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PLOS ONE: Positive Crosstalk of MAMP Signaling Pathways in Rice Cells

PLOS ONE: Positive Crosstalk of MAMP Signaling Pathways in Rice Cells | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We found that the pretreatment of rice cells with a low concentration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) apparently primed the defense responses induced by successive N-acetylchitooctaose (GN8) treatment. On the other hand, simultaneous treatment with GN8 and LPS also resulted in the similar enhancement of defense responses observed for the LPS-induced priming, indicating that the synergistic effects of these MAMPs are basically responsible for such enhancement of defense responses, though the effect could be interpreted as “priming” under some experimental conditions.

 

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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
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History of The International Rice Blast Conference

The 7th International Rice Blast Conference, Alabang, Philippines
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Why do we need an international response to control wheat blast? - YouTube

Wheat blast is a vicious fungus which attacks and kills wheat plants. It first appeared in Bangladesh in 2016. Significant symptoms of infection wer
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Blast off: Insights could combat rice-infecting fungus

Blast off: Insights could combat rice-infecting fungus | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
But the Nebraska team found that a protein called Nmo2 helps the Magnaporthe oryzae fungus catalyze chemical reactions that enable it to feed on nitrogen-based molecules and suppress the damage from reactive oxygen species. In doing so, the authors said, the fungus avoids detection long enough to build up its forces in living rice cells before spreading to and destroying others throughout the rice plant.

Marroquín-Guzman, Richard Wilson and their colleagues concluded that the NMO2 gene also supports the deployment of so-called effector proteins, which assist infection by intercepting the distress calls sent out by plant cells. Like other plants, rice has evolved genes to recognize the telltales of effector-related damage and coordinate a counterattack.
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NLR diversity, helpers and integrated domains: making sense of the NLR IDentity

NLR diversity, helpers and integrated domains: making sense of the NLR IDentity | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Plant innate immunity relies on genetically predetermined repertoires of immune receptors to detect pathogens and trigger an effective immune response. A large proportion of these receptors are from the Nucletoide Binding Leucine Rich Repeat (NLR) gene family. As plants live longer than most pathogens, maintaining diversity of NLRs and deploying efficient ‘pathogen traps’ is necessary to withstand the evolutionary battle. In this review, we summarize the sources of diversity in NLR plant immune receptors giving an overview of genomic, regulatory as well as functional studies, including the latest concepts of NLR helpers and NLRs with integrated domains.

Via Christophe Jacquet, Jennifer Mach
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The ArfGAP protein MoGlo3 regulates the development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae

The ArfGAP protein MoGlo3 regulates the development and pathogenicity of Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The ADP ribosylation factor (Arf) and the coat protein complex I (COPI) are both involved in vesicle transport. Together with GTPase-activating proteins (ArfGAPs) and guanine exchange factors (ArfGEFs) that regulate the activity of Arf, they govern vesicle formation, COPI trafficking, and the maintenance of the Golgi complex. In an ongoing effort to study the role of membrane trafficking in pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we identified MoGlo3 as an ArfGAP protein that is homologous to Glo3p of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As suspected, MoGlo3 partially complements the function of yeast Glo3p. Consistent with findings in S. cerevisiae, MoGlo3 is localized to the Golgi and that the localization is dependent on the conserved BoCCS domain. We found that MoGlo3 is highly expressed during conidiation and early infection stages, and is required for vegetative growth, conidial production, and sexual development. We further found that the ΔMoglo3 mutant is defective in endocytosis, scavenging of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in the response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The combined effects result in failed appressorium function and decreased pathogenicity. Moreover, we provided evidence showing that the domains including the GAP, BoCCS and GRM are all important for normal MoGlo3 functions. Our studies further illustrate the importance of normal membrane trafficking in the physiology and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Immunity and starvation: new opportunities to elevate disease resistance in crops

Immunity and starvation: new opportunities to elevate disease resistance in crops | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Plants restrict sugar mobilization to limit microbial colonization.


Successful pathogens modulate sugar extraction, hydrolysis, and uptake.


Pathogen adaptability relies on immune modulation machinery.


Blocking pathogen access to nutrients is a promising strategy to control diseases
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Small RNA Functions Are Required for Growth and Development of Magnaporthe oryzae

Small RNA Functions Are Required for Growth and Development of Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
RNA interference (RNAi) is conserved in eukaryotic organisms, and it has been well studied in many animal and plant species and some fungal species, yet it is not well studied in fungal plant pathogens. In the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we examined small RNA (sRNA) and their biogenesis in the context of growth and pathogenicity. Through genetic and genomic analyses, we demonstrate that loss of a single gene encoding Dicer, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, or Argonaute reduces sRNA levels. These three proteins are required for the biogenesis of sRNA-matching genome-wide regions (coding regions, repeats, and intergenic regions). The loss of one Argonaute reduced both sRNA and fungal virulence on barley leaves. Transcriptome analysis of multiple mutants revealed that sRNA play an important role in transcriptional regulation of repeats and intergenic regions in M. oryzae. Together, these data support that M. oryzae sRNA regulate developmental processes including, fungal growth and virulence.


