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Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
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Rice terpene synthase 24 (OsTPS24) encodes a jasmonate-responsive monoterpene synthase that produces an antibacterial γ-terpinene against rice pathogen

Rice terpene synthase 24 (OsTPS24) encodes a jasmonate-responsive monoterpene synthase that produces an antibacterial γ-terpinene against rice pathogen | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice is one of the most important crops worldwide and is widely used as a model plant for molecular studies of monocotyledonous species. The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in rice-pathogen interactions. In addition, volatile compounds, including terpenes, whose production is induced by JA, are known to be involved in the rice defense system. In this study, we analyzed the JA-induced terpene synthase OsTPS24 in rice. We found that OsTPS24 was localized in chloroplasts and produced a monoterpene, γ-terpinene. The amount of γ-terpinene increased after JA treatment. γ-Terpinene had significant antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo); however, it did not show significant antifungal activity against Magnaporthe oryzae. The antibacterial activity of the γ-terpinene against Xoo was caused by damage to bacterial cell membranes. These results suggest that γ-terpinene plays an important role in JA-induced resistance against Xoo, and that it functions as an antibacterial compound in rice.
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Magnaporthe oryzae-Secreted Protein MSP1 Induces Cell Death and Elicits Defense Responses in Rice

Magnaporthe oryzae-Secreted Protein MSP1 Induces Cell Death and Elicits Defense Responses in Rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The Magnaporthe oryzae snodprot1 homolog (MSP1), secreted by M. oryzae, is a cerato-platanin family protein. msp1-knockout mutants have reduced virulence on barley leaves, indicating that MSP1 is required for the pathogenicity of rice blast fungus. To investigate the functional roles of MSP1 and its downstream signaling in rice, recombinant MSP1 was produced in E. coli and assayed for its functionality. Application of MSP1 triggered cell death and elicited defense responses in rice. MSP1 also induced H2O2 production and autophagic cell death in both suspension-cultured cells and rice leaves. Protein kinase(s) triggered cell death, and jasmonic acid and abscisic acid enhanced cell death, while salicylic acid suppressed it. We demonstrated that the secretion of MSP1 into the apoplast is a prerequisite for triggering cell death and activating defense-related gene expression. Furthermore, pre-treatment of rice with a sub-lethal MSP1 concentration potentiated resistance to the pathogen. Taken together, our results showed that MSP1 induces a high degree of cell death in plants, which might be essential for its virulence. Moreover, rice can recognize MSP1, resulting in the induction of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity.
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Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection

Introgression of Blast Resistance Genes (Putative Pi-b and Pi-kh) into Elite Rice Cultivar MR219 through Marker-Assisted Selection | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Blast is the most common biotic stress leading to the reduction of rice yield in many rice-growing areas of the world, including Malaysia. Improvement of blast resistance of rice varieties cultivated in blast endemic areas is one of the most important objectives of rice breeding programs. In this study, the marker-assisted backcrossing strategy was applied to improve the blast resistance of the most popular Malaysian rice variety MR219 by introgressing blast resistance genes from the Pongsu Seribu 2 variety. Two blast resistance genes, Pi-b and Pi-kh, were pyramided into MR219. Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified 15 plants homozygous for the Pi-b and Pi-kh genes, and background selection revealed more than 95% genome recovery of MR219 in advanced blast resistant lines. Phenotypic screening against blast disease indicated that advanced homozygous blast resistant lines were strongly resistant against pathotype P7.2 in the blast disease endemic areas. The morphological, yield, grain quality, and yield-contributing characteristics were significantly similar to those of MR219. The newly developed blast resistant improved lines will retain the high adoptability of MR219 by farmers. The present results will also play an important role in sustaining the rice production of Malaysia.
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Septin-Dependent Assembly of the Exocyst Is Essential for Plant Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae

Septin-Dependent Assembly of the Exocyst Is Essential for Plant Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae. Yogesh K. Gupta et al (2015), The Plant Cell http://dx.doi.o...

