Rice Blast
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Identification of rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants and the function of jasmonate for defence against Magnaporthe oryzae - Riemann - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library

Identification of rice ALLENE OXIDE CYCLASE mutants and the function of jasmonate for defence against Magnaporthe oryzae - Riemann - The Plant Journal - Wiley Online Library | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The level of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), a bioactive form of jasmonate, increased in response to blast infection. Furthermore, blast-induced accumulation of phytoalexins, especially that of the flavonoid sakuranetin, was found to be severely impaired in cpm2 and hebiba. Together, the present study demonstrates that in rice jasmonate mediates the defence response against blast fungus.

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Transposon-Mediated NLR Exile to the Pollen Allows Rice Blast Resistance without Yield Penalty

Transposon-Mediated NLR Exile to the Pollen Allows Rice Blast Resistance without Yield Penalty | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
In crop breeding, the goal is to maximize yield and disease resistance. In this spotlight, we highlight an elegant case of NLR-mediated durable resistance in rice, which is effective against the devastating fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, but does not involve yield penalty. The genetic and molecular dissection of this broad-spectrum resistance has unraveled a fascinating epigenetic regulatory mechanism balancing blast resistance and yield that opens exciting new perspectives for crop improvement.
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Sequencing and de novo assembly of a near complete indica rice genome

Sequencing and de novo assembly of a near complete indica rice genome | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
A high-quality reference genome is critical for understanding genome structure, genetic variation and evolution of an organism. Here we report the de novo assembly of an indica rice genome Shuhui498 (R498) through the integration of single-molecule sequencing and mapping data, genetic map and fosmid sequence tags. The 390.3 Mb assembly is estimated to cover more than 99% of the R498 genome and is more continuous than the current reference genomes of japonica rice Nipponbare (MSU7) and Arabidopsis thaliana (TAIR10). We annotate high-quality protein-coding genes in R498 and identify genetic variations between R498 and Nipponbare and presence/absence variations by comparing them to 17 draft genomes in cultivated rice and its closest wild relatives. Our results demonstrate how to de novo assemble a highly contiguous and near-complete plant genome through an integrative strategy. The R498 genome will serve as a reference for the discovery of genes and structural variations in rice.
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A computational interactome for prioritizing genes associated with complex agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa)

A computational interactome for prioritizing genes associated with complex agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple foods for more than half of the global population. Many rice traits are quantitative, complex and controlled by multiple interacting genes. Thus, a full understanding of genetic relationships will be critical to systematically identify genes controlling agronomic traits. We developed a genome-wide rice protein–protein interaction network (RicePPINet, http://netbio.sjtu.edu.cn/riceppinet) using machine learning with structural relationship and functional information. RicePPINet contained 708 819 predicted interactions for 16 895 non-transposable element related proteins. The power of the network for discovering novel protein interactions was demonstrated through comparison with other publicly available protein–protein interaction (PPI) prediction methods, and by experimentally determined PPI data sets. Furthermore, global analysis of domain-mediated interactions revealed RicePPINet accurately reflects PPIs at the domain level. Our studies showed the efficiency of the RicePPINet-based method in prioritizing candidate genes involved in complex agronomic traits, such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, was approximately 2–11 times better than random prediction. RicePPINet provides an expanded landscape of computational interactome for the genetic dissection of agronomically important traits in rice.
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ER retention receptor, MoERR1 is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

ER retention receptor, MoERR1 is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
ER retention receptor is a seven trans-membrane protein that plays pivotal roles in function and integrity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Insertional mutagenesis of Magnaporthe oryzae identified MoERR1 as a pathogenicity gene encoding putative ER retention receptor orthologous to ERD2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Search through the genome identified that M. oryzae possesses another ortholog of ERD2, which is designated as MoERR2. When MoERR1 and MoERR2 were tagged with GFP, both were localized to ER. Targeted disruption of MoERR1 showed pleiotropic effects on phenotypes, while deletion of MoERR2 had no effect on phenotypes we examined. The disruption mutant of MoERR1 showed growth retardation and produced significantly reduced number of conidia with aberrant morphology. Appressoria from the mutant were unable to penetrate into plant tissues presumably due to defect in cell wall integrity, thereby rendering the mutant non-pathogenic. The MoERR1 mutant also appeared to display abnormal ER structure and mis-regulation of genes involved in chaperone function and unfolded protein response under ER stress condition. Taken together, these results suggest that MoERR1 is a ER retention receptor required for function and integrity of ER, and that MoERR1-mediated ER functionalities are essential for fungal development and pathogenesis.
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Taking the stage: effectors in the spotlight

Taking the stage: effectors in the spotlight | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Highlights

• Plant pathogens deploy host-translocated effectors to promote disease.
• Hundreds of putative effectors have been identified, but few have been studied.
• Knowledge of host targets, and/or effector activity, allows insight into function.
• Understanding effector function offers opportunities for improving agriculture.