Via Steve Marek, Xiaodong Wang
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The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BSR1 mediates chitin-induced defense signaling in rice cells

The receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BSR1 mediates chitin-induced defense signaling in rice cells | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, and enhances disease resistance when overexpressed. Rice plants overexpressing BSR1 are highly resistant to diverse pathogens, including rice blast fungus. However, the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been fully characterized. To analyze the BSR1 function, BSR1-knockout (BSR1-KO) plants were generated using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. Experiments using suspension-cultured cells revealed that defense responses including H2O2 production (i.e. oxidative burst) and expression of defense-related genes induced by autoclaved conidia of the rice blast fungus significantly decreased in BSR1-KO cells. Furthermore, a treatment with chitin oligomers which function as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of the rice blast fungus resulted in considerably suppressed defense responses in BSR1-KO cells. These results suggest that BSR1 is important for the rice innate immunity triggered by the perception of chitin.

Via Jonathan Plett
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CRISPR system in filamentous fungi: Current achievements and future directions

CRISPR system in filamentous fungi: Current achievements and future directions | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Different strategies for genome manipulation efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 were discussed.
CRISPR/Cas9 can decode the filamentous fungal pathogenesis.
CRISPR system can make the waste profitable.
CRISPR/Cas9 system can stimulate novel drug discovery using synthetic biology.
Nuclease-deficient Cas9 can redirect the metabolic flux by synthetic gene circuits.

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The Role of the Fungal Cell Wall in the Infection of Plants

The Role of the Fungal Cell Wall in the Infection of Plants | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors − such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations. It highlights what is known about the phytopathogenic fungal wall and what needs to be discovered.
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Cyclophilins: Less Studied Proteins with Critical Roles in Pathogenesis

Cyclophilins: Less Studied Proteins with Critical Roles in Pathogenesis | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Cyclophilins (EC 5.2.1.8) (CYPs) belong to a subgroup of proteins known as immunophilins, which also include FK-506 binding proteins (FKBPs) and parvulins. Members of the immunophilins have two main characteristic properties: I) peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity (PPIases) and II) the ability to bind immunosuppressant molecules of fungal origin. Cyclophilins are some of the most conserved proteins present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and they have been implicated in diverse cellular processes and responses to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Cyclophilins have been exploited in humans and plants extensively, but they have only recently received attention in regard to phytopathogens. In Phellinus sulphurascens and species of the genus Leptosphaeria and Phytophthora, high expression of cyclophilins was found to be related to infection. Moreover, recent studies of cyclophilins in certain phytopathogens, such as Magnaporthe oryzae, Botrytis cinerea, Cryphonectria parasitica, and Puccinia triticina, demonstrated their roles as a pathogenicity factors. In addition to pathogenicity, cyclophilins have high affinity for the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA), which is a potent antifungal agent. Although cyclophilins are highly conserved in phytopathogens, because they have been less studied, their role remains largely unknown. In this review, we provide detailed information on the cyclophilins in several phytopathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, as well as their role in suppressing plant immunity.
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Exploring Key Blast and Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes in Genetically Diverse Rice Accessions through Molecular and Phenotypic Evaluation

Blast and bacterial blight (BB) are the most dangerous rice (Oryza sativa L.) diseases that limit rice production significantly. Pib, Piz-t, and Pi9 are reported as key resistance genes for blast whereas Xa21, Xa4, Xa7, and xa13 are considered as important resistance genes for BB. Using gene-specific DNA markers, the presence of these resistance genes was screened in 211 diverse rice accessions originating from 26 countries. In molecular marker analyses, specific amplification patterns for the Pib and Piz-t resistance alleles were observed in 56 and 23 accessions, respectively, whereas the Pi9 resistance allele was not observed at all in these accessions. For BB, at least one BB resistance gene was present in 148 of the 211 evaluated accessions. All 211 accessions were evaluated for blast resistance using natural isolates and for BB resistance using Race 4 (PX071) and Race 6 (PX099). Among 211 accessions, 89 exhibited hypersensitive blast resistance reactions, whereas 85 and 37 accessions were rated as resistant or moderately resistance to BB Races 4 and 6, respectively. The combined analysis of molecular and phenotypic reactions (marker-trait association assay) revealed that landraces possessed rare and several desirable genes compared with breeding lines with a narrow genetic base, hence these landraces serve as the valuable source for exploring new resistance genes for crop improvement. An interesting similarity in gene distribution pattern was observed in Pib with Xa21 and in Piz-t with Xa7. The analyzed blast and BB resistance genes were in a range of combinations in different landraces and breeding lines, which can be used in gene introgression and pyramiding programs as alternative resistance sources.
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2nd IWWB – Keynote talks on Youtube on Wheat blast

Wheat blast: biology, genetics and genomics

Barbara Valent – Kansas State University (USA)

Occurrence of wheat blast in Bangladesh
Paritosh Kumar Malaker – Wheat Research Center / Bangladesh Agric. Res. Institute ( Bangladesh)

Blast Resistance In U.S Wheats
William W. Bockus – Kansas State University (USA)

Efficient breeding strategy for wheat blast disease resistance in Bolivia – use of the experience acquired on rice blast
Michel J. Vales – CIRAD UMR BGPI (France, Bolivia)

The recent emergence and evolution of the wheat blast species complex in Brazil
Paulo Ceresini – UNESP Ilha Solteira (Brazil)

Wheat blast and gray leaf spot: diseases caused by a single, genetically diverse pathogen super-population?
Mark Farman – University of Kentucky (USA)

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What can we do to actively manage wheat blast?

The incursion of wheat blast in South Asia presents a significant challenge to the scientific community because there are many things we do not know abou
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An example of a wheat blast infected field in Bangladesh, 2017

Dr. P.K. Malaker from the Bangladesh Agriculture Research Institute describes the symptoms of wheat blast and methods of control. The long term solution fo
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Combatting the oxidative burst

Combatting the oxidative burst | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Plants respond to microbial attack with a lethal burst of reactive oxygen species. How then, do pathogens successfully invade plants? Unexpectedly, a link between primary metabolism and suppression of plant immunity allows the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae to grow in such a hostile environment.
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Via Yogesh Gupta, IPM Lab
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Dissection of broad-spectrum resistance of the Thai rice variety Jao Hom Nin conferred by two resistance genes against rice blast

JHN showed broad spectrum resistance against Thai and Philippine rice blast isolates. As this study demonstrated, the combination of two resistance genes, Pish-J and Pi7-J, in JHN, with each controlling broad-spectrum resistance to rice blast disease, explains the high level of resistance. Thus, the combination of Pish and Pi7 can provide a practical scheme for breeding durable resistance in rice against rice blast disease.
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The cyclin dependent kinase subunit Cks1 is required for infection‐associated development of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

The cyclin dependent kinase subunit Cks1 is required for infection‐associated development of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Cell cycle regulation is pivotal for proper cell division and cellular differentiation in eukaryotic cells. The central regulators that govern eukaryotic cell cycle progression are cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and their partners. Here, we report that Magnaporthe oryzae CKS1 encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase subunit, which plays a significant role in regulation of plant infection. We demonstrate that CKS1 is a functional homolog of CKS1/SUC1 and can physically interact with the CDK protein Cdc28, and Som1, a downstream regulator of the cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase A pathway. CKS1 deletion mutants are severely impaired in hyphal growth, sexual reproduction, melanin pigmentation and conidiogenesis. Cks1 mutants are able to form appressoria from hyphal tips, but these are unable to re-polarize, and rice infection is impaired. CKS1 also affects chitin and glucan synthase activity during cell wall differentiation and fungal hydrophobin function. CKS1, therefore, encodes a conserved CDK-binding partner, essential for appressorium-mediated plant infection by the rice blast fungus.
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Conceptual Architecture and Service-Oriented Implementation of a Regional Geoportal for Rice Monitoring

Agricultural monitoring has greatly benefited from the increased availability of a wide variety of remote-sensed satellite imagery, ground-sensed data (e.g., weather station networks) and crop models, delivering a wealth of actionable information to stakeholders to better streamline and improve agricultural practices. Nevertheless, as the degree of sophistication of agriculture monitoring systems increases, significant challenges arise due to the handling and integration of multi-scale data sources to present information to decision-makers in a way which is useful, understandable and user friendly. To address these issues, in this article we present the conceptual architecture and service-oriented implementation of a regional geoportal, specifically focused on rice crop monitoring in order to perform unified monitoring with a supporting system at regional scale. It is capable of storing, processing, managing, serving and visualizing monitoring and generated data products with different granularity and originating from different data sources. Specifically, we focus on data sources and data flow, and their importance for and in relation to different stakeholders. In the context of an EU-funded research project, we present an implementation of the regional geoportal for rice monitoring, which is currently in use in Europe’s three largest rice-producing countries, Italy, Greece and Spain
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Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF) varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita) were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs.
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Subcellular compartmentation, interdependency and dynamics of the cyclic AMP‐dependent PKA subunits during pathogenic differentiation in rice blast

Subcellular compartmentation, interdependency and dynamics of the cyclic AMP‐dependent PKA subunits during pathogenic differentiation in rice blast | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The cAMP-dependent PKA signalling plays a central role in growth, asexual development and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. Here, we functionally characterised RPKA, the regulatory subunit of cAