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The Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase): an annotation database for rice comparative genomics and evolutionary biology

The Rice Genome Knowledgebase (RGKbase): an annotation database for rice comparative genomics and evolutionary biology | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Rice is the first genome sequenced crop in the world and its improvement of harvest and trait can significantly benefit to humans. Furthermore, we carried out the parallel intricate gene annotation pipelines and integrated microarray, RNA-Seq and population data of 1000 rice genomes.

We not only pay attention on the gene structure, repetitive elements, alternatively-splicing events, transcriptome, proteomics and phenotype, but also study the evolutionary polymorphism variations within and between species (chromosomes, genes and segments combination and separation).

We tried to carry out the studies on specific subspecies of rice genome in a precise scope and hope that this database can help the biology scientists understand the essential evolution mechanisms of rice lineages, and facilitate the breeding and cultivation.

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Elsa Ballini's comment, February 1, 2013 10:17 AM
Full text available here: http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/content/41/D1/D1199.full
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The regulatory factor X protein Morfx1 is required for development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

The regulatory factor X protein Morfx1 is required for development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Magnaporthe oryzae is a cereal pathogen causing 20%-30% rice yield losses. Regulatory Factor X transcription factors are highly conserved proteins with diverse functions among organisms. Here, we show that MoRfx1 is required for cell division, development, and pathogenicity in M. oryzae. Deletion of MoRFX1 resulted in reduced growth and conidiation, lowered appressorium turgor, and impaired virulence. ΔMorfx1 displayed increased sensitivity to UV light, 4 DNA-damaging agents, and 3 cell wall perturbing compounds. However, ΔMorfx1 showed decreased sensitivity to bleomycin, a DNA/cell-wall-damaging agent, and increased chitin content of cell wall in vegetative mycelium. Additionally, cell division speed was reduced in ΔMorfx1, and ΔMorfx1 did not produce three-celled conidia. RNA-seq and qPCR analyses suggested that MoRfx1 has bipartite functions in controlling the expression of genes required for cell division and chitin metabolism, not only as a transcriptional repressor, but also as a transcriptional activator. Particularly, the expression of chitin deacetylase genes MoCDA2 and MoCDA1 was greatly down-regulated in ΔMorfx1; and deletion of MoCDA2 and MoCDA1, similar to ΔMorfx1, increased resistance to bleomycin. Taken together, our results indicate that MoRFX1 regulates development and pathogenicity by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell division and cell wall integrity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Tweet #MPMI16 Multiple pathogen resistance in barley, including Blumeria, Magnaporthe, and Puccinia.

Tweet #MPMI16 Multiple pathogen resistance in barley, including Blumeria, Magnaporthe, and Puccinia. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
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Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet ( Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and in silico Comparative Genomics Analyses

Tracing QTLs for Leaf Blast Resistance and Agronomic Performance of Finger Millet ( Eleusine coracana  (L.) Gaertn.) Genotypes through Association Mapping and  in silico  Comparative Genomics Analyses | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Finger millet is one of the small millets with high nutritive value. This crop is vulnerable to blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea, which occurs annually during rainy and winter seasons. Leaf blast occurs at early crop stage and is highly damaging. Mapping of resistance genes and other quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for agronomic performance can be of great use for improving finger millet genotypes. Evaluation of one hundred and twenty-eight finger millet genotypes in natural field conditions revealed that leaf blast caused severe setback on agronomic performance for susceptible genotypes, most significant traits being plant height and root length. Plant height was reduced under disease severity while root length was increased. Among the genotypes, IE4795 showed superior response in terms of both disease resistance and better agronomic performance. A total of seven unambiguous QTLs were found to be associated with various agronomic traits including leaf blast resistance by association mapping analysis. The markers, UGEP101 and UGEP95, were strongly associated with blast resistance. UGEP98 was associated with tiller number and UGEP9 was associated with root length and seed yield. Cross species validation of markers revealed that 12 candidate genes were associated with 8 QTLs in the genomes of grass species such as rice, foxtail millet, maize, Brachypodium stacei, B. distachyon, Panicum hallii and switchgrass. Several candidate genes were found proximal to orthologous sequences of the identified QTLs such as 1,4-β-glucanase for leaf blast resistance, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) for tiller production, calmodulin (CaM) binding protein for seed yield and pectin methylesterase inhibitor (PMEI) for root growth and development. Most of these QTLs and their putatively associated candidate genes are reported for first time in finger millet. On validation, these novel QTLs may be utilized in future for marker assisted breeding for the development of fungal resistant and high yielding varieties of finger millet.
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A Layered Defense Strategy Mediated by Rice E3 Ubiquitin Ligases against Diverse Pathogens

