Rice Blast
Follow
Find
13.9K views | +6 today
 
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
onto Rice Blast
Scoop.it!

Positive selection pressure on rice blast resistance allele Piz-t makes it divergent in Indian land races

(2013). Positive selection pressure on rice blast resistance allele Piz-t makes it divergent in Indian land races. Journal of Plant Interactions: Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 34-44. Sequence variations were more abundant in the leucine rich repeats (LRR) region than in the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1,R proteins, and CED-4) region, indicating that the LRR region has played a more important role in the evolution of this allele. The detailed molecular analysis of the Piz-t locus provide insights to high degree of inter-and intra-specific relationship among the Indian land races of rice which will help in the selection of better alleles for future rice breeding programs.

more...
No comment yet.
Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
Your new post is loading...
Your new post is loading...
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Resistance to QoI fungicides is widespread in Brazilian populations of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae

Resistance to QoI fungicides is widespread in Brazilian populations of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Here we report the widespread distribution of QoI resistance in M. oryzae populations sampled from wheat fields and poaceous hosts across central and southern Brazil and the evolution of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene. Sequence analysis of the cyt b gene distinguished nine haplotypes. The frequency of the G143A mutation in the wheat-infecting population increased from 36% in 2005 to 90% in 2012. Our findings indicate an urgent need to reexamine the use of strobilurins to manage fungal wheat diseases in Brazil.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Toward understanding of rice innate immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae.

This review summarizes the recent advances on the molecular mechanism of innate immunity systems of rice against M. oryzae. The discussion will be centered on the latest success reported in plant–pathogen interactions and integrated defense responses in rice.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Differential role for BiP3 in rice immune receptor-mediated resistance

Endoplasmic reticulum-bound chaperone luminal-binding protein 3 (BiP3) has been found to regulate the immunity mediated by the membrane-bound extracellular immune receptors Xa3/Xa26 andXa21, that encode non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases, against the bacterial pathogenXanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo). In contrast, BiP3 appeared not to regulate the immunity mediated by the intracellular immune receptor Pi5, which encodes a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) protein, against the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. To further examine this differential role for BiP3 in rice immunity, we generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing BiP3 in the background of the NB-LRR intracellular immune receptor Xa1 that confers resistance to Xoo. Our molecular genetic and phenotype analyses revealed that BiP3overexpression does not affect Xa1-mediated rice resistance to Xoo. Our current results thus provide evidence that BiP3 regulates membrane-bound non-RD kinase-mediated, but not the intracellular NB-LRR-mediated, rice immune responses and that its function does not depend on the type of pathogen.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae

System-wide characterization of bZIP transcription factor proteins involved in infection-related morphogenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain-containing transcription factors (TFs) function as key regulators of cellular growth and differentiation in eukaryotic organisms including fungi. We have previously identified MoAp1 and MoAtf1 as bZIP TFs in Magnaporthe oryzae and demonstrated that they regulate the oxidative stress response and are critical in conidiogenesis and pathogenicity. Studies of bZIP proteins could provide a novel strategy for controlling rice blast, but a systematic examination of the bZIP proteins has not been carried out. Here, we identified 19 additional bZIP TFs and characterized their functions. We found that the majority of these TFs exhibit active functions, most notably, in conidiogenesis. We showed that MoHac1 regulates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response through a conserved unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, MoMetR controls amino acid metabolism to govern growth and differentiation, and MoBzip10 governs appressorium function and invasive hyphal growth. Moreover, MoBzip5 participates in appressorium formation through a pathway distinct from that MoBzip10, and MoMeaB appears to exert a regulatory role through nutrient uptake and nitrogen utilization. Collectively, our results provide insights into shared and specific functions associated with each of these TFs and link the regulatory roles to the fungal growth, conidiation, appressorium formation, host penetration, and pathogenicity

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Reprogramming of plant cells by filamentous plant-colonizing microbes

Reprogramming of plant cells by filamentous plant-colonizing microbes | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Response of an aspartic protease gene OsAP77 to fungal, bacterial and viral infections in rice