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Quantitative trait loci for rice blast resistance detected in a local rice breeding population by genome-wide association mapping

Quantitative trait loci for rice blast resistance detected in a local rice breeding population by genome-wide association mapping | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Plant breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high adaptability to the specific conditions in a local region. As a result, unique genes and gene combinations have been accumulated in local elite breeding populations during the long history of plant breeding. Genetic analyses on such genes and combinations may be useful for developing new cultivars with more-desirable agronomic traits. Here, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rice blast resistance (BR) using a local breeding rice population from Hokkaido, Japan. Using genotyping data on single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat markers distributed throughout the whole genomic region, we detected genetic regions associated with phenotypic variation in BR by a genome-wide association mapping study (GWAS). An additional association analysis using other breeding cultivars verified the effect and inheritance of the associated region. Furthermore, the existence of a gene for BR in the associated region was confirmed by QTL mapping. The results from these studies enabled us to estimate potential of the Hokkaido rice population as a gene pool for improving BR. The results of this study could be useful for developing novel cultivars with vigorous BR in rice breeding programs.

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EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning

EffectorP: predicting fungal effector proteins from secretomes using machine learning | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Effector prediction is tricky and essential.  This should be a great resource for mycologists!

 

Via Bradford Condon
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Endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound MoSec62 is involved in suppression of rice immunity and is essential for pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae

Endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound MoSec62 is involved in suppression of rice immunity and is essential for pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) constitutes the first line of plant inducible immunity. As an important step of plant colonization, phytopathogens have to suppress PTI, and secreted effectors are therefore co-evolved and deployed. In this study, we characterized the function of MoSec62 of Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the destructive rice blast. MoSec62 encodes a homolog of Sec62p, a yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane transporter for precursors of secretory proteins. We showed that a T-DNA insertion into the promoter region of MoSec62, causing a disturbance to the upregulation of MoSec62 expression during blast invasion, resulted in a complete loss of blast virulence of the mutant, M1575. Both DAB staining of the infected rice leaves and expression analysis revealed that the infectious attempt by the mutant led to strong defense responses of rice. Consistently, in transcriptomic analysis of rice leaves subject to blast inoculation, a battery of defense responses were found induced exclusively upon M1575 challenge. For further explorations, we tested the pathogenicity on a highly susceptible rice variety and detected the accumulations of Slp1, a known PTI suppressor. Both results suggested that the mutant most likely failed to overcome rice PTI. In addition, we showed that MoSec62 was able to rescue the thermosensitivity of a yeast Δsec62, and the MoSec62-GFP fusion was co-localized to the ER membranes, both suggesting the conservation of Sec62 homologs. In conclusion, our data support that MoSec62, likely as an ER membrane transporter, plays an essential role in antagonizing rice defense at the early stages of blast invasion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.
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Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding

Allele mining and enhanced genetic recombination for rice breeding | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Traditional rice varieties harbour a large store of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate rice improvement. For a long time, this diversity maintained in the International Rice Genebank has not been fully used because of a lack of genome information. The publication of the first reference genome of Nipponbare by the International Rice Genome Sequencing Project (IRGSP) marked the beginning of a systematic exploration and use of rice diversity for genetic research and breeding. Since then, the Nipponbare genome has served as the reference for the assembly of many additional genomes. The recently completed 3000 Rice Genomes Project together with the public database (SNP-Seek) provides a new genomic and data resource that enables the identification of useful accessions for breeding. Using disease resistance traits as case studies, we demonstrated the power of allele mining in the 3,000 genomes for extracting accessions from the GeneBank for targeted phenotyping. Although potentially useful landraces can now be identified, their use in breeding is often hindered by unfavourable linkages. Efficient breeding designs are much needed to transfer the useful diversity to breeding. Multi-parent Advanced Generation InterCross (MAGIC) is a breeding design to produce highly recombined populations. The MAGIC approach can be used to generate pre-breeding populations with increased genotypic diversity and reduced linkage drag. Allele mining combined with a multi-parent breeding design can help convert useful diversity into breeding-ready genetic resources.

Via Ricardo Oliva
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PLANT DISEASE CONTROLLING COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING PLANT DISEASE - SUMITOMO CHEMICAL COMPANY, LIMITED

The present invention provides a composition having an excellent controlling activity on plant disease. The composition comprising the compound represented by the formula (1) and one or more antibiotic fungicidal compound selected from the group (A) shows an excellent controlling activity on a plant disease.

group (A): a group consisting of kasugamycin, polyoxins, streptomycin, and validamycin

 

The plant disease which can be controlled by the present invention is exemplified below: Rice diseases: blast (Magnaporthe oryzae)

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Pigeonpea hybrid-proline-rich protein (CcHyPRP) confers biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice

Pigeonpea hybrid-proline-rich protein (CcHyPRP) confers biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
In this study, we report the overexpression of Cajanus cajan hybrid-proline-rich protein encoding gene (CcHyPRP) in rice which resulted in increased tolerance to both abiotic and biotic stresses. Compared to the control plants, the transgenic rice lines, expressing CcHyPRP, exhibited high-level tolerance against major abiotic stresses, viz., drought, salinity and heat, as evidenced by increased biomass, chlorophyll content, survival rate, root and shoot growth. Further, transgenic rice lines showed increased panicle size and grain number compared to the control plants under different stress conditions. The CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, revealed enhanced activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Expression pattern of CcHyPRP::GFP fusion-protein confirmed its predominant localization in cell walls. Moreover, the CcHyPRP transgenics, as compared to the control, exhibited increased resistance to the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea which causes blast disease in rice. Higher levels of bZIP and endochitinase transcripts as well as endochitinase activity were observed in transgenic rice compared to the control plants. The overall results demonstrate the intrinsic role of CcHyPRP in conferring multiple stress tolerance at the whole-plant level. The multipotent CcHyPRP seems promising as a prime candidate gene to fortify crop plants for enhanced tolerance/resistance to different stress factors.
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Structure-activity relationship study for fungicidal activity of 1-(4-phenoxymethyl-2-phenyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives against rice blast

Structure-activity relationship study for fungicidal activity of 1-(4-phenoxymethyl-2-phenyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole derivatives against rice blast | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
To explore new antifungal agents for rice blast control, the antifungal activity of a series of novel 1,2,4-triazole derivatives against Magnaporthe oryzae has been evaluated. The antifungal activity was determined by using in vitro mycelial growth inhibition tests. Among the 19 test compounds, we found that the compound 1-(4-phenoxymethyl-2-phenyl-[1,3]dioxolan-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4- triazole (Gj) displayed potent antifungal activity against M. oryzae. The IC50 value was found approximately 3.8±0.5 μM and the IC50 value of propiconazole was found to be approximately 3.7±0.2 μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationship studies on aromatic ring structures provided insight and information about the structural requirements for antifungal activity of this synthetic series against M. oryzae.
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Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Magnaporthae oryzae B.C. Couch Causing Blast Disease of Rice (Oryza sativa) in Kashmir

The present study, carried out during 2013–14, was aimed to characterize M. oryzae, isolated from Kashmir. The ITS sequence of M. oryzae (Kashmir isolate) showed 99% identity (E value: 0.00) with M. oryzae sequences already available in GenBank. The sequence was submitted to NCBI (GenBank Accession No. KP310498). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that KP310498 sequence was more closely related to the sequences of Chinese and Japanese isolates of M. oryzae as compared to Indian isolates.

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Several wall-associated kinases participate positively and negatively in basal defense against rice blast fungus

Several wall-associated kinases participate positively and negatively in basal defense against rice blast fungus | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Here we show using rice (Oryza sativa) loss-of-function mutants of four selected OsWAK genes, that individual OsWAKs are required for quantitative resistance to the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. While OsWAK14, OsWAK91 and OsWAK92 positively regulate quantitative resistance, OsWAK112d is a negative regulator of blast resistance. In addition, we show that the very early transcriptional regulation of the rice OsWAK genes is triggered by chitin and is partially under the control of the chitin receptor CEBiP. Finally, we show that OsWAK91 is required for H2O2 production and sufficient to enhance defense gene expression during infection.
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Magnaporthe oryzae Aminosugar Metabolism is Essential for Successful Host Colonization

Magnaporthe oryzae Aminosugar Metabolism is Essential for Successful Host Colonization | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Pathogens encounter and metabolize a range of host-derived metabolites while proliferating inside the host. Our understanding of these metabolites and their metabolic processes has remained largely incomplete. We investigated the role of the Magnaporthe oryzae N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) catabolic pathway during rice infection. The catabolic pathway is composed of a GlcNAc transporter (MoNgt1), hexokinase(s), a GlcNAc-6-phosphate deacetylase (MoDac) and a GlcN-6-phosphate deaminase (MoDeam). A detailed characterization of the Δmongt1, Δmodac and Δmodeam null mutants revealed that a defect in GlcNAc catabolism impairs the pathogenicity of M. oryzae. These mutants showed severely reduced virulence in susceptible rice cultivar due to their inability to neutralize host-derived reactive oxygen species and their failure to develop invasive hyphal growth within the host tissue. Interestingly, during oxidative stress, M. oryzae proliferated efficiently in GlcNAc-containing media compared to other sugars, and the expression of fungal antioxidant genes was up-regulated following GlcNAc treatment. However, GlcNAc inhibited the growth of the Δmodac and Δmodeam mutants, and this growth inhibition was enhanced during oxidative stress. These results suggest that GlcNAc helps fungus to overcome oxidative stress inside its host, perhaps by activating an anti-oxidant defence. In the absence of a functional catabolic pathway, GlcNAc becomes toxic to the cells.
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Retromer Is Essential for Autophagy-Dependent Plant Infection by the Rice Blast Fungus