A Layered Defense Strategy Mediated by Rice E3 Ubiquitin Ligases against Diverse Pathogens | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is an important mechanism that plants use to regulate protein turnover for growth, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Among the three main kinds of UPS enzymes, E3 ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are highly flexible and diverse, and each has unique specificity in recognizing substrates. Many studies have indicated that E3s play pivotal roles during plant–pathogen interactions. A large number of pathogenic microorganisms can infect rice and cause serious yield losses. The rice genome encodes about 1500 E3s, the function of some of which has been recently reported. This short article highlights the recent, exciting discoveries concerning the function of E3s in rice immunity against diverse bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens.
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International Conference on Holobionts, Paris, April 19-21, 2017

International Conference on Holobionts, Paris, April 19-21, 2017 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The objective of the International Conference on Holobionts, Paris 2017 is to, for the first time, bring scientists together who are interested in holobiont systems and their study. This conference will highlight major advances in defining the key roles of host-borne microbiota in the ecology and evolution of higher organisms and the potential implications for human health, food production and ecosystem functioning. In addition, the conference will offer a platform for debate related to the definition, assembly and evolution of holobionts. By bringing a range of holobiont researchers together, the International Conference on Holobionts seeks to help consolidate the field, facilitate exchange of knowledge across systems and approaches and stimulate further developments in this emerging discipline.

Scientific program This conference will address the following topics:

1. Holobionts and evolution
2. Emerging approaches to holobiont research
3. Microbiota and host health
4. Mechanisms for holobiont assembly
5. Metabolic interactions between host and microbiota
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MoYcp4 is required for growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae

MoYcp4 is required for growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The transcription factor MoAP1 was previously shown to be required for pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae by mediating the oxidative stress response. The serial analysis gene expression database showed that expression of MoYcp4, a homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae flavodoxin-like protein ScYcp4, is affected by MoAP1. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that MoYCP4 was significantly upregulated during conidiation, appressorium formation, and infection. The growth rate of a ΔMoycp4 mutant was slightly reduced, but conidial production was significantly increased (more than 10-fold) compared with the wild type strain. Although the rate of appressorium formation was unaffected, the appressorial turgor was abnormal and the ability to infect rice and barley was reduced, resulting in decreased pathogenicity. In summary, MoYcp4, a target of MoAP1, is involved in the growth, conidiogenesis, and pathogenicity of M. oryzae. Our studies provide a comprehensive analysis of flavodoxin-like proteins and will help to study the pathogen-related molecular mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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14th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics

14th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
From September 26-29th 2016, to review these advances, the rice scientific community of Montpellier Languedoc Roussillon will host scientists from around the world at the 14th International Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics (ISRFG). Our community hosted a first successful symposium 10 years ago, in October 2006 at the Montpellier Corum, gathering around 300 scientists.

The 2016 symposium will cover recent, exciting breakthroughs in structural, functional and evolutionary rice genome biology - pushing current scientific knowledge to address the need of sustainably increasing crop yields and global food security.

Please join us for an exciting meeting to discuss cutting-edge science with many of the world's top scientists. Meet old friends, make new ones, and forge novel collaborations in the beautiful setting and hospitality of Montpellier historical city and the Languedoc Roussillon region, nearby the French rice growing Camargue land.
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Investigating inducible short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases clarifies rice oryzalexin biosynthesis

