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OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 play critical roles in rice defense signal transduction

OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 play critical roles in rice defense signal transduction | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice

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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
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Genome-wide exploration of the molecular evolution and regulatory network of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades upon multiple stresses in Brachypodium distachyon

Genome-wide exploration of the molecular evolution and regulatory network of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades upon multiple stresses in Brachypodium distachyon | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In this study, we have identified MAPKKKs which belong to the biggest gene family of MAPK cascade kinases. We have systematically investigated the evolution of whole MAPK cascade kinase gene family in terms of gene structures, protein structural organization, chromosomal localization, orthologs construction and gene duplication analysis. Our results showed that most BdMAPK cascade kinases were located at the low-CpG-density region, and the clustered members in each group shared similar structures of the genes and proteins. Synteny analysis showed that 62 or 21 pairs of duplicated orthologs were present between B. distachyon and Oryza sativa, or between B. distachyon and Arabidopsis thaliana respectively. Gene expression data revealed that BdMAPK cascade kinases were rapidly regulated by stresses and phytohormones. Importantly, we have constructed a regulation network based on co-expression patterns of the expression profiles upon multiple stresses performed in this study.

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Determination of Rab5 Activity in the Cell by Effector Pull-Down Assay

Rab5 targets to early endosomes and is a master regulator of early endosome fusion and endocytosis in all eukaryotic cells. Like other GTPases, Rab5 functions as a molecular switch by alternating between GTP-bound and GDP-bound forms, with the former being biologically active via interactions with multiple effector proteins. Thus the Rab5-GTP level in the cell reflects Rab5 activity in promoting endosome fusion and endocytosis and is indicative of cellular endocytic activity. In this chapter, we describe a Rab5 activity assay by using GST fusion proteins with the Rab5 effectors such as Rabaptin-5, Rabenosyn-5, and EEA1 that specifically bind to GTP-bound Rab5. We compare the efficiencies of the three GST fusion proteins in the pull-down of mammalian and fungal Rab5 proteins.
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In addition, they characterize two Rab5 homologs (MoRab5A and MoRab5B) from Magnaporthe
oryzae, a pathogenic fungus that infects plants and causes rice blast disease

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Brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal–pathogen interactions

Brachypodium as an emerging model for cereal–pathogen interactions | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Abstract

Background Cereal diseases cause tens of billions of dollars of losses annually and have devastating humanitarian consequences in the developing world. Increased understanding of the molecular basis of cereal host–pathogen interactions should facilitate development of novel resistance strategies. However, achieving this in most cereals can be challenging due to large and complex genomes, long generation times and large plant size, as well as quarantine and intellectual property issues that may constrain the development and use of community resources. Brachypodium distachyon (brachypodium) with its small, diploid and sequenced genome, short generation time, high transformability and rapidly expanding community resources is emerging as a tractable cereal model.

Scope Recent research reviewed here has demonstrated that brachypodium is either susceptible or partially susceptible to many of the major cereal pathogens. Thus, the study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to hold great potential to improve understanding of cereal disease resistance, and to guide approaches to enhance this resistance. This paper reviews brachypodium experimental pathosystems for the study of fungal, bacterial and viral cereal pathogens; the current status of the use of brachypodium for functional analysis of cereal disease resistance; and comparative genomic approaches undertaken using brachypodium to assist characterization of cereal resistance genes. Additionally, it explores future prospects for brachypodium as a model to study cereal–pathogen interactions.

Conclusions The study of brachypodium–pathogen interactions appears to be a productive strategy for understanding mechanisms of disease resistance in cereal species. Knowledge obtained from this model interaction has strong potential to be exploited for crop improvement.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Guogen Yang
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Colloque SFP 2015

Colloque SFP 2015 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Sessions thématiques

1. Taxonomie, diagnostic et détection des agents phytopathogènes

2. Interactions plante-pathogène et plante-symbiote : mécanismes, vection, génomique et réponse de la plante

3. Épidémiologie aux différentes échelles, génétique des populations et écologie évolutive du parasitisme et de la symbiose

4. Protection des plantes, résistance durable, nouvelles technologies et gestion des risques

Les sessions seront introduites par un conférencier invité.  Ont déjà donné leur accord :

    Dr Olivier LE GALL,

    Pr Saskia HOGENHOUT,

    Dr Dominique BLANCARD,

    Dr Pascal SIMONET,

    Pr Philippe LEPOIVRE,

Des sessions "posters" seront aussi organisées.

