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OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 play critical roles in rice defense signal transduction

OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 play critical roles in rice defense signal transduction | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Here we further demonstrated the important roles of OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 in rice defense signaling, as silencing of either LYP impaired the defense marker gene activation induced by either bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaecola or fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Moreover, we found that OsLYP4 and OsLYP6 could form homo- and hetero-dimers, and could interact with CEBiP, suggesting an unexpected complexity of chitin perception in rice

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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
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Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience | Royal Society

Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience | Royal Society | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Scientific discussion meeting organised by Professor Matthew Fisher, Professor Sarah Gurr and Professor Neil Gow
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MoGrr1, a novel F-box protein, is involved in conidiogenesis and cell wall integrity and is critical for the full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae

MoGrr1, a novel F-box protein, is involved in conidiogenesis and cell wall integrity and is critical for the full virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The production of asexual spores plays a critical role in rice blast disease. However, the mechanisms of the genes involved in the conidiogenesis pathway are not well understood. F-box proteins are specific adaptors to E3 ubiquitin ligases that determine the fate of different substrates in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and play diverse roles in fungal growth regulation. Here, we identify a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grr1 homolog, MoGrr1, in Magnaporthe oryzae. Targeted disruption of Mogrr1 resulted in defects in vegetative growth, melanin pigmentation, conidial production, and resistance to oxidative stress, and these mutants consequently exhibited attenuated virulence to host plants. Microscopy studies revealed that the inability to form conidiophores is responsible for the defect in conidiation. Although the Mogrr1 mutants could develop melanized appressoria from hyphal tips, the appressoria were unable to penetrate into plant tissues due to insufficient turgor pressure within the appressorium, thereby attenuating the virulence of the mutants. Quantitative RT-PCR results revealed significantly decreased expression of chitin synthase-encoding genes, which are involved in fungal cell wall integrity, in the Mogrr1 mutants. The Mogrr1 mutants also displayed reduced expression of central components of the MAP kinase and cAMP signaling pathways, which are required for appressorium differentiation. Furthermore, domain complementation analysis indicated that two putative protein-interacting domains in MoGrr1 play essential roles during fungal development and pathogenicity. Taken together, our results suggest that MoGrr1 plays essential roles in fungal development and is required for the full virulence of M. oryzae.
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4th Call for Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) in Frame of COST FA1306

4th Call for Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSM) in Frame of COST FA1306 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Experimental work proposed  in the STSM application has to have a clear link to one of the >> WORKGROUPS of COST FA1306. Proposals might cover analyses in a wide range of plant species and biological questions as related to the applicants scientific background or STSM >> project proposals. Although from a methodological point of view it is requested that experiments in frame of COST FA1306 STSMs comprise

phenomics (>> WG1),
genomics/transcriptomics/proteomics/metabolomics etc (>> WG2) and /or
integrative studies with a focus on applied end-use (>> WG3).
In the context of the significance for future bioeconomy, WG3 applications aiming at the association/integration of multiple omics areas (including plant phenotyping) in (crop) plant research are preferred.
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One of Three Pex11 Family Members Is Required for Peroxisomal Proliferation and Full Virulence of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

One of Three Pex11 Family Members Is Required for Peroxisomal Proliferation and Full Virulence of the Rice Blast Fungus  Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Peroxisomes play important roles in metabolisms of eukaryotes and infection of plant fungal pathogens. These organelles proliferate by de novo formation or division in response to environmental stimulation. Although the assembly of peroxisomes was documented in fungal pathogens, their division and its relationship to pathogenicity remain obscure. In present work, we analyzed the roles of three Pex11 family members in peroxisomal division and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Deletion of MoPEX11A led to fewer but enlarged peroxisomes, and impaired the separation of Woronin bodies from peroxisomes, while deletion of MoPEX11B or MoPEX11C put no evident impacts to peroxisomal profiles. MoPEX11A mutant exhibited typical peroxisome related defects, delayed conidial germination and appressoria formation, and decreased appressorial turgor and host penetration. As a result, the virulence of MoPEX11A mutant was greatly reduced. Deletion of MoPEX11B and MoPEX11C did not alter the virulence of the fungus. Further, double or triple deletions of the three genes were unable to enhance the virulence decrease in MoPEX11A mutant. Our data indicated that MoPEX11A is the main factor modulating peroxisomal division and is required for full virulence of the fungus.
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The third Conference of the SUSTAIN COST Action will be held 17-19 February 2016 in Banyuls/France.