Retromer Is Essential for Autophagy-Dependent Plant Infection by the Rice Blast Fungus. Wenhui Zheng et al (2015), PLoS Genetics http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/jo...

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Spatial modelling of rice yield losses in Tanzania due to bacterial leaf blight and leaf blast in a changing climate

Spatial modelling of rice yield losses in Tanzania due to bacterial leaf blight and leaf blast in a changing climate | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice is the most rapidly growing staple food in Africa and although rice production is steadily increasing, the consumption is still out-pacing the production. In Tanzania, two important diseases in rice production are leaf blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae and bacterial leaf blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The objective of this study was to quantify rice yield losses due to these two important diseases under a changing climate. We found that bacterial leaf blight is predicted to increase causing greater losses than leaf blast in the future, with losses due to leaf blast declining. The results of this study indicate that the effects of climate change on plant disease can not only be expected to be uneven across diseases but also across geographies, as in some geographic areas losses increase but decrease in others for the same disease.
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Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: An efficient tool for insertional mutagenesis and targeted gene disruption in Harpophora oryzae

The endophytic filamentous fungus Harpophora oryzae is a beneficial endosymbiont isolated from the wild rice. H. oryzae could not only effectively improve growth rate and biomass yield of rice crops, but also induce systemic resistance against the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) was employed and optimized to modify the H. oryzae genes by either random DNA fragment integration or targeted gene replacement. Our results showed that co-cultivation of H. oryzae conidia with A. tumefaciens in the presence of acetosyringone for 48 h at 22 °C could lead to a relatively highest frequency of transformation, and 200 μM acetosyringone (AS) pre-cultivation of A. tumefaciens is also suggested. ATMT-mediated knockout mutagenesis was accomplished with the gene-deletion cassettes using a yeast homologous recombination method with a yeast–Escherichia–Agrobacterium shuttle vector pKOHo. Using the ATMT-mediated knockout mutagenesis, we successfully deleted three genes of H. oryzae (HoATG5, HoATG7, and HoATG8), and then got the null mutants ΔHoatg5, ΔHoatg7, and ΔHoatg8. These results suggest that ATMT is an efficient tool for gene modification including randomly insertional mutagenesis and gene deletion mutagenesis in H. oryzae.
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14th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics

14th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Elsa Ballini's insight:

You should contact przemyslaw.bidzinski@supagro.inra.fr

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Expression of Magnaporthe oryzae genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins secreted during nitrogen starvation and interaction with its host, Oryza sativa

Expression of Magnaporthe oryzae genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins secreted during nitrogen starvation and interaction with its host, Oryza sativa | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Previous studies have shown that the blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, may experience nitrogen starvation during infection of its plant host (rice,Oryza sativa). Here, we studied the expression of seven genes encoding cysteine-rich proteins with N-terminal signal peptides during nitrogen limitation and throughout the infection process. Some genes were upregulated to a greater extent in weak pathogenic strains than in strong pathogenic strains when they were cultured in complete media, and the expression of some genes was higher in both weak and strong pathogenic strains cultured in 1/10-N and nitrogen starvation media. Furthermore, the expression of these genes was upregulated to different extents in the early stages of M. oryzae infection. These data demonstrate that the genes of interest are highly expressed in weak and strong pathogenic strains cultured under nitrogen limitation and at the early stage of the infection process. This indicates that cysteine-rich secreted proteins in the blast fungus might be involved in establishing disease in the host and that they are sensitive to nitrogen levels. Thus, their role in sensing nitrogen availability within the host is implied, which provides a basis for further functional identification of these genes and their products during plant infection.