Enfin, le colloque propose également une session ouverte au grand public consacré aux métiers de la phytopathologie (enseignement, recherche privée, épidémio-surveillance, phytodiagnostic, conseil agricole, journalisme agricole).

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Magnaporthe Rab5 homologs show distinctfunctions in NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation

Magnaporthe Rab5 homologs show distinctfunctions in NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Nerve growth factor (NGF) binds to TrkA and forms a NGF/TrkA complex at the cell surface, which is then internalized into signaling endosomes and promotes neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth. The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to localize on the plasma membrane and early endosomes, regulating endosome fusion. It was reported that endogenous Rab5 function may need to be suppressed during NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation. Two Rab5 homologs (MoRab5A:MGG_06241 and MoRab5B:MGG_01185) were identified and characterized from the rice blast fungus Magnapothe oryzae, and MoRab5B was identified as the Rab5 ortholog promoting early endosomal fusion, while MoRab5A specialized to perform a non-redundant function in endosomal sorting. In this study, we examined whether MoRab5A and MoRab5B play different roles in NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and cell differentiation in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line). Our data showed that MoRab5B is a negative regulator of NGF signaling and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, similar to human Rab5 (hRab5). MoRab5B:WT inhibits NGF signaling-dependent neurite outgrowth while the dominant-negative MoRab5B mutant (MoRab5B:DN) enhances NGF signaling and neurite outgrowth. In contrast, MoRab5A:WT and MoRab5A:DN both significantly promote NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating that MoRab5B is more similar to hRab5 than MoRab5A in the regulation of NGF signal transduction.
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Nucleotide variation and identification of novel blast resistance alleles of Pib by allele mining strategy

Pib is one of significant rice blast resistant genes, which provides resistance to wide range of isolates of rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae. Identification and isolation of novel and beneficial alleles help in crop enhancement. Allele mining is one of the best strategies for dissecting the allelic variations at candidate gene and identification of novel alleles. Hence, in the present study, Pib was analyzed by allele mining strategy, and coding and non-coding (upstream and intron) regions were examined to identify novel Pib alleles. Allelic sequences comparison revealed that nucleotide polymorphisms at coding regions affected the amino acid sequences, while the polymorphism at upstream (non-coding) region affected the motifs arrangements. Pib alleles from resistant landraces, Sercher and Krengosa showed better resistance than Pib donor variety, might be due to acquired mutations, especially at LRR region. The evolutionary distance, Ka/Ks and phylogenetic analyzes also supported these results. Transcription factor binding motif analysis revealed that Pib Sr had a unique motif (DPBFCOREDCDC3), while five different motifs differentiated the resistance and susceptible Pib alleles. As the Pib is an inducible gene, the identified differential motifs helps to understand the Pib expression mechanism. The identified novel Pib resistant alleles, which showed high resistance to the rice blast, can be used directly in blast resistance breeding program as alternative Pib resistant sources.
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Identification and characterization of a novel gene encoding the NBS1 protein in Pyricularia oryzae

The ascomycete Pyricularia oryzae (teleomorph: Magnaporthe oryzae) causes one of the most serious diseases known as rice blast. The Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein (NBS1) is essential for DNA repair; thus, we studied the P. oryzae NBS1 homolog (PoNBS1). A PoNBS1 null mutant exhibited high sensitivity to DNA damage-inducing agents. The mutant also exhibited the retarded hyphal growth, and induced abnormal conidial germination and shape, but showed normal appressorium formation. The phenotypes of the null mutant were complemented by introducing the cDNA of PoNBS1 driven by a TrpC promoter of Aspergillus nidulans. In addition, the null mutant similarly complemented with the PoNBS1 cDNA lacking the FHA domain that had a normal phenotype except for hyphal growth. These results suggest that PoNBS1 is involved in DNA repair and normal development in P. oryzae. Moreover, the FHA domain of PoNBS1 participates in normal hyphal growth.
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QTLs Analysis for Resistance to Blast Disease in US Weedy Rice