The third Conference of the SUSTAIN COST Action will be held 17-19 February 2016 in Banyuls/France. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Pre-registration and a website with information on the Conference will open in September. 

https://www.cost-sustain.org/

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MoARG1, MoARG5,6 and MoARG7 involved in arginine biosynthesis are essential for growth, conidiogenesis, sexual reproduction, and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae

Arginine is one of the most versatile amino acids in eukaryote cells, which plays important roles in a multitude of processes such as protein synthesis, nitrogen metabolism, nitric oxide (NO) and urea biosynthesis. The de novo arginine biosynthesis pathway is conserved among fungal kingdom, but poorly understood in plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we characterized the functions of three synthetic enzyme-encoding genes MoARG1, MoARG5,6, and MoARG7, which involved the seventh step, second-third step and fifth step of arginine biosynthesis in Magnaporthe oryzae, respectively. Deletion of MoARG1 or MoARG5,6, resulted in arginine auxotrophic mutants, which had a strict requirement for arginine on minimal medium (MM). Both ΔMoarg1 and ΔMoarg5,6 severely reduced in aerial hyphal growth, pigmentation, conidiogenesis, sexual reproduction and pathogenicity. Interestingly, like Saccharomyces cerevisiae, deletion of MoARG7 caused a leaky arginine auxotrophy, and attenuated pathogenicity. Limited appressorium-mediated penetration and restricted invasive hyphae growth in host cells are responsible for the severely attenuated pathogenicity of the Arg− mutants. Additionally, we monitored the NO generation during conidial germination and appressorial formation in both Arg− mutants and wild type, and demonstrated that NO generation may not occur via arginine-dependent pathway in M. oryzae. In summary, MoARG1, MoARG5,6, and MoARG7 are required for growth, conidiogenesis, sexual reproduction, and pathogenicity in M. oryzae.
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Genera of Fungi database

Genera of Fungi database | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; McNeill et al. 2012) provided for the development of lists of accepted names of fungi in all ranks that could be treated as conserved after examination and approval by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi (NCF) and the General Committee (Art. 14.13). The Code also provided for the development of lists of names to be rejected (Art. 56.3).

As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption (at this stage only covering genera published before 1 January 2000, though this may still be expanded to include genera published up to 2013). We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10th International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base.

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BRHIS1 suppresses rice innate immunity through binding to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B variants

BRHIS1 suppresses rice innate immunity through binding to monoubiquitinated H2A and H2B variants | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In the absence of pathogen attack, organisms usually suppress immune responses to reduce the negative effects of disease resistance. Monoubiquitination of histone variants at specific gene loci is crucial for gene expression, but its involvement in the regulation of plant immunity remains unclear. Here, we show that a rice SWI/SNF2 ATPase gene BRHIS1 is downregulated in response to the rice blast fungal pathogen or to the defense-priming-inducing compound BIT (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2h)-one,1, 1-dioxide). The BRHIS1-containing complex represses the expression of some disease defense-related genes, including the pathogenesis-related gene OsPBZc and the leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) receptor-like protein kinase gene OsSIRK1. This is achieved through BRHIS1 recruitment to the promoter regions of target genes through specific interaction with monoubiquitinated histone variants H2B.7 and H2A.Xa/H2A.Xb/H2A.3, in the absence of pathogen attack or BIT treatment. Our results show that rice disease defense genes are initially organized in an expression-ready state by specific monoubiquitination of H2A and H2B variants deposited on their promoter regions, but are kept suppressed by the BRHIS1 complex, facilitating the prompt initiation of innate immune responses in response to infection through the stringent regulation of BRHIS1.

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Effectome - 16th to the 18th of September 2015 at the Auberge du Cedre in Lauret, France.

