In this study, we expressed hpa1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis to examine
the effects of Hpa1 expression on disease resistance to both fungal and bacterial pathogens. Expression of hpa1 gene in rice enhanced disease resistance to both X.oryzae pv. oryzae and Magnaporthe grisea. Interestingly,
individual transgenic rice plants could be divided into four groups, depending on responses to both pathogens.