Understanding the genetic architecture of adaptation is of great importance in evolutionary biology. US weedy rice is well-adapted to the local conditions in US rice fields. Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice worldwide. However, information about resistance to blast in weedy rice is limited. Here, we evaluated the disease reactions of 60 US weedy rice accessions with 14 blast races, and investigated the QTLs associated with blast resistance in two major ecotypes of US weedy rice. Our results revealed that US weedy rice exhibited a broad resistance spectrum. Using genotyping by sequencing (GBS), we identified 28 resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in two US weedy rice ecotypes. The resistance QTLs with relatively large and small effects suggests that US weedy rice groups have adapted to blast disease using two ways, both major resistance genes and QTLs. Three genomic loci shared by some of the resistance QTLs indicated that these loci may contribute to no-race-specific resistance in weedy rice. Comparing with known blast disease resistance (R) genes, we found that the R genes at these resistance QTLs are novel, suggesting that US weedy rice is a potential source of novel blast R genes for resistant breeding.
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Naturally produced citral can significantly inhibit normal physiology and induce cytotoxicity on Magnaporthe grisea

Naturally produced citral can significantly inhibit normal physiology and induce cytotoxicity on Magnaporthe grisea | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Citral is a natural product, which is extracted from the Litsea cubeba fruits.
Bioassay results showed that citral possesses a broad spectrum of bioactivity.
Citral may result in physiology changes in Magnaporthe grisea, thus causing cytotoxicity.
Naturally produced citral could be a potential fungicide.

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Substitution of tryptophan 89 with tyrosine switches the DNA binding mode of PC4

Substitution of tryptophan 89 with tyrosine switches the DNA binding mode of PC4 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
PC4, a well-known general transcription cofactor, has multiple functions in transcription and DNA repair. Residue W89, is engaged in stacking interactions with DNA in PC4, but substituted by tyrosine in some PC4 orthologous proteins. In order to understand the consequences and reveal the molecular details of this substitution we have determined the crystal structures of the PC4 orthologue MoSub1 and a PC4 W89Y mutant in complex with DNA. In the structure of MoSub1-DNA complex, Y74 interacts directly with a single nucleotide of oligo DNA. By comparison, the equivalent residue, W89 in wild type PC4 interacts with two nucleotides and the base of the second nucleotide has distinct orientation relative to that of the first one. A hydrophobic patch around W89 that favours interaction with two nucleotides is not formed in the PC4 W89Y mutant. Therefore, the change of the surface hydrophobicity around residue 89 results in a difference between the modes of DNA interaction. These results indicate that the conserved Y74 in MoSub1 or W89 in PC4, are not only key residues in making specific interactions with DNA but also required to determine the DNA binding mode of PC4 proteins.
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Characterization of resistance genes to rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in a “Green Revolution” rice variety

The indica rice variety Dee Geo Woo Gen (DGWG) was the source of the semidwarf gene (SD1) which played an important role in the Green Revolution. In the present study, resistance (R) genes to the US race (isolate) IB54 of Magnaporthe oryzae, causal agent of rice blast disease, was investigated. Two recombinant inbred line mapping populations, consisting of 175 and 224 individuals derived from crosses of DGWG with the straw hull weedy rice type PI653435 (AR-2001-1135; S population) and the black hull type PI653419 (MS-1996-9; B population), respectively, were used for mapping blast R genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two high-resolution linkage maps with 6,513 (S population) and 14,382 (B population) single nucleotide polymorphic markers derived from genotyping-by-sequencing data were used to map R genes. Two partial resistance QTLs, qBR1.1 and qBR6.1, and one major resistance QTL, qBR11.1, were identified in the B population. One partial resistance QTL, qBR6.1, and one major resistance QTL, qBR11.1, were confirmed with the S population. The total phenotypic variation of three resistance QTLs was 51 %, ranging from 1.12 to 47.62 %, in the B population. All three resistance QTLs were localized to relatively small genomic regions. The major resistance QTL, qBR11.1, was mapped to a 129-kb region on chromosome 11 near nine known blast R genes. Within this 129-kb region, three genes encoding putative nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) disease resistance proteins and three genes encoding WRKY transcription factors WRKY61, WRKY63, and WRKY41 were identified as candidate genes of qBR11.1 and tentatively designated as Pi66(t). Identification of blast R genes in DGWG should help continued deployment of useful genes for improving crop productivity and resistance to rice blast disease.
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Toward monophyletic generic concepts in Magnaporthales: species with Harpophora asexual states