Wednesday September 16th

 

Session 1: Insects & Nematodes

Chair: Akiko Sugio & Bruno Favery

14h15-15h00 Saskia Hogenhout (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK) Multitasking, how single bacterial virulence proteins modulate plant development and attract insect vectors

15h00-15h20 Endrick Guy (INRA Rennes) Characterization of aphid saliva proteins that can be involved in host plant specialization

15h20-15h40 Maelle Jaouannet (James Hutton Institute, UK) Characterization of Arabidopsis host and non-host responses to aphids

15h40-16h00 Sam Mugford (John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK) Discovery of effector proteins that modulate plant-insect interactions in the genome of the green peach aphid

16h30-17h15 Shahid Siddique (University of Bonn, Germany) A plant-parasitic nematode releases cytokinins that control cell division and orchestrate feeding-site formation in host plants.

17h15-17h35 Xirong Wang (South China Agricultural University, China) A putative effector PDCD6 from Meloidogyne incognita modulating the host giant cell apoptosis in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

17h35-17h55 Nghia Nguyen (INRA-UNS-CNRS Sophia Antipolis, FR) Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling of Root-knot Nematodes During Plant Infection and Characterization of Species-Specific Traits

17h55-18h15 Anne-Sophie Petitot (IRD Montpellier, FR) Search for effectors in root-knot nematode-rice interactions.

 

Thursday September 17th

Session 2: Fungi & Oomycetes

Chair : Elodie Gaulin, Thomas Kroj & Sebastien Duplessis

9h00-9h45 Tolga Bozkurt (Imperial College, London, UK) How host cell’s intracellular transport systems are coopted by plant pathogenic oomycetes?

9h45-10h05 Laurent Camborde (LRSV, Toulouse, FR) Effector-driven adaptation of Aphanomyces species to animal or plant hosts

10h05-10h25 Gaetan Maillot (INRA, Avignon, FR) RNA-Seq study of host resistance and isolate aggressiveness on gene expression in Phytophthora capsici

10h55-11h15. Emilie Chanclud (Université Montpellier/INRA, Montpellier, FR) Cytokinins produced by the rice blast fungus are dual effectors required for virulence

11h15-11h35. Sebastien Duplessis (INRA, Nancy, FR) Specific expression of candidate effectors of the rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina during infection of its two host plants, larch and poplar

11h35-11h55. Yohann Petit (INRA, Grignon, FR) A two genes – for – one gene interaction between Leptosphaeria maculans and Brassica napus

11h55-12h15. Catherine Sirven (Bayer Cropscience, Lyon, FR) Disease Control approaches at Bayer

13h50-14h10 Thomas Kroj (INRA, Montpellier, FR) Structure analysis uncovers the highly diverse but structurally conserved MAX-effector family in phytopathogenic fungi

14h10-14h30 Clement Pellegrin (INRA, Nancy, FR) MiSSP8, a lectin-like protein required for the establishment of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis

14h30-14h50 Elisabeth Fournier (INRA, Montpellier, FR) Deciphering genome content and evolutionary relationships of isolates from the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae attacking different host plants

14h50-15h10 Benjamin Petre (The Sainsbury Laboratory & INRA Nancy) Fast-forward effectoromics of rust fungi

Session 3: Bacteria and Viruses

Chair: Valerie Nicaise, Boris Szurek & Nemo Peeters

15h35-16h20 Alexandre Jamet (MICALIS, INRA Jouy en Josas, FR) The human Four-and-a-Half LIM Domains Protein 2 interacts with ElrA, a virulence factor of Enterococcus faecalis

16h20-17h05 Etienne Delannoy (IPS2, Paris Saclay Institute of Plant Sciences, FR) Title pending (presentation will treat Transcriptomics, Interactomics and Integration of Co-expression & Co-regulation)

Friday September 18th

8h45-9h30 Mikhail Pooggin (University of Basel, CH) title

9h30-9h50 Valerie Nicaise (INRA, Bordeaux, FR) The capsid protein of Plum pox virus suppresses plant PTI responses

9h50-10h10 Laurent Noel (CNRS, Toulouse, FR) Immunities at hydathodes

10h10-10h30 Tu Tran (IRD, Montpellier, FR) Functional analysis of the TALome of African Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae reveals a novel strategy to promote virulence

10h55-11h15 Ralf Koebnik (IRD, Montpellier, FR) Evolution of Pathogenicity Beyond Type III Effectors in Xanthomonas

11h15-11h35 Nemo Peeters (CNRS, Toulouse, FR) Ralstonia solanacearum core T3E analysis

11h35-11h55 Lionel Gagnevin (IRD, Montpellier, FR) Microevolution of TAL effector genes in Xanthomonas citri pv. Citri during a Citrus canker epidemic

11h55-12h15 Boris Szurek (IRD, Montpellier, FR) A rice blast resistance gene confers resistance against BLB and BLS

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Protein kinase C is essential for viability of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

Protein kinase C is essential for viability of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Protein kinase C constitutes a family of serine-threonine kinases found in all eukaryotes and implicated in a wide range of cellular functions, including regulation of cell growth, cellular differentiation, and immunity. Here, we present three independent lines of evidence which indicate that protein kinase C is essential for viability of Magnaporthe oryzae. First, all attempts to generate a target deletion of PKC1, the single copy protein kinase C-encoding gene, proved unsuccessful. Secondly, conditional gene silencing of PKC1 by RNA interference led to severely reduced growth of the fungus, which was reversed by targeted deletion of the Dicer2-encoding gene, MDL2. Finally, selective kinase inhibition of protein kinase C by targeted allelic replacementwith an analogue-sensitive PKC1ASallele led to specific loss of fungal viability in the presence of the PP1 inhibitor. Global transcriptional profiling following selective PKC inhibition identified significant changes in gene expressionassociated with cell wall re-modelling, autophagy, signal transduction and secondary metabolism.When considered together, these results suggest protein kinase C is essential for growth and development of M. oryzaewith extensive downstream targets in addition to the cell integrity pathway. Targeting protein kinase C signalling may therefore prove an effective means of controlling rice blast disease.
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The Plant Genome Integrative Explorer Resource: PlantGenIE.org - Sundell - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library

The Plant Genome Integrative Explorer Resource: PlantGenIE.org - Sundell - 2015 - New Phytologist - Wiley Online Library | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Accessing and exploring large-scale genomics data sets remains a significant challenge to researchers without specialist bioinformatics training.
We present the integrated PlantGenIE.org platform for exploration of Populus, conifer and Arabidopsis genomics data, which includes expression networks and associated visualization tools. Standard features of a model organism database are provided, including genome browsers, gene list annotation, Blast homology searches and gene information pages. Community annotation updating is supported via integration of WebApollo.
We have produced an RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) expression atlas for Populus tremula and have integrated these data within the expression tools. An updated version of the ComPlEx resource for performing comparative plant expression analyses of gene coexpression network conservation between species has also been integrated.
The PlantGenIE.org platform provides intuitive access to large-scale and genome-wide genomics data from model forest tree species, facilitating both community contributions to annotation improvement and tools supporting use of the included data resources to inform biological insight.

Via Francis Martin, Guogen Yang
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Waiting for rice !

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How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition

How eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes employ sophisticated mechanisms for evading host recognition. After host penetration, many fungi and oomycetes establish a biotrophic interaction. It is assumed that different strategies employed by these pathogens to avoid triggering host defence responses, including establishment of biotrophic interfacial layers between the pathogen and host, masking of invading hyphae and active suppression of host defence mechanisms, are essential for a biotrophic parasitic lifestyle. During the infection process, filamentous plant pathogens secrete various effectors, which are hypothesized to be involved in facilitating effective host infection. Live-cell imaging of fungi and oomycetes secreting fluorescently labeled effector proteins as well as functional characterization of the components of biotrophic interfaces have led to the recent progress in understanding how eukaryotic filamentous pathogens evade plant recognition.


Via Alejandro Rojas
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Direct Phosphorylation and Activation of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase by a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rice