Response of an aspartic protease gene OsAP77 to fungal, bacterial and viral infections in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Aspartic protease (APs) plays important roles in plant growth, development and biotic and abiotic stresses. We previously reported that the expression of a rice AP gene (OsAP77, Os10g0537800) was induced by probenazole (PBZ), a chemical inducer of disease resistance. In this study we examined some characteristics of this gene in response to fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens.
Elsa Ballini's insight:

See very similar results in "Overexpression of a rice heme activator protein gene (OsHAP2E) confers resistance to pathogens, salinity and drought, and increases photosynthesis and tiller number"


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pbi.12239/abstract

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Protein profiles secreted from phylloplane of rice leaves free from cytosolic proteins: Application to study rice-Magnaporthe Oryzae interactions

Protein profiles secreted from phylloplane of rice leaves free from cytosolic proteins: Application to study rice-Magnaporthe Oryzae interactions | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

• We identified leaf apoplastic proteins secreted in response to rice blast infection.

• The protein functions were associated with metabolism, defense, and proteolysis.

• OsDUF26 was most abundantly secreted in response to rice blast infection.

• Plant apoplastic proteins may play key roles in plant defense responses.

 

 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Identification and validation of rice blast resistance genes in Indian rice germplasm

In the present study, a set of 100 diverse rice germplasm accessions were evaluated for 11 blast resistance genes namely Pikm, Pik, Pikh, Pi1, Pi5, Pi54, Pib, Piz5, Piz, Pi9 and Pish, both at genotypic and phenotypic level. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Early diagnosis of blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice plant by using an ultra-sensitive electrically magnetic-controllable electrochemical biosensor

Early diagnosis of blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice plant by using an ultra-sensitive electrically magnetic-controllable electrochemical biosensor | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

• An electrochemical biosensor for the sensitive detection of M.oryzae in rice plant was developed.

• The M.oryzae in rice plant can be detected before any symptomatic lesions were observed.

• The electrochemical biosensor is simple, rapid, cost-effective and ultra-sensitive.

• The proposed biosensor can be used to help farmers timely manage the rice blast disease.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Elsa Ballini from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

Keystone Symposia Conference: Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, February 8—13, 2015, Taos, New Mexico

Keystone Symposia Conference: Plant Receptor Kinases: From Molecules to Environment, February 8—13, 2015, Taos, New Mexico | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Past, present and future of rice blast management

 Lots of efforts have been made worldwide to study the variability in the pathogen and to find out the resistance sources. To date approximately 100 R genes for blast resistance have been mapped and 20 of these genes have been cloned in rice. Now, scientists are looking forward to develop durable resistant varieties through pyramiding of quantitative trait loci and major genes. Among the biocontrol agents, different strains of Bacillus spp. and Streptomyces sindeneusis are in use. The availability of rice and M. oryzae genome sequence data are facilitating blast resistance management program to new paradigms which includes isolation and characterization of R and Avr genes, development of noble fungicides, transformed bioagents, transgenic rice and durable resistance.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

China pulls plug on genetically modified rice and corn

China pulls plug on genetically modified rice and corn | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

China’s Ministry of Agriculture has decided not to renew biosafety certificates that allowed research groups to grow genetically modified (GM) rice and corn. The permits, to grow two varieties of GM rice and one transgenic corn strain, expired on 17 August. The reasoning behind the move is not clear, and it has raised questions about the future of related research in China.Reasons behind move not clear

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Yeast Two-Hybrid System for Dissecting the Rice MAPK Interactome - Springer

Yeast Two-Hybrid System for Dissecting the Rice MAPK Interactome - Springer | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In this chapter we describe in detail the protocols used to dissect the rice MAPK interactome, including the bait protein auto-activation test, identification of a rice MAPK interacting protein, confirmation of interaction by retransformation assay and characterization of the novel interacting protein.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Large scale germplasm screening for identification of novel rice blast resistance sources

Large scale germplasm screening for identification of novel rice blast resistance sources | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We conducted a large-scale screen for new rice blast resistance sources in 4246 geographically diverse rice accessions originating from 13 major rice-growing countries. The accessions were selected from a total collection of over 120’000 accessions based on their annotated rice blast resistance information in the International Rice Genebank. A two-step resistance screening protocol was used involving natural infection in a rice uniform blast nursery and subsequent artificial infections with five single rice blast isolates. 289 accessions showed broad-spectrum resistance against all five single rice blast isolates.

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Elsa Ballini from Plants and Microbes
Scoop.it!

10th New Phytologist Workshop: Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi, 9–10 September 2014, Natural History Museum, London, UK

10th New Phytologist Workshop: Origin and evolution of plants and their interactions with fungi, 9–10 September 2014, Natural History Museum, London, UK | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Our overall goal is to understand how plants and their eukaryotic symbionts (fungi and fungi-like microorganisms, especially oomycetes) co-evolved during the early development of terrestrial ecosystems. Several diverse and rapidly developing disciplines are relevant to addressing this goal. Our workshop is designed to bringing together experts from across these disciplines to learn about recent developments, understand the range of approaches and to explore potential cross disciplinary collaborations.

 

1. We will bring together a multidisciplinary group of specialists in the biology and phylogenetics of living bryophytes and of fungi, experts on the evolution of plant-­‐fungal interactions (biochemical/physiological/ecological) and specialists on the early fossil record. Our focus will be to determine how expertise in these diverse disciplines could be harnessed to investigate the early evolution of key events, metabolic pathways, and symbiotic associations.

 

2. We will identify themes which cut across the different disciplines and how best to harness collaboration. For example, recent genomic and molecular clock analyses indicate that the origin of lignin decomposition coincided with the end of the Carboniferous Period. A carefully constructed investigation of Palaeozoic Era fossil plants (e.g. evidence of white rots) and analyses of sediment geochemistry documenting could test these hypotheses. A second area of interest is arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses, where much remains to be learned about the early evolution of the trait. This would benefit from focused discussion by experts on living bryophyte/fungal systems, developmental biologists and palaeontologists. A third area of interest is the early evolution and development of soil ecosystems, in which the identification and characterisation of modern analogues could greatly assist interpretation of sediments in the early fossil record.

 

3. The proposed workshop is a first step in community collaboration. We will look for ways to develop and strengthen collaboration at an international level. We envisage building a scheme of communication and knowledge sharing through laboratory exchange visits, and to take the field forward we intend to explore the possibility of developing multidisciplinary research networks/consortia.

 
Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Gene interactions and genetics of blast resistance and yield attributes in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Six generations viz., P1, P2, F1, F2, B1 and B2 of a cross between blast susceptible high-yielding rice cultivar ADT 43 and resistant near isogenic line (NIL) CT13432-3R, carrying four blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi33 and Pi54 in combination were used to study the nature and magnitude of gene action for disease resistance and yield attributes. The epistatic interaction model was found adequate to explain the gene action in most of the traits. The information on genetics of various contributing traits of resistance will further aid plant breeders in choosing appropriate breeding strategy for blast resistance and yield enhancement in rice

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Evidence for a Transketolase-Mediated Metabolic Checkpoint Governing Biotrophic Growth in Rice Cells by the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Evidence for a Transketolase-Mediated Metabolic Checkpoint Governing Biotrophic Growth in Rice Cells by the Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Here, using molecular genetics and live-cell imaging, we dismantled M. oryzae glucose-metabolizing pathways to reveal that the transketolase enzyme, encoded by TKL1, plays an essential role in facilitating host colonization during rice blast disease. In the absence of transketolase, Δtkl1 mutant strains formed functional appressoria that penetrated rice cuticles successfully and developed invasive hyphae (IH) in rice cells from primary hyphae. However, Δtkl1 could not undertake sustained biotrophic growth or cell-to-cell movement. Transcript data and observations using fluorescently labeled histone H1:RFP fusion proteins indicated Δtkl1 mutant strains were alive in host cells but were delayed in mitosis. Mitotic delay could be reversed and IH growth restored by the addition of exogenous ATP, a metabolite depleted in Δtkl1 mutant strains. We show that ATP might act via the TOR signaling pathway, and TOR is likely a downstream target of activation for TKL1. TKL1is also involved in controlling the migration of appressorial nuclei into primary hyphae in host cells. When taken together, our results indicate transketolase has a novel role in mediating - via ATP and TOR signaling - an in planta-specific metabolic checkpoint that controls nuclear migration from appressoria into primary hyphae, prevents mitotic delay in early IH and promotes biotrophic growth. This work thus provides new information about the metabolic strategies employed by M. oryzae to enable rice cell colonizatio

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

5th International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight (ISFHB) and the 2nd International Workshop on Wheat Blast (IWWB), both to be held April 6-10, 2016, at Costão do Santinho, Florianópolis, Brazil.