Investigating inducible short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases clarifies rice oryzalexin biosynthesis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice (Oryza sativa) produces a variety of labdane-related diterpenoids as phytoalexins and allelochemicals. The production of these important natural products has been partially elucidated. However, the oxidases responsible for production of the keto groups found in many of these diterpenoids have largely remained unknown. Only one short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs), which has been proposed to catalyze the last step in such a pathway, has been characterized to-date. While rice contains >220 SDRs, only the transcription of five has been shown to be induced by the fungal cell wall elicitor chitin. This includes the momilactone A synthase (OsMAS/SDR110C-MS1), with the other four all falling in the same SDR110C family, further suggesting roles in diterpenoid biosynthesis. Here biochemical characterization with simplified substrate analogs was first used to indicate potential functions, which were then supported by further analyses with key biosynthetic intermediates. Kinetic studies were then employed to further clarify these roles. Surprisingly, OsSDR110C-MS2 more efficiently catalyzes the final oxidation to produce momilactone A that was previously assigned to OsMAS/SDR110C-MS1, and we speculate that this latter SDR may have an alternative function instead. On the other hand, two of these SDRs clearly appear to act in oryzalexin biosynthesis, with OsSDR110C-MI3 readily oxidizing the 3α-hydroxyl of oryzalexin D, while OsSDR110C-MS3 can also oxidize the accompanying 7β-hydroxyl. Together, these SDRs then serve to produce oryzalexins A – C from oryzalexin D, essentially completing elucidation of the biosynthesis of this family of rice phytoalexins.
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The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel Family in Colletotrichum graminicola : A Molecular and Physiological Analysis

The Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel Family in  Colletotrichum graminicola : A Molecular and Physiological Analysis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Calcium (Ca2+) is a universal second messenger in all higher organisms and centrally involved in the launch of responses to environmental stimuli. Ca2+ signals in the cytosol are initiated by the activation of Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and/or in endomembranes. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) contains a Ca2+-permeable channel of the TRP family, TRPY1, which is localized in the vacuolar membrane and contributes to cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) elevations, for example in response to osmotic upshock. A TRPY1 homologue in the rice blast fungus is known to be important for growth and pathogenicity. To determine the role of the TRP channel family in the maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola, proteins homologous to TRPY1 were searched. This identified not one, but four genes in the C. graminicola genome, which had putative orthologs in other fungi, and which we named CgTRPF1 through 4. The topology of the CgTRPF proteins resembled that of TRPY1, albeit with a variable number of transmembrane (TM) domains additional to the six-TM-domain core and a diverse arrangement of putatively Ca2+-binding acidic motifs. All CgTRPF genes were expressed in axenic culture and throughout the infection of maize. Like TRPY1, all TRPF proteins of C. graminicola were localized intracellularly, albeit three of them were found not in large vacuoles, but co-localized in vesicular structures. Deletion strains for the CgTRPF genes were not altered in processes thought to involve Ca2+ release from internal stores, i.e. spore germination, the utilization of complex carbon sources, and the generation of tip-focussed [Ca2+]cyt spikes. Heterologous expression of CgTRPF1 through 4 in a tryp1Δ yeast mutant revealed that none of the channels mediated the release of Ca2+ in response to osmotic upshock. Accordingly, aequorin-based [Ca2+]cyt measurements of C. graminicola showed that in this fungus, osmotic upshock-triggered [Ca2+]cyt elevations were generated entirely by influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Cgtrpf mutants did not show pathogenicity defects in leaf infection assays. In summary, our study reveals major differences between different fungi in the contribution of TRP channels to Ca2+-mediated signal transduction.
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BioEssays: Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds (2016)

BioEssays: Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds (2016) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Via The Sainsbury Lab
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The Sainsbury Lab's curator insight, June 27, 4:40 AM
Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function.
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Genome-wide resequencing of KRICE_CORE reveals their potential for future breeding, as well as functional and evolutionary studies in the post-genomic era

Genome-wide resequencing of KRICE_CORE reveals their potential for future breeding, as well as functional and evolutionary studies in the post-genomic era | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Here, we report whole-genome resequencing of the 137 rice mini core collection or Korean rice core set (KRICE_CORE) that represents 25,604 rice germplasms deposited in the Korean genebank of the Rural Development Administration (RDA). We implemented the Illumina HiSeq 2000 and 2500 platform to produce short reads and then assembled those with 9.8 depths using Nipponbare as a reference. Comparisons of the sequences with the reference genome yielded more than 15 million (M) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1.3 M INDELs. Phylogenetic and population analyses using 2,046,529 high-quality SNPs successfully assigned rice accessions to the relevant rice subgroups, suggesting that these SNPs capture evolutionary signatures that have accumulated in rice subpopulations. Furthermore, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for four exemplary agronomic traits in the KRIC_CORE manifest the utility of KRICE_CORE; that is, identifying previously defined genes or novel genetic factors that potentially regulate important phenotypes.
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Rescooped by Elsa Ballini from Wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae Pathotype Triticum
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Farmer livelihoods at risk as wheat blast disease emerges in Bangladesh