Direct Phosphorylation and Activation of a Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase by a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a pivotal point of convergence for many signaling pathways in eukaryotes. In the classical MAPK cascade, a signal is transmitted via sequential phosphorylation and activation of MAPK kinase kinase, MAPK kinase (MKK), and MAPK. The activation of MAPK is dependent on dual phosphorylation of a TXY motif by an MKK, which is considered the sole kinase to phosphorylate and activate MAPK. Here, we report a novel regulatory mechanism of MAPK phosphorylation and activation besides the canonical MAPK cascade. A rice (Oryza sativa) calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK), CPK18, was identified as an upstream kinase of MAPK (MPK5) in vitro and in vivo. Curiously, CPK18 was shown to phosphorylate and activate MPK5 without affecting the phosphorylation of its TXY motif. Instead, CPK18 was found to predominantly phosphorylate two Thr residues (Thr-14 and Thr-32) that are widely conserved in MAPKs from land plants. Further analyses reveal that the newly identified CPK18-MPK5 pathway represses defense gene expression and negatively regulates rice blast resistance. Our results suggest that land plants have evolved an MKK-independent phosphorylation pathway that directly connects calcium signaling to the MAPK machinery.
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MoSET1 (Histone H3K4 Methyltransferase in Magnaporthe oryzae ) Regulates Global Gene Expression during Infection-Related Morphogenesis

MoSET1 (Histone H3K4 Methyltransferase in  Magnaporthe oryzae ) Regulates Global Gene Expression during Infection-Related Morphogenesis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Author Summary This paper provides two major contributions to the field of genetics. First, we systematically studied the biological roles of eight histone lysine methyltransferase (KMT) genes in the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae . We investigated their roles, especially focusing on their involvement in infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity. The results showed that the eight KMTs were involved in various infection processes to varying degrees, and that MoSET1, one of the KMTs catalyzing methylation at histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4), had the largest impact on the pathogenicity of the fungus. Second, we focused on the role of MoSET1 in global gene regulation. H3K4 methylation is generally believed to be an epigenetic mark for gene activation in higher eukaryotes. However, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , SET1 was originally characterized as being required for transcriptional silencing of silent mating-type loci. We addressed this apparent discrepancy by examining genome-wide gene expression and H3K4 methylation during infection-related morphogenesis in M . oryzae . RNA-seq analysis of a MoSET1 deletion mutant revealed that MoSET1 was indeed required for proper gene activation and repression. ChIP-seq analyses of H3K4 methylation and MoSET1 suggested that MoSET1 could directly play a role in gene activation while MoSET1-dependent gene repression may be caused by indirect effects.

Via Yogesh Gupta
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Evaluation of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteriaas Biocontrol Agents for the Control of Blast Disease in Rice

The antagonistic effects of three Pseudomonas isolates from rhizosphere of rice were evaluated against Pyricularia.oryzae in vitro and in vivo. Fungal inhibition tests were performed using plate assay. Each isolate was tested for the production of protease, siderophore, cyanide hydrogen, indole acetic acid and phosphate solubilization activity. All the 20 tested isolates of Pseudomonads fluorescent were positive for the production of siderophores and HCN, while 15 strains (75%) were positive for the production of plant growth-promoting hormone, IAA. Among the 20 isolates, 19 isolates showed phosphate solubilisation on NBRIP medium. Biocontrol activity and plant growth promotion of bacterial strains were evaluated under greenhouse conditions, in which soil-inoculation of NCIM 2099 (the reference strain), TS3C8 and TS3B5 reduced disease index to a range of 13.50% (P ≤ 0.05) compared to the untreated control at 28.8%. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the plants treated with TS3C8 isolate recorded maximum root length, plant height, and fresh shoot weight which were increased by 32.78 cm, 76.16 cm, and 5.84 g, respectively over the diseased control. These results indicate that the tested PGPR improved growth parameters in rice plants and contribute towards biocontrol of the blast pathogen.

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RNAS FROM PATHOGENS INHIBIT PLANT IMMUNITY - Jin, Hailing

The present invention relates to pathogen-resistant plants comprising a heterologous expression cassette, the expression cassette comprising a promoter operably linked to a polynucleotide that is complementary to, or mediates destruction, of a plant immunity suppressing sRNA of a pathogen, wherein the plant is less susceptible to the pathogen compared to a control plant lacking the expression cassette. Methods of making and cultivating pathogen-resistant plants are also provided.
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In some embodiments, the plant immunity suppressing sRNA is from a viral, bacterial, fungal, nematode, or insect pathogen. In some embodiments, the sRNA is from a fungal pathogen. Examples of plant fungal pathogens include, but are not limited to, Botyritis, Magnaporthe, Sclerotinia, Puccinia, Fusarium, Mycosphaerella, Blumeria, Colletotrichum, Ustilago, and Melampsora. See, e.g., Dean et al., Mol Plant Pathol 13:804 (2012)

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Colloque Résistance - Lauret - 4 au 6 Novembre 2015

Le réseau Résistance

L’objectif du réseau RESISTANCE est d’interconnecter des activités de recherche françaises sur les mécanismes de résistance des plantes aux maladies. De nombreuses équipes travaillant sur différents bioagresseurs et maladies développent des approches d’analyse indépendantes et sans nécessairement confronter leur expérience avec celles d’autres équipes.

 

Speakers invités

Mercredi 4 novembre

- Philippe Hugueney (INRA Colmar) Analyse métabolomique de l'interaction vigne-mildiou

- Maria Manzanares (INRA Rennes) Signalisation hormonal dans l'interaction Plasmodiophora brassica / Brassicaceae

- Angélique Besson-Bard (Maître de Conférences, Dijon) BABA-induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana: Links with iron homeostasis

Jeudi 5 et vendredi 6 Novembre

- Fabrice Roux (INRA Toulouse) Lien entre biologie moléculaire et écologie évolutive afin de prédire les trajectoires évolutives des communautés végétales et des communautés de pathogènes face aux changements globaux

- Laurent Genzbittel (Ecolab Toulouse) Insights into the relative contribution of micro-evolution and phenotypic plasticity in the quantitative response of the model legume M. truncatula to verticillium wilt

- Allia Dellagi (AgroParisTech IJPB) Natural variation of nitrogen nutrition effect on Arabidopsis thaliana tolerance to Dickeya dadantii

- Pascal Ratet (CNRS Gif) Contrôle de l’immunité au cours de l'interaction symbiotique rhizobium légumineuse

- Nathalie LEBORGNE-CASTEL ou Karim Bouhidel (INRA Dijon) Dynamique membranaire dans les réponses précoces des cellules de tabac à la cryptogéine

- Azeddine Driouich (Université Rouen) Rôle des cellules bordantes dans la défense de la racine

Tables rondes et bilan d’autres réseaux

Vendredi 6 Novembre

- Thomas Kroj (BGPI Montpellier) Bilan annuel du réseau Effectome et COST

-  JB Morel (BGPI, Montpellier) Où en est-on des mélanges variétaux et d’espèces pour l’amélioration de la résistance ?

- Table ronde autour des questions de phénotypage

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Les inscriptions au Meeting Résistance 2015 sont ouvertes sur le site

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Analysis of fungal endophytes associated with rice roots from irrigated and upland ecosystems in Kenya

Analysis of fungal endophytes associated with rice roots from irrigated and upland ecosystems in Kenya | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Based on sequencing of the ITS region, 75 fungal isolates were identified as Fusarium-like, while the remaining 98 isolates were found to belong to different species representing other genera than Fusarium. A further analysis of the Fusarium spp., using concatenated IGS and TEF-1α sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Fusarium oxysporum (FOSC) and Gibberella fujikuroi (GFSC) species complexes. Within the FOSC isolates, a clear divergence was observed between isolates from irrigated and upland ecosystems, while in the GFSC this phenomenon was not observed. When the total number of species was considered, 27 species were identified in the irrigated ecosystems, while only 18 species were found in the upland ecosystems.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Bacterium Burkholderia gladioli Strain NGJ1, Isolated from Healthy Rice Seeds

We report here the draft genome sequence of Burkholderia gladioli strain NGJ1. The strain was isolated from healthy rice seeds and exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity against several agriculturally important pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani, Magnaporthe oryzae, Venturia inaequalis, and Fusarium oxysporum.
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The Genera of Fungi - fixing the application of the type species of generic names – G 2: Allantophomopsis, Latorua, Macrodiplodiopsis, Macrohilum, Milospium, Protostegia, Pyricularia, Robillarda, R...

The Genera of Fungi - fixing the application of the type species of generic names – G 2: Allantophomopsis, Latorua, Macrodiplodiopsis, Macrohilum, Milospium, Protostegia, Pyricularia, Robillarda, R... | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The present paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Fungi series, linking type species of fungal genera to their morphology and DNA sequence data, and where possible, ecology. This paper focuses on 12 genera of microfungi, 11 of which the type species are neo- or epitypified here: Allantophomopsis (A. cytisporea, Phacidiaceae, Phacidiales, Leotiomycetes), Latorua gen. nov. (Latorua caligans, Latoruaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrodiplodiopsis (M. desmazieri, Macrodiplodiopsidaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Macrohilum (M. eucalypti, Macrohilaceae, Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), Milospium (M. graphideorum, incertae sedis, Pezizomycotina), Protostegia (P. eucleae, Mycosphaerellaceae, Capnodiales, Dothideomycetes), Pyricularia (P. grisea, Pyriculariaceae, Magnaporthales, Sordariomycetes), Robillarda (R. sessilis, Robillardaceae, Xylariales, Sordariomycetes), Rutola (R. graminis, incertae sedis, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Septoriella (S. phragmitis, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes), Torula (T. herbarum, Torulaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) and Wojnowicia (syn. of Septoriella, S. hirta, Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Novel species include Latorua grootfonteinensis, Robillarda africana, R. roystoneae, R. terrae, Torula ficus, T. hollandica, and T. masonii spp. nov., and three new families: Macrodiplodiopsisceae, Macrohilaceae, and Robillardaceae. Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi (www.generaoffungi.org).
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Les JJC 2016 (Journées Jean-Chevaugeon - 11es Rencontres de Phytopathologie - Mycologie) auront lieu à Aussois (Maurienne, Savoie) du 25 au 29 janvier 2016.

Les JJC 2016 (Journées Jean-Chevaugeon - 11es Rencontres de Phytopathologie - Mycologie) auront lieu à Aussois (Maurienne, Savoie) du 25 au 29 janvier 2016. | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Organisées depuis 1997 sous l’égide de la Société Française de Phytopathologie (SFP), ces rencontres réunissent tous les deux ans la communauté scientifique s’intéressant aux interactions, parasites et symbiotiques, entre plantes et champignons (au sens large).

Les rencontres rassemblent des chercheurs, permanents ou étudiants, issus de différents instituts (INRA, CIRAD, IRD , CNRS), d’entreprises phytosanitaires et semencières, et des enseignants-chercheurs issus de l'enseignement supérieur agronomique et universitaire. Le nombre de participants est limité à 150 (capacité d’accueil maximale).

 

L’édition 2016 sera structurée en cinq sessions, couvrant l’ensemble des disciplines mobilisées dans le domaine  des relations plantes-champignons :

- Interactions ;

- Génomique structurale et fonctionnelle ;

- Génétique, génomique et évolution des populations ;

- Épidémiologie ;

- Taxonomie, phylogénie et écologie des communautés.

 

Chaque session est introduite par une conférence demandée à un invité français ou étranger de premier plan, qui fait le point sur les dernières avancées de la thématique. Le programme des communications orales offre une large place aux jeunes chercheurs (doctorants et post-doctorants - 30 % des communications). Le choix des invités et des communications orales est effectué par un comité scientifique. Trois sessions posters sont également organisées.

 

Le cadre convivial, ainsi que l’ambiance informelle et détendue des rencontres, favorisent la discussion, le partage et les échanges interdisciplinaires et intergénérationnels. Les tarifs d’inscription sont calculés au plus juste afin de permettre la participation de tous ; les étudiants bénéficient d’un tarif préférentiel (- 30 % par rapport au plein tarif), et concourent pour le prix de la meilleure communication orale et du mellleur poster, remis lors de la clôture des rencontres.

 

Les rencontres se déroulent intégralement au CAES (résidentiel) du CNRS à Aussois, situé en périphérie du village, au pied des domaines skiables alpin et nordique. L’hébergement et les repas sont compris dans le forfait d’inscription. La liaison par bus avec la gare TGV de Modane (30  minutes) est assurée par l’organisation. L’accès routier est aisé (autoroute jusqu’à Modane).

 

Le site internet permettant l’inscription et la soumission des résumés sera opérationnel en septembre 2015 ; le site de l’édition 2014 fournit un aperçu plus précis des thématiques abordées lors du colloque ( https://colloque6.inra.fr/jjc2014).