Plant pathogens are a serious threat to agriculture and to global food security, causing diverse crop diseases which lead to extensive annual yield losses. Production of effector proteins by pathogens, to manipulate host cellular processes, is central to their success. An understanding of fundamental effector biology is key to addressing the threat posed by these pathogens. Recent advances in ‘omics’ technologies have facilitated high-throughput identification of putative effector proteins, while evolving cellular, structural and biochemical approaches have assisted in characterising their function. Furthermore, structures of effectors in complex with host factors now provide opportunities for applying our knowledge of effector biology to influence disease outcomes. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the field and suggest avenues for future research.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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A Class-II Myosin Is Required for Growth, Conidiation, Cell wall integrity and Pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae

In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley. These were likely caused by defective mycelial growth and frequent emergence of branch hyphae and septum. The Momyo2 mutants were also defective in conidial and appressorial development, characterized by abnormal conidia and appressoria. These consequently resulted in plant tissue penetration defects that the wild type strain lacked, and mutants being less pathogenic. Cytorrhysis assay, CFW staining of appressorium and monitoring of protoplast release suggested that appressorial wall was altered, presumably affecting the level of turgor pressure within appressorium. Furthermore, impairments in conidial germination, glycogen metabolites, tolerance to exogenous stresses and scavenging of host-derived reactive oxygen species were associated with defects on appressorium mediated penetration, and therefore attenuated the virulence of Momyo2 mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that Momyo2 plays pleiotropic roles in fungal development, and is required for the full pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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Use of molecular markers in identification and characterization of resistance to rice blast in India

Use of molecular markers in identification and characterization of resistance to rice blast in India | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the most destructive disease causing huge losses to rice yield in different parts of the world. Therefore, an attempt has been made to find out the resistance by screening and studying the genetic diversity of eighty released rice varieties by National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (NRVs) using molecular markers linked to twelve major blast resistance (R) genes viz Pib, Piz, Piz-t, Pik, Pik-p, Pikm Pik-h, Pita/Pita-2, Pi2, Pi9, Pi1 and Pi5. Out of which, nineteen varieties (23.75%) showed resistance, twenty one were moderately resistant (26.25%) while remaining forty varieties (50%) showed susceptible in uniform blast nursery. Rice varieties possessing blast resistance genes varied from four to twelve and the frequencies of the resistance genes ranged from 0 to 100%. The cluster analysis grouped the eighty NRVs into two major clusters at 63% level of genetic similarity coefficient. The PIC value for seventeen markers varied from 0 to 0.37 at an average of 0.20. Out of seventeen markers, only five markers, 195R-1, Pi9-i, Pita3, YL155/YL87 and 40N23r corresponded to three broad spectrum R genes viz. Pi9, Pita/Pita2 and Pi5 were found to be significantly associated with the blast disease with explaining phenotypic variance from 3.5% to 7.7%. The population structure analysis and PCoA divided the entire 80 NRVs into two sub-groups. The outcome of this study would help to formulate strategies for improving rice blast resistance through genetic studies, plant-pathogen interaction, identification of novel R genes, development of new resistant varieties through marker-assisted breeding for improving rice blast resistance in India and worldwide
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Synthesis and activities of tolprocarb derivatives against Pyricularia oryzae: relationships among the activities for polyketide synthase, melanin biosynthesis, and rice blast

