disease affecting both forage and grain production in foxtail millet in India. For the identification of new and diverse sources of blast resistance, a foxtail millet core collection comprising 155 accessions was evaluated against Patancheru isolate (Fx 57) of M. grisea: field screen and greenhouse screen. Two accessions (ISe 1181 and ISe 1547) were free from head blast infection and showed resistance to leaf (score ≤3.0 on a 1-to-9 scale), neck and sheath blast (score ≤2.0 on a 1-to-5 scale) against all the four isolates. In addition, ISe 1067 and ISe 1575 also exhibited high levels of blast resistance. 

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Gene editing a constitutively active OsRac1 by homologous recombination-based gene targeting induces immune responses in rice

Gene editing a constitutively active OsRac1 by homologous recombination-based gene targeting induces immune responses in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

OsRac1 is a member of the plant small GTPase Rac/Rop family and plays a key role in rice immunity. The constitutively active (CA) G19V mutation of OsRac1 was previously shown to induce ROS production, phytoalexin synthesis, and defense gene activation leading to resistance to rice blast infection. To further study the effect of the G19V mutation in disease resistance, we introduced a single base substitution by gene targeting and removed the selectable marker using Cre-loxP site-specific recombination. These results suggest that gene targeting will provide mutations useful for gene function studies and crop improvement.

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Rapidly evolving R genes in diverse grass species confer resistance to rice blast disease

Rapidly evolving R genes in diverse grass species confer resistance to rice blast disease | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We found that many rapidly evolving plant resistance genes (R genes) in maize, sorghum, brachypodium, and rice confer resistance to one or more strains of rice blast disease when present in a rice cultivar genome. These findings suggest that rapidly evolving R genes and fungal pathogen effectors may follow only limited evolutionary pathways to increase fitness, an evolutionary mechanism we call “constrained divergence.” Molecular phylogenetics may afford an efficient approach to R-gene identification and an alternative to map-based cloning.

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Two Conidiation-related Zn(II)2Cys6 Transcription Factor Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus

Two Conidiation-related Zn(II)2Cys6 Transcription Factor Genes in the Rice Blast Fungus | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Two Zn(II)2Cys6 transcription factors were characterized in the rice blast fungus.

Conidia production was greatly reduced in both mutants.

The conidiogenesis-related genes were similarly regulated in both mutants.

MoCOD1 is involved in signal transduction and invasive growth within host cells.

Deletion of MoCOD2 induces host defense responses, resulting in no pathogenicity.

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Differential Proteome and Secretome Analysis During Rice–Pathogen Interaction - Springer

We have found, however, that most proteins of interest are low abundant so that proper prefractionation or extraction of secreted proteins from extracellular space (ECS) in the rice leaf is required to excavate relevant protein. This chapter describes the preparation of sample and extraction procedure to enrich the proteins interested before separation by 2-DE or LC-MS/MS. This method significantly increases the sensitivity of proteomic comparisons.

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The Scientist: Mislabeled Microbes Cause Two Retractions (2013)

The Scientist: Mislabeled Microbes Cause Two Retractions (2013) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Two samples of bacteria that were mislabeled several years ago have led to the retraction of two papers, including a highly-cited one published in Science.

 

In 2009, a team of scientists from the University of California, Davis, led by plant geneticist Pamela Ronald, identified a bacterial molecule that is recognized by the immune system of rice plants. It was the culmination of the lab’s longstanding quest to understand how this vital crop thwarts infections, and the paper has since been cited 131 times.

 

But when new lab members could not repeat the earlier results, the team discovered that one of the previous experiments had been done with mislabeled bacterial strains, while another had used an unreliable test. Ronald announced the problems to others in the field at conferences, and has now retracted the paper.

 

“There was never any question, even from the people who did the original work, that we do anything different than retract the paper if it was wrong,” said Ronald. “We didn’t want to mislead anyone else.”


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, CP
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Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, October 18, 2013 11:45 AM
One study on X oryzicola Ax21 did not involve Ax21 assays on Xa21 rice says Corresponding Author (comment by Golden) http://t.co/XKgWRyp0K8
Kamoun Lab @ TSL's comment, October 18, 2013 11:46 AM
On the other hand paper on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Ax21 removed from Phytopathology site but still in pubmed http://t.co/ZYfSUxfYXH
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Global gene expression in rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae treated with a natural rice soil isolate - Online First - Springer

Global gene expression in rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae treated with a natural rice soil isolate - Online First - Springer | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The rhizospheric microbiome is comprised of many microbes, some of which reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic neighbors; however, the mechanisms underlying these interactions are largely unknown. Rice soil isolate Pseudomonas chlororaphis EA105 strongly inhibits Magnaporthe oryzae’s in vitro growth by restricting fungal diameter as well as inhibiting the formation of the appressorium, required for penetration. We were interested in elucidating M. oryzae’s response to EA105 treatment, and utilized a microarray approach to obtain a global perspective of EA105 elicited changes in this pathogen.

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PLOS ONE: The MET13 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Essential for Infection-Related Morphogenesis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

PLOS ONE: The MET13 Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Is Essential for Infection-Related Morphogenesis in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs) play a key role in the biosynthesis of methionine in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we report the identification of a novel T-DNA-tagged mutant WH672 in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, which was defective in vegetative growth, conidiation and pathogenicity. All phenotypes associated with Δmet13 mutants could be overcome by addition of exogenous methionine.  We conclude that the MTHFR gene, MET13, is essential for infection-related morphogenesis by the rice blast fungus M. oryzae.

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