5th International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight (ISFHB) and the 2nd International Workshop on Wheat Blast (IWWB), both to be held April 6-10, 2016, at Costão do Santinho, Florianópolis, Brazil. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

5th International Symposium on Fusarium Head Blight (ISFHB) and the 2nd International Workshop on Wheat Blast (IWWB), both to be held April 6-10, 2016, at Costão do Santinho, Florianópolis, Brazil. 

more...
No comment yet.
Rescooped by Elsa Ballini from Plant pathogens and pests
Scoop.it!

Compositions of fungal secretomes indicate a greater impact of phylogenetic history than lifestyle adaptation

Compositions of fungal secretomes indicate a greater impact of phylogenetic history than lifestyle adaptation | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Background

Since the first fungal genome sequences became available, investigators have been employing comparative genomics to understand how fungi have evolved to occupy diverse ecological niches. The secretome, i.e. the entirety of all proteins secreted by an organism, is of particular importance, as by these proteins fungi acquire nutrients and communicate with their surroundings.

Results

It is generally assumed that fungi with similar nutritional lifestyles have similar secretome compositions. In this study, we test this hypothesis by annotating and comparing the soluble secretomes, defined as the sets of proteins containing classical signal peptides but lacking transmembrane domains of fungi representing a broad diversity of nutritional lifestyles. Secretome size correlates with phylogeny and to a lesser extent with lifestyle. Plant pathogens and saprophytes have larger secretomes than animal pathogens. Small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs), which may comprise many effectors important for the interaction of plant pathogens with their hosts, are defined here to have a mature length of <= 300 aa residues, at least four cysteines, and a total cysteine content of >=5%. SSCPs are found enriched in the secretomes of the Pezizomycotina and Basidiomycota in comparison to Saccharomycotina. Relative SSCP content is noticeably higher in plant pathogens than in animal pathogens, while saprophytes were in between and closer to plant pathogens. Expansions and contractions of gene families and in the number of occurrences of functional domains are largely lineage specific, e.g. contraction of glycoside hydrolases in Saccharomycotina, and are only weakly correlated with lifestyle. However, within a given lifestyle a few general trends exist, such as the expansion of secreted family M14 metallopeptidases and chitin-binding proteins in plant pathogenic Pezizomycotina.

Conclusions

While the secretomes of fungi with similar lifestyles share certain characteristics, the expansion and contraction of gene families is largely lineage specific, and not shared among all fungi of a given lifestyle.


Via Christophe Jacquet
more...
Sridhar Ranganathan's curator insight, September 2, 10:34 PM

Perhaps, it would be of interest to examine the similarity/dissimilarity of secretome compositions among a set of pathogen strains/races in relation to their virulence/pathogenicity patterns.

Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Mining for major blast resistance genes Pi1, Pi2, Pi5 in rice landraces of Karnataka

Three well characterized blast resistance genes, Pi1, Pi2 (Piz-5) and Pi5 were mined from rice landrace collection from Karnataka state, India by using gene linked and gene based molecular markers. Landraces were field screened for blast resistance. Pi1 gene was tracked in 39 landraces accounting 46.98% gene frequency. Sixty landraces contained Pi2 and Pi5 gene with 72.28% gene frequency. Twenty landrace harboured all the three genes.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Proteome analysis of rice leaf tissue in response to blast disease (Magnaporthe grisea) pathogen

We used two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to investigate the response of rice leave tissue against blast disease at seedling stage. Five proteins in Susceptible varieties and five proteins in Resistant varieties were induced or increased in the inoculated leafs. In susceptible varieties (Hashemi) proteins that were differentially expression including (β-1,3-glucanase (Glu1)), (β-1,3-glucanase (Glu2)), Putative transketolase, Manganese-superoxide dismutase and Isoflavoneoid reductase. In Resistant varieties (Khazar) proteins that were differentially expression including, β-1,3-glucanase 2 (Glu2), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), Peroxidase (POX), Putative malate dehydrogenase and Putative catalase. 