 
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Correction: MoSET1 (Histone H3K4 Methyltransferase in Magnaporthe oryzae) Regulates Global Gene Expression during Infection-Related Morphogenesis

The gene list under the H3K4me2 column on the enriched_in_GT tab in S3 Table is incorrect. Please view the correct S3 Table below.

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Evolution of compatibility range in the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae system: an uneven distribution of R genes between rice subspecies

Evolution of compatibility range in the rice-Magnaporthe oryzae system: an uneven distribution of R genes between rice subspecies | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Efficient strategies for limiting the impact of pathogens on crops require a good understanding of the factors underlying the evolution of compatibility range for the pathogens and host plants, i.e. the set of host genotypes that a particular pathogen genotype can infect and the set of pathogen genotypes that can infect a particular host genotype. Until now, little is known about the evolutionary and ecological factors driving compatibility ranges in systems implicating crop plants. We studied the evolution of host and pathogen compatibility ranges for rice blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae. We challenged 61 rice varieties from three rice subspecies with 31 strains of M. oryzae collected worldwide from all major known genetic groups. We determined the compatibility range of each plant variety and pathogen genotype and the severity of each plant-pathogen interaction. Compatibility ranges differed between rice subspecies, with the most resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with broader compatibility ranges and the least resistant subspecies selecting for pathogens with narrower compatibility ranges. These results are consistent with a nested distribution of R genes between rice subspecies.
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Biological control of rice blast disease by chitinase producing fluorescent Pseudomonas isolates

Blast disease caused by the fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, is among the most damaging diseases of rice and ragi leading to heavy crop losses worldwide. To avoid losses, farmers resort to indiscriminate applications of plant protection chemicals that also harm the ecosystem and lead to resistance buildup in the phytopathogens. Therefore, alternative eco-friendly strategies need to be evolved and put in place. The present study was thus undertaken to identify competent rhizobacteria having promising biocontrol activity against M. grisea infecting ragi. A total of 70 rhizospheric pseudomonads were isolated from different annual plants, of which 10 isolates showed maximum inhibition of two test isolates of M. grisea. Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate Pf-30 exhibited maximum inhibition (81.25 and 88.43 %) against the test pathogen, followed by Pf-53. Of all, 19 isolates were prominent in chitinase production with Pf-30 showing maximum efficiency (218.18 %) for enzyme production. In general, 25 °C temperature and pH 5.0 were optimum for enzymatic activity, although maximum activity (15.42 IU ml−1) by Pf-30 was recorded at pH 6.5 and 35 °C, followed by Pf-53 (4.48 IU ml−1). In-planta evaluation in polyhouse revealed that different pseudomonads could suppress the disease significantly when given as seed treatment and foliar spray. Maximum disease suppression was exhibited by Pf-47 and Pf-53 (82.77 and 82.06 %, respectively). Effect of three-factor (pathogen, variety, and pseudomonads) interaction revealed that all interactions, except pathogen x variety, contributed significantly.
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Why Bioinformatics Analysis Is Not Free

On the costs and necessity of skilled bioinformatics analysis for large-scale sequencing projects.


Via Mel Melendrez-Vallard
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Yurii Aulchenko's curator insight, January 19, 8:23 PM

Quite typical that a grant is written and millions are planned for experimentation. In a 'good' scenario someone at the end would remember: oh, and we would need to do analysis! - and few % of budget will be squeezed out for 'bioinformatics' - just enough to do some irreproducible research. In many projects I high-throighput projects I have seen, a reasonable 'BI' budget should have been rather 20-30% to ensure good quality and timing, reproducibility and maintainability. 

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Phenolic Phytoalexins in Rice: Biological Functions and Biosynthesis

Phenolic Phytoalexins in Rice: Biological Functions and Biosynthesis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Until very recently, flavonoid sakuranetin was the only known phenolic phytoalexin in rice. However, recent studies have shown that phenylamides are involved in defense against pathogen attacks in rice. This finding suggests that phenylamides act as phytoalexins in rice and belong to phenolic phytoalexins along with sakuranetin. Phenylamides also have been implicated in cell wall reinforcement for disease resistance and allelopathy of rice. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that biosynthetic pathways including the shikimate, phenylpropanoid and arylmonoamine pathways are coordinately activated for phenolic phytoalexin synthesis, and related genes are induced by biotic and abiotic stresses in rice.

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