We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among Magnaporthales fungi with harpophora-like asexual states based on DNA sequences of ITS, MCM7, RPB1 and TEF1 genes. The results indicated that these species are polyphyletic. Based on the four-gene phylogeny, the type species of Harpophora, H. radicicola, belongs to Gaeumannomyces and thus Harpophora is treated as a synonym of Gaeumannomyces. In addition a monotypic new genus, Falciphora, is established based on F. oryzae, previous referred as Harpophora oryzae.
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Upstream regulatory architecture of rice genes: summarizing the baseline towards genus-wide comparative analysis of regulatory networks and allele mining

Upstream regulatory architecture of rice genes: summarizing the baseline towards genus-wide comparative analysis of regulatory networks and allele mining | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Dissecting the upstream regulatory architecture of rice genes and their cognate regulator proteins is at the core of network biology and its applications to comparative functional genomics. With the rapidly advancing comparative genomics resources in the genus Oryza, a reference genome annotation that defines the various cis-elements and trans-acting factors that interface each gene locus with various intrinsic and extrinsic signals for growth, development, reproduction and adaptation must be established to facilitate the understanding of phenotypic variation in the context of regulatory networks. Such information is also important to establish the foundation for mining non-coding sequence variation that defines novel alleles and epialleles across the enormous phenotypic diversity represented in rice germplasm. This review presents a synthesis of the state of knowledge and consensus trends regarding the various cis-acting and trans-acting components that define spatio-temporal regulation of rice genes based on representative examples from both foundational studies in other model and non-model plants, and more recent studies in rice. The goal is to summarize the baseline for systematic upstream sequence annotation of the rapidly advancing genome sequence resources in Oryza in preparation for genus-wide functional genomics. Perspectives on the potential applications of such information for gene discovery, network engineering and genomics-enabled rice breeding are also discussed.
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Characterization of rice blast resistance genes in rice germplasm with monogenic lines and pathogenicity assays

Characterization of rice blast resistance genes in rice germplasm with monogenic lines and pathogenicity assays | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We provided information on blast resistance gene deployment.
Pi9 and Pita2 are effective blast resistance genes in the USA.
Ten out of 14 commonly found races of Magnaporthe oryzae were highly virulent.
Eight rice germplasm have more than two blast resistance genes.

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An S-(Hydroxymethyl)Glutathione Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Conidiation and Full Virulence in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

An S-(Hydroxymethyl)Glutathione Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Conidiation and Full Virulence in the Rice Blast Fungus  Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Magnaporthe oryzae is a hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen that causes rice blast disease. A compatible interaction requires overcoming plant defense responses to initiate colonization during the early infection process.


Via Yanping Tian
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Activation of the signaling mucin MoMsb2 and its functional relationship with Cbp1 in Magnaporthe oryzae

Activation of the signaling mucin MoMsb2 and its functional relationship with Cbp1 in Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Various surface signals are recognized by Magnaporthe oryzae to activate the Pmk1 MAP kinase that is essential for appressorium formation and invasive growth. One of upstream sensors of the Pmk1 pathway is the MoMsb2 signaling mucin. However, the activation of MoMsb2 and its relationship with other sensors is not clear. In this study, we showed that the cleavage and transmembrane domains are essential for MoMsb2 functions. Cleavage of MoMsb2 was further confirmed by western blot analysis and five putative cleavage sites were functionally characterized. Expression of the extracellular region alone partially rescued the defects of Momsb2 in appressorium formation and virulence. The cytoplasmic region of MoMsb2, although dispensable for appressorium formation, was more important for penetration and invasive growth. Interestingly, the Momsb2 cbp1 double mutant deleted of both mucin genes was blocked in Pmk1 activation. It failed to form appressoria on artificial surfaces and was non-pathogenic. In addition, we showed that MoMsb2 interacts with Ras2 but not with MoCdc42 in co-IP assays. Overall, results from this study indicated that the extracellular and cytoplasmic regions of MoMsb2 have distinct functions in appressorium formation, penetration, and invasive growth, and MoMsb2 has overlapping functions with Cbp1 in recognizing environmental signals for Pmk1 activation.
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Efficacy of Selected Plant Extracts against Pyricularia grisea, Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease

Efficacy of Selected Plant Extracts against Pyricularia grisea, Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice blast disease, caused by a seed-borne fungus Pyricularia grisea, is an important and serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.) worldwide. The disease has been reported to cause yield losses of up to 40% in Tanzania. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extracts of Aloe vera, Allium sativum, Annona muricata, Azadirachta indica, Bidens pilosa, Camellia sinensis, Chrysanthemum coccineum, processed Coffee arabica, Datura stramonium, Nicotiana tabacum and Zingiber officinalis for control of rice blast disease (Pyricularia grisea) in-vitro and in-vivo. The results indicate that processed C. arabica at 10% and 25% (v/v) had the highest (81.12%) and (89.40%) inhibitory effect, respectively, against P. grisea. Aqueous extract from N. tabacum at 10% concentration ranked third (80.35%) in inhibiting P. grisea. These were followed by extracts from 25% A. vera (79.45%) and 25% C. coccineum flower (78.83%). The results also indicate that, extracts from A. indica, A. vera, A. sativum, C. arabica, D. stramonium, C. sinensis, Z. officinalis and N. tabacum did not have any phytotoxic effect on seed germination, shoot height, root length, dry weight, seedling growth and seedling vigour index. These plant extracts can thus be used for rice seed treatment to manage rice blast disease.
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High osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling in Magnaporthe oryzae: Identification of MoYPD1 and its role in osmoregulation, fungicide action and pathogenicity

High osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling in Magnaporthe oryzae: Identification of MoYPD1 and its role in osmoregulation, fungicide action and pathogenicity | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The first functional characterization of an YPD1-homologue in filamentous phytopathogenic fungi.
We investigated a yeast YPD1-homologue and its role concerning signal transfer within the phosphorelay system of the HOG pathway.
We provide a Y2H analysis of the signaling proteins in the phosphorelaysystem of the HOG pathway in Magnaporthe oryzae.
MoYpd1 is involved in the fungicide action of fludioxonil.
ΔMoypd1 has a white and fluffy phenotype and is not able to form spores and colonise rice plants.

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Molecular Screening of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice using SSR Markers

Molecular Screening of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice using SSR Markers | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rice Blast is the most devastating disease causing major yield losses in every year worldwide. It had been proved that using resistant rice varieties would be the most effective way to control this disease. Molecular screening and genetic diversities of major rice blast resistance genes were determined in 192 rice germplasm accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genetic frequencies of the 10 major rice blast resistance genes varied from 19.79% to 54.69%. Seven accessions IC337593, IC346002, IC346004, IC346813, IC356117, IC356422 and IC383441 had maximum eight blast resistance gene, while FR13B, Hourakani, Kala Rata 1–24, Lemont, Brown Gora, IR87756-20-2-2-3, IC282418, IC356419, PKSLGR-1 and PKSLGR-39 had seven blast resistance genes. Twenty accessions possessed six genes, 36 accessions had five genes, 41 accessions had four genes, 38 accessions had three genes, 26 accessions had two genes, 13 accessions had single R gene and only one accession IC438644 does not possess any one blast resistant gene. Out of 192 accessions only 17 accessions harboured 7 to 8 blast resistance genes.
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Plant-PrAS: A Database of Physicochemical and Structural Properties and Novel Functional Regions in Plant Proteomes

Plant-PrAS: A Database of Physicochemical and Structural Properties and Novel Functional Regions in Plant Proteomes | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Via Biswapriya Biswavas Misra
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Biswapriya Biswavas Misra's curator insight, March 15, 10:13 PM

Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model species for studies of plant gene functions. Research on Arabidopsis has resulted in the generation of high-quality genome sequences, annotations and related post-genomic studies. The amount of annotation, such as gene-coding regions and structures, is steadily growing in the field of plant research. In contrast to the genomics resource of animals and microorganisms, there are still some difficulties with characterization of some gene functions in plant genomics studies. The acquisition of information on protein structure can help elucidate the corresponding gene function because proteins encoded in the genome possess highly specific structures and functions. In this study, we calculated multiple physicochemical and secondary structural parameters of protein sequences, including length, hydrophobicity, the amount of secondary structure, the number of intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) and the predicted presence of transmembrane helices and signal peptides, using a total of 208,333 protein sequences from the genomes of six representative plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, Glycine max (soybean), Populus trichocarpa (poplar), Oryza sativa (rice),Physcomitrella patens (moss) and Cyanidioschyzon merolae (alga). Using the PASS tool and the Rosetta Stone method, we annotated the presence of novel functional regions in 1,732 protein sequences that included unannotated sequences from the Arabidopsis and rice proteomes. These results were organized into the Plant Protein Annotation Suite database (Plant-PrAS), which can be freely accessed online at http://plant-pras.riken.jp/.

 
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NLR Biology in Plants and Animals - Interactions, Bavaria, Germany from May 3–6, 2015

NLR Biology in Plants and Animals - Interactions, Bavaria, Germany from May 3–6, 2015 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

This workshop aims to draw together researchers in plant and animal NLR biology to discuss recent conceptual advances and future directions for the field. The workshop will take place at Schloss Ringberg in Bavaria, Germany from May 3–6, 2015. View the workshop poster for more information on how to register and submit an abstract.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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Identification of three major R genes responsible for broad-spectrum blast resistance in an indica rice accession

Identification of three major R genes responsible for broad-spectrum blast resistance in an indica rice accession | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
An indica rice accession HR4 was found to exhibit good resistance to rice blast in previous research. Inoculation with 116 different M. oryzae isolates revealed that HR4 has the broadest resistance spectrum of the six rice cultivars used in this study, which included two well characterized broad-spectrum resistance sources. To uncover the genetic mechanism of the broad-spectrum resistance in HR4, genetic analysis was carried out with three stable isolates. The results showed that a single dominant gene controlled its resistance to isolates GD93286 and GD00193, whereas two independent dominant genes were responsible for its resistance to isolate GD08T4. The resistance (R) gene in HR4 corresponding to isolate GD93286, named Pi-h1(t), was found to reside in a region of ~235.9 kb on the long arm of chromosome 11, while the other two R genes identified with isolate GD08T4, named Pi-h2(t) and Pi-h3(t), were linked to markers on chromosomes 1 and 12, respectively. The results indicated that the broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast in HR4 could be ascribed to multiple R genes. Identification of such multiple R genes will allow us to use markers more effectively for resistance improvement in rice breeding programs.
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Plant Omics - Identification and network construction of zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes involved in the rice-'Magnaporthe oryzae' interaction

Plant Omics - Identification and network construction of zinc finger protein (ZFP) genes involved in the rice-'Magnaporthe oryzae' interaction | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Previous studies have shown that some rice ZFP genes from the WRKY, RIN C2H2 and LSD1 families are associated with defense against Magnaporthe oyzae (M ozae). However, it remains miluioi whether other ZFP families are involved in the rice-M oyzae interaction. Here, we reported the global characterization of rice ZFP genes involved in the rice-M oryzae interaction based on bioinfromatics analysis of important rice databases. By analyzing the data obtained from the microarray database, we found that 241 ZFP genes belonging to 27 thmiies were expression-responsive toM oyzae. Among these ZFP thmiies, a total of 23 ZFP families were newly identified to be involved into the rice-M oyzae interaction. The expression patterns of the ZFP genes with expression responsiveness to M oyzae in each thmily were similar, suggesting that each family might play similar roles in the rice-M oyzae interaction. The result of co- expression gene network analysis revealed that the M oIae-responsive ZFP genes were able to be co-expressed with those genes regulating some biological processes. These biological processes mainly included methylation modification, protein kinase activity, transcription activity, posttranscriptional modification and protein transfer. The result suggested that the regulated network of the rice-M oyzae interaction was well organized, although it was complicated. Moreover, we identified four ZFP genes that might play important roles for regulating blast disease resistance.
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