Farmer livelihoods at risk as wheat blast disease emerges in Bangladesh | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
International scientists are on high alert as they develop tactics to fight wheat blast in Bangladesh, which is affecting a large portion of the country’s wheat
Via Tofazzal Islam
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Bioactive Dibenzo-α-pyrone Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Rhizopycnis vagum Nitaf22

Bioactive Dibenzo-α-pyrone Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Rhizopycnis vagum Nitaf22 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rhizopycnin D (6) and TMC-264 (8) strongly inhibited the spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae with IC50 values of 9.9 and 12.0 μg/mL, respectively.
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OsREM4.1 Interacts with OsSERK1 to Coordinate the Interlinking between Abscisic Acid and Brassinosteroid Signaling in Rice

OsREM4.1 Interacts with OsSERK1 to Coordinate the Interlinking between Abscisic Acid and Brassinosteroid Signaling in Rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

OsREM4.1 expression is upregulated by ABA through OsbZIP23
OsREM4.1 negatively regulates BR signaling output
OsREM4.1 interacts with OsSERK1 and inhibits OsBRI1-OsSERK1 complex formation
OsREM4.1 can be phosphorylated by active OsBRI1 to dissociate from OsSERK1

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Image Analysis Methods for Plant Sciences - 5-6 Sept 2016, Angers, France

Image Analysis Methods for Plant Sciences - 5-6 Sept 2016, Angers, France | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Interest in automatic image analysis has increased significantly within plant science in recent years and there is clear evidence of an emerging bioimage analysis community working within the wider plant sciences to develop the required techniques. This community is, however, distributed across widely separated and disparate plant science and computer science research groups.

The International Workshop on Image Analysis Methods for the Plant Sciences seeks to bring together scientists actively engaged in the development of image analysis techniques and tools addressing problems arising within the plant sciences. The workshop aims to review the image analysis methods and approaches currently being used and developed, identify generic image analysis challenges arising across the plant sciences and techniques and approaches likely to lead to their solution, and promote collaboration within the developing plant image analysis community.

After four successfull editions in Nottingham, Aberystwyst and Louvain la Neuve, IAMPS 2016 takes place in Angers, France, located in the Loire valley and hosting unique phenotyping facilities with specific interest on seeds and pathogens.
IAMPS 2016 will be located at UFR Sciences of Université d'Angers, 2 boulevard Lavoisier, 49000 Angers.
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Phylemon 2

Phylemon 2 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Phylemon 2.0 is the second release of the suite of web-tools for molecular evolution, phylogenetics, phylogenomics and hypotheses testing. It is conceived as a response to the increasing demand of molecular sequence analyses for experts and non-experts users.

Phylemon 2.0 has several features that differentiates from similar web resources:

it offers an integrated environment enabling evolutionary analyses, format conversions, files storage and edition of results,
it suggests the next possible analysis guiding the user through the web server, and
users can define and save phylogenetic pipelines to be used with multiple genes (phylogenomics).
Phylemon 2.0 integrates a suite of 30 tools covering sequence alignment, trimming, tree reconstruction, visualization, manipulation of trees, and evolutionary hypotheses testing.

Phylemon has been extensively re-engineered and now it includes the use of Web 2.0 technology features, a new user interface with persistent sessions.

Phylemon 2.0 is available at http://phylemon.bioinfo.cipf.es

Via Jean-Michel Ané, IPM Lab
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Program Book - 2016 IS-MPMI available online !

Program Book - 2016 IS-MPMI available online ! | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Welcome to Portland, the City of Roses, and the XVII International Congress on Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions! We have put together a diverse and forward-looking program that highlights some of the most exciting upcoming research areas, such as the microbiome, tritrophic interactions, RNA-mediated interactions, and systems biology, as well as perennial favorites such as resistance mechanisms, mutualism, and microbial virulence functions. There is also a rich selection of special sessions on Sunday to serve as appetizers, including new training sessions on bioinformatics. Attendees and experts from nearly 50 countries around the world are here to discuss the future of molecular plant-microbe interactions. Seventy young scientist travel awardees will be networking with speakers and tweeting about their favorite talks.
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Simple Synthesis of Sakuranetin and Selinone via a Common Intermediate,
Utilizing Complementary Regioselectivity in the
Deacetylation of Naringenin Triacetate

Simple Synthesis of Sakuranetin and Selinone via a Common Intermediate,<br/>Utilizing Complementary Regioselectivity in the<br/>Deacetylation of Naringenin Triacetate | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Sakuranetin and selinone were successfully synthesized utilizing the regioselective deacetylation of naringenin triacetate. Deacetylation of the latter at C-7 with imidazole in 1,4-dioxane at 40°C furnished the corresponding diacetate in 80% yield. Methylation of the obtained free hydroxy group and subsequent removal of the remaining two acetyl groups gave sakuranetin, which was previously isolated as a phytoalexin against rice blast disease fungus, Pyricularia oryzae, in 71% overall yield. The same intermediate, naringenin triacetate, was subjected to transesterification with 2-propanol in tetrahydrofuran, catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B. A contrasting regioselective preference for C-4′ deacetylation was observed, giving an isomeric diacetate in 82% yield. Prenylation of the free hydroxy group under Mitsunobu conditions and subsequent deprotection furnished selinone, which was previously isolated from Monotes engleri and exhibits antifungal activity against Candida albicans, in 55% overall yield.
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Culture Filtrates of Trichoderma Isolate H921 Inhibit Magnaporthe oryzae Spore Germination and Blast Lesion Formation in Rice

Culture Filtrates of Trichoderma Isolate H921 Inhibit Magnaporthe oryzae Spore Germination and Blast Lesion Formation in Rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Spore germination and appressorium formation of Magnaporthe oryzae spores was completely suppressed by an ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate from the H921 isolate (H921-EAE-CF). Production of antifungal substance(s) in the H921-EAE-CF began to increase up to 3 days after isolate H921 incubation. Furthermore, heat treatment (105°C or 121°C) of H921-EAE-CF did not alter its inhibitory effect on M. oryzae spore germination compared to non-heat-treated H921-EAE-CF. Blast lesion formation inhibition by H921-EAE-CF was dose-dependent. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis indicated that this isolate shared similarities with species of the genera Trichoderma. This study suggests that H921-EAE-CF contains some antifungal substances that could be promising candidates for control of rice blast disease.
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Chitosan nanoparticle induced defense responses in Fingermillet plants against blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cke) Sacc.

Chitosan nanoparticle induced defense responses in Fingermillet plants against blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cke) Sacc. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

• Chitosan nanoparticle inhibit the growth of Pyricularia grisea under in vitro condition.
• Application of chitosan nanopartcile delayed the blast symptom appearance and also reduced the disease incidence in fingermillet plants.
• Treated plants showed accumulation of reactive oxygen species and high level of peroxidase in the leaves.

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Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds

Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function.
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Fungal Elicitor MoHrip2 Induces Disease Resistance in Rice Leaves, Triggering Stress-Related Pathways

Fungal Elicitor MoHrip2 Induces Disease Resistance in Rice Leaves, Triggering Stress-Related Pathways | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
MoHrip2 Magnaporthe oryzae hypersensitive protein 2 is an elicitor protein of rice blast fungus M. oryzae. Rice seedlings treated with MoHrip2 have shown an induced resistance to rice blast. To elucidate the mechanism underlying this MoHrip2 elicitation in rice, we used differential-display 2-D gel electrophoresis and qRT-PCR to assess the differential expression among the total proteins extracted from rice leaves at 24 h after treatment with MoHrip2 and buffer as a control. Among ~1000 protein spots detected on each gel, 10 proteins were newly induced, 4 were up-regulated, and 3 were down-regulated in MoHrip2-treated samples compared with the buffer control. Seventeen differentially expressed proteins were detected using MS/MS analysis and categorized into six groups according to their putative function: defense-related transcriptional factors, signal transduction-related proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, programmed cell death (PCD), defense-related proteins, and photosynthesis and energy-related proteins. The qPCR results (relative expression level of genes) further supported the differential expression of proteins in MoHrip2-treated rice leaves identified with 2D-gel, suggesting that MoHrip2 triggers an early defense response in rice leaves via stress-related pathways, and the results provide evidence for elicitor-induced resistance at the protein level.
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Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis
Current release version: 3.10

Mesquite: A modular system for evolutionary analysis<br/>Current release version: 3.10 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Mesquite is modular, extendible software for evolutionary biology, designed to help biologists organize and analyze comparative data about organisms. Its emphasis is on phylogenetic analysis, but some of its modules concern population genetics, while others do non-phylogenetic multivariate analysis. Because it is modular, the analyses available depend on the modules installed.

Via Ronny Kellner
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