The target site of tolprocarb has been reported to be polyketide synthase (PKS). Here, we evaluated the activities for Pyricularia oryzae PKS and melanin biosynthesis as well as the control efficacy of rice blast using a series of tolprocarb derivatives. A comparison of the inhibitory activities of PKS and melanin biosynthesis revealed a linear relationship (r2=0.90), confirming PKS as the target site of tolprocarb. A compound beyond this relationship was metabolized by P. oryzae to an inactive compound. The control efficacy of rice blast was explained using the melting point and either the inhibitory activity of PKS or melanin biosynthesis. Structure–activity analysis revealed that both end parts of tolprocarb preferred hydrophobic groups, and the chirality of the substituent in the middle part significantly influenced the activities. These relationships will provide useful information for the development of novel PKS inhibitors.
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The glycogen synthase kinase MoGsk1, regulated by Mps1 MAP kinase, is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae

The glycogen synthase kinase MoGsk1, regulated by Mps1 MAP kinase, is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of blast disease, is one of the most destructive plant pathogens, causing significant yield losses on staple crops such as rice and wheat. The fungus infects plants with a specialized cell called an appressorium, whose development is tightly regulated by MAPK signaling pathways following the activation of upstream sensors in response to environmental stimuli. Here, we show the expression of the Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) MoGSK1 in M. oryzae is regulated by Mps1 MAP kinase, particularly under the stressed conditions. Thus, MoGSK1 is functionally characterized in this study. MoGsk1 is functionally homologues to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GSK3 homolog MCK1. Gene replacement of MoGSK1 caused significant delay in mycelial growth, complete loss of conidiation and inability to penetrate the host surface by mycelia-formed appressorium-like structures, consequently resulting in loss of pathogenicity. However, the developmental and pathogenic defects of Δmogsk1 are recovered via the heterologous expression of Fusarium graminearum GSK3 homolog gene FGK3, whose coding products also shows the similar cytoplasmic localization as MoGsk1 does in M. oryzae. By contrast, overexpression of MoGSK1 produced deformed appressoria in M. oryzae. In summary, our results suggest that MoGsk1, as a highly conservative signal modulator, dictates growth, conidiation and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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Damage of wheat blast on the productivity and quality of seeds as a function of the initial inoculum in the field

Damage of wheat blast on the productivity and quality of seeds as a function of the initial inoculum in the field | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Information on damages caused by blast (Pyricularia oryzae) on wheat seed productivity is still scarce, especially studies on the effect of this on germination and vigor. This study aimed at evaluating blast damages on the productivity and quality of wheat seeds as a function of the initial inoculum in the field. Treatments were arranged in factorial 4x5: inoculations in four wheat genotypes (BRS 264, CD 116, CD 104 and VI 98053) with five doses of initial inoculum of P. oryzae (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30% of inoculated plants). The inoculation occurred in the stage of completely emerged spikes. The following determinations were made: incidence of blast in plants, dry matter mass of 100 plants, seed mass of 100 plants, productivity, germination, first count, germination speed index, dry mass of seedlings, hectolitric weight and incidence of P. oryzae in the seeds. There is a reduction in the productivity and physiological quality of the seeds of the genotypes due to the initial inoculum in the field. The transmission of P. oryzae occurs from the mother plant to the wheat seeds. In these genotypes, it is recommended not to use as seeds the ones coming from fields with blast incidence from 20% on in the plants, close to seed maturation.
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The rice paradox: Multiple origins but single domestication in Asian rice

The rice paradox: Multiple origins but single domestication in Asian rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The origin of domesticated Asian rice (Oryza sativa) has been a contentious topic, with conflicting evidence for either single or multiple domestication of this key crop species. We examined the evolutionary history of domesticated rice by analyzing de novo assembled genomes from domesticated rice and its wild progenitors. Our results indicate multiple origins, where each domesticated rice subpopulation (japonica, indica, and aus) arose separately from progenitor O. rufipogon and/or O. nivara. Coalescence-based modeling of demographic parameters estimate that the first domesticated rice population to split off from O. rufipogon was O. sativa ssp. japonica, occurring at ∼13.1 – 24.1 kya, which is an order of magnitude older then the earliest archaeological date of domestication. This date is consistent, however, with the expansion of O. rufipogon populations after the Last Glacial Maximum ∼18 kya and archaeological evidence for early wild rice management in China. We also show that there is significant gene flow from japonica to both indica (∼17%) and aus (∼15%), which led to the transfer of domestication alleles from early-domesticated japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus populations. Our results provide support for a model in which different rice subspecies had separate origins, but that de novo domestication occurred only once, in O. sativa ssp. japonica, and introgressive hybridization from early japonica to proto-indica and proto-aus led to domesticated indica and aus rice.