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Overexpression of a rice heme activator protein gene (OsHAP2E) confers resistance to pathogens, salinity and drought, and increases photosynthesis and tiller number

Overexpression of a rice heme activator protein gene (OsHAP2E) confers resistance to pathogens, salinity and drought, and increases photosynthesis and tiller number | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Heme activator protein (HAP), also known as nuclear factor Y or CCAAT binding factor (HAP/NF-Y/CBF), has important functions in regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. The expression of rice HAP gene (OsHAP2E) was induced by probenazole (PBZ), a chemical inducer of disease resistance. The transgenic lines of OsHAP2Ein::GUS with the intron showed high GUS activity in the wounds and surrounding tissues. When treated by salicylic acid (SA), isonicotinic acid (INA), abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), the lines showed GUS activity exclusively in vascular tissues and mesophyll cells. This activity was enhanced after inoculation with Magnaporthe oryzae or Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. We further produced transgenic rice overexpressing OsHAP2E. These lines conferred resistance to M. oryzae or X. oryzae pv. oryzae and to salinity and drought. Furthermore, they showed a higher photosynthetic rate and an increased number of tillers. These results suggest that this gene could contribute to conferring biotic and abiotic resistances and increasing photosynthesis and tiller numbers.

Elsa Ballini's insight:

See very similar results in "Response of an aspartic protease gene OsAP77 to fungal, bacterial and viral infections in rice"

 

http://www.thericejournal.com/content/7/1/9/

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Distinct Biochemical and Functional Properties of Two Rab5 Homologs from the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Distinct Biochemical and Functional Properties of Two Rab5 Homologs from the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Rab5 is a key regulator of early endocytosis by promoting early endosomal fusion and motility. In this study, we have unexpectedly found distinct properties of the two Rab5 homologs (MoRab5A and MoRab5B) from Magnaporthe oryzae. Like mammalian Rab5, MoRab5A and MoRab5B can bind to several Rab5 effectors in a GTP-dependent manner, including EEA1, Rabenosyn-5, and Rabaptin-5. However, MoRab5A shows distinct binding characteristics in the sense that both the wild-type and the GTP hydrolysis-defective constitutively active mutant bind the effectors equally well in GST pull-down assays, suggesting that MoRab5A is defective in GTP hydrolysis and mostly in the GTP-bound conformation in the cell. Our data thus identify MoRab5B as the Rab5 ortholog and suggest that MoRab5A specializes to perform a non-redundant function in endosomal sorting.

more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

IRIC Data Portal - International Rice Informatics Consortium

IRIC Data Portal - International Rice Informatics Consortium | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
3k genomes fastQ downloadThe tool enables downloading of raw fastQ files from the 3k rice genomes project. Each folder contains pair-end reads generated for one accession (there may be >1 PE read per accession).Take note that fastQ files are huge.
more...
No comment yet.
Scooped by Elsa Ballini
Scoop.it!

Overexpression of the RIXI xylanase inhibitor improves disease resistance to the fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice

Overexpression of the RIXI xylanase inhibitor improves disease resistance to the fungal pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In this paper we focus our attention on RIXI, a member of the XIP type xylanase inhibitor proteins in rice. In comparison with the wild-type (WT) plants, the transgenic plants had significantly increased levels of RIXI and showed resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. Transgenic plants also contained higher levels of H2O2 and had larger changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities than the WT plants. The results showed that the increase inRIXI expression was accompanied by the up-regulation of pathogenesis-related genes and genes related to the jasmonate signaling pathway. This is the first report on the expression patterns of rice xylanase inhibitors and our results provide direct evidence, at the plant level, that xylanase inhibitors are involved in plant defense against fungal pathogens.

more...
No comment yet.