 

Contact :

Ivan Sache  - ivan.sache@versailles.inra.fr

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Impact of the omic technologies for understanding the modes of action of biological control agents against plant pathogens

Impact of the omic technologies for understanding the modes of action of biological control agents against plant pathogens | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The characterization of microbial biological control agents (MBCAs) is crucial to improve their efficacy and consistency as biopesticides. Powerful approaches to characterize MBCA’s modes of action are provided by modern molecular technologies. This paper reviews improvements achieved in this subject by three “omics” approaches: namely the genomic, the transcriptomic and the proteomic approaches. The paper discusses the advantages and drawbacks of new molecular techniques and ‘discovery driven’ approaches to the study of the biocontrol properties against plant pathogens. Omics technologies are capable of: (i) identifying the genome, transcriptome or proteome features of an MBCA strain, (ii) comparing properties of strains/mutants with different biocontrol efficacy, (iii) identifying and characterizing genes, mRNAs and proteins involved in MBCA modes of action, and (iv) simultaneously studying the transcriptome or proteome of the plant host, the plant pathogen and the MBCAs in relation to their bi- or tri-trophic interactions.
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Stress-Responsive Expression, Subcellular Localization and Protein–Protein Interactions of the Rice Metacaspase Family

Stress-Responsive Expression, Subcellular Localization and Protein–Protein Interactions of the Rice Metacaspase Family | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Metacaspases, a class of cysteine-dependent proteases like caspases in animals, are important regulators of programmed cell death (PCD) during development and stress responses in plants. The present study was focused on comprehensive analyses of expression patterns of the rice metacaspase (OsMC) genes in response to abiotic and biotic stresses and stress-related hormones. Results indicate that members of the OsMC family displayed differential expression patterns in response to abiotic (e.g., dro
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Marker-assisted introgression of bacterial blight and blast resistance into DRR17B, an elite, fine-grain type maintainer line of rice

DRR17A is a stable wild-abortive cytoplasmic male sterile line with medium-slender grain type. DRR17A and its maintainer line DRR17B are highly susceptible to two of the major rice diseases, bacterial blight (BB) and blast. To improve DRR17B for resistance against BB and blast, we have introgressed a major dominant gene each conferring resistance against BB (Xa21) and blast (Pi54) into the maintainer line through marker-assisted backcross breeding using RP-Bio-Patho-2 (a near-isogenic line of Samba Mahsuri possessing Xa21 and Pi54) as the donor parent. PCR-based molecular markers tightly linked to Xa21 and Pi54 were used for foreground selection of the resistance plants at each backcross generation, while molecular markers tightly linked to the major fertility restorer genes, Rf3 and Rf4, were used for negative selection (i.e. selection of plants possessing non-fertility-restoring alleles at the two loci) at BC1 generation. After foreground selection for the target genes at each backcross generation, the ‘positive’ plants were screened with parental polymorphic markers for identifying backcross plants possessing maximum recovery of DRR17B genome. Marker-assisted backcrossing was continued till BC3 generation, and a single BC3F1 plant possessing the target genes with ~94 % recovery of recurrent parent genome was identified and selfed to generate BC3F2s. A total of six homozygous BC3F2 plants were identified and advanced. At BC3F5, six promising, stable, backcross-derived lines possessing high level of resistance against BB and blast, high yield, short plant stature, fine-grain type, have been identified; their maintenance ability and heterotic potential validated through test crosses and these lines are being converted to CMS lines through marker-assisted breeding.
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Expression and localization of exocytic and recycling Rabs from Magnaporthe oryzae in mammalian cells

Expression and localization of exocytic and recycling Rabs from Magnaporthe oryzae in mammalian cells | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Rab GTPases are master regulators of intracellular membrane trafficking along endocytic and exocytic pathways. In this chapter, we began to characterize the exocytic and recycling Rabs from the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) that causes the rice blast disease. Among the 11 putative Rabs identified from the M. oryzae genome database (MoRabs), MoRab1, MoRab8, and MoRab11 appear orthologs of mammalian Rab1, Rab8, and Rab11 and likely function in exocytosis and endosomal recycling. To test this contention, we cloned, expressed, and determined intracellular localization of the three MoRabs in mammalian cells, in comparison to their human counterparts (hRabs). The MoRabs were well expressed as GFP fusion proteins and colocalized with the tdTomato-labeled hRabs on exocytic and recycling organelles, as determined by immunoblot analysis and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The colocalization supports the contention that the MoRabs are indeed Rab orthologs and may play important roles in the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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