Via Dorian Q Fuller, Ricardo Oliva, Jennifer Mach, Kaoru Tonosaki
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Unpaywall: Read paywalled research papers for free.

Unpaywall: Read paywalled research papers for free. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Click the green tab and skip the paywall. It's fast, free, and legal, powered by our database of millions of author-uploaded PDFs.
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Erasmus Mundus Master PlantHealth

The PlantHealth programme provides students access to the best research-based teaching programme on sustainable plant health management in Europe.

http://planthealth.upv.es/

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Wheat Blast: Epidemiology and management of an emerging global threat

Christian D. Cruz Regional Training Course and Wheat Blast Surveillance Bangladesh, February 4-14, 2017
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Bioactivity and structure-activity relationship of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives as potential antifungal agents for plant protection

A series of cinnamic acid esters and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antifungal activities in vitro against four plant pathogenic fungi by using the mycelium growth rate method. Structure−activity relationship was derived also. Almost all of the compounds showed some inhibition activity on each of the fungi at 0.5 mM. Eight compounds showed the higher average activity with average EC50 values of 17.4–28.6 μg/mL for the fungi than kresoxim-methyl, a commercial fungicide standard, and ten compounds were much more active than commercial fungicide standards carbendazim against P. grisea or kresoxim-methyl against both P. grisea and Valsa mali. Compounds C1 and C2 showed the higher activity with average EC50 values of 17.4 and 18.5 μg/mL and great potential for development of new plant antifungal agents. The structure−activity relationship analysis showed that both the substitution pattern of the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety significantly influences the activity. There exists complexly comprehensive effect between the substituents on the phenyl ring and the alkyl group in the alcohol moiety on the activity. Thus, cinnamic acid esters showed great potential the development of new antifungal agents for plant protection due to high activity, natural compounds or natural compound framework, simple structure, easy preparation, low-cost and environmentally friendly.
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Combined GC- and UHPLC-HR-MS Based Metabolomics to Analyze Durable resistance in cereal

Combined GC- and UHPLC-HR-MS Based Metabolomics to Analyze Durable resistance in cereal | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Introduction of durable resistance genes in crops is an important strategy to prevent yield loss caused by pathogens. The durable multi-pathogen resistance gene Lr34 originating from wheat is widely used in breeding, and is functionally transferable to barley and rice. The molecular resistance mechanism of Lr34, encoding for an adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter, is not known yet. To understand the molecular function and the defense response of durable disease resistance in cereals, the metabolic response of Lr34 was investigated in, except for the Lr34 gene, genetically identical lines of barley, rice and wheat. A broad range of compounds including primary, secondary and lipophilic metabolites were analyzed by a combination of gas (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry (MS) based methods. Data from metabolomics correlated well with transcriptomics data for plant defense responses such as the formation of anti-fungal hordatines or the components of the glyoxylate cycle. Induction of the glyoxylate cycle found in transgenic Lr34 rice grown in the greenhouse was confirmed in field-grown natural Lr34 wheat. Constitutively active plant defense responses were observed in the different cereals.
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Two Rab5 homologs are essential for the development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Two Rab5 homologs are essential for the development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. Rab GTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction and plant pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Moreover, both MoRab5A and MoRab5B show similar localization in hyphae and conidia. To further investigate possible functional redundancy between MoRab5A and MoRab5B, we overexpressed MoRAB5A and MoRAB5B, respectively, in MoRab5BRNAi and MoRab5ARNAi mutants, but neither could rescue each other’s defects caused by the RNAi. Taken together, we conclude that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are necessary for the development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, while they may function independently.
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Host range, mating type and population structure of Magnaporthe sp. of a single barley field in São Paulo state, Brazil

Host range, mating type and population structure of Magnaporthe sp. of a single barley field in São Paulo state, Brazil | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Brazil is blast disease hot spot because severe epidemics have occurred among wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oat crops. Although the first outbreak of barley blast appeared in 1998, little information is available. Therefore, this study aimed to examine host range, mating type composition and population structure of Magnaporthe sp. from a single barley field in São Paulo, Brazil. To examine pathogenicity, 25 Magnaporthe isolates were inoculated on five, three, two and two cultivars of barley, wheat, oat and rice, respectively, and one cultivar each of rye, corn, sorghum, triticale and certain weeds (Cenchrus echinatus, Setaria geniculata, Brachiaria plantaginea and Eleusine indica). Mating type distribution of 33 isolates was investigated by molecular tools. The genotypic divergence of 41 barley and five wheat isolates was investigated by 15 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean. The host range of the barley blast pathogen included wheat, oat, rye and triticale but not rice and weeds. Sexual reproduction appeared to not be involved in the high genotypic diversity because only a single isolate, MAT1-2, was identified. The majority of barley isolates clustered together with wheat blast, except for four, suggesting a different origin.
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Co-culturing of Fungal Strains Against Botrytis cinerea as a Model for the Induction of Chemical Diversity and Therapeutic Agents

Co-culturing of Fungal Strains Against Botrytis cinerea as a Model for the Induction of Chemical Diversity and Therapeutic Agents | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
New fungal SMs (SMs) have been successfully described to be produced by means of in vitro-simulated microbial community interactions. Co-culturing of fungi has proved to be an efficient way to induce cell–cell interactions that can promote the activation of cryptic pathways, frequently silent when the strains are grown in laboratory conditions. Filamentous fungi represent one of the most diverse microbial groups known to produce bioactive natural products. Triggering the production of novel antifungal compounds in fungi could respond to the current needs to fight health compromising pathogens and provide new therapeutic solutions. In this study, we have selected the fungus Botrytis cinerea as a model to establish microbial interactions with a large set of fungal strains related to ecosystems where they can coexist with this phytopathogen, and to generate a collection of extracts, obtained from their antagonic microbial interactions and potentially containing new bioactive compounds. The antifungal specificity of the extracts containing compounds induced after B. cinerea interaction was determined against two human fungal pathogens (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) and three phytopathogens (Colletotrichum acutatum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Magnaporthe grisea). In addition, their cytotoxicity was also evaluated against the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). We have identified by LC-MS the production of a wide variety of known compounds induced from these fungal interactions, as well as novel molecules that support the potential of this approach to generate new chemical diversity and possible new therapeutic agents.
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Two NRAMP6 isoforms function as iron and manganese transporters and contribute to disease resistance in rice | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions

Two NRAMP6 isoforms function as iron and manganese transporters and contribute to disease resistance in rice | Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Metal ions are essential elements for all living organisms. However, metals can be toxic when present in excess. In plants, metal homeostasis is partly achieved through the function of metal transporters, including the diverse Natural Resistance-Associated Macrophage Proteins (NRAMPs). Among them, the OsNramp6 gene encodes a previously uncharacterized member of the rice NRAMP family that undergoes alternative splicing to produce different NRAMP6 proteins. In this work, we determined the metal transport activity and biological role of the full-length and the shortest NRAMP6 proteins (l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6, respectively). Both l-NRAMP6 and s-NRAMP6 are plasma membrane-localized proteins that function as iron and manganese transporters. The expression of l-Nramp6 and s-Nramp6 is regulated during infection with the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, albeit with different kinetics. Rice plants grown under high iron supply show stronger induction of rice defense genes and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae infection. Also, loss of function of OsNramp6 results in enhanced resistance to M. oryzae supporting that OsNramp6 negatively regulates rice immunity. Furthermore, nramp6 plants showed reduced biomass pointing to a role of OsNramp6 in plant growth. A better understanding of OsNramp6-mediated mechanisms underlying disease resistance in rice will help in developing appropriate strategies for crop protection.

Via Philip Carella
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Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae

Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.
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The Magnaporthe oryzae nitrooxidative stress response suppresses rice innate immunity during blast disease

The Magnaporthe oryzae nitrooxidative stress response suppresses rice innate immunity during blast disease | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Magnaporthe oryzae nitronate monooxygenase NMO2 is shown to be required for prevention of damaging lipid nitration and host ROS-mediated innate immune responses in rice plants, enabling biotrophic growth of the rice blast fungus.

Via Tatsuya Nobori, Jennifer Mach
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Precise Editing of a Target Base in the Rice Genome Using a Modified CRISPR/Cas9 System

Precise Editing of a Target Base in the Rice Genome Using a Modified CRISPR/Cas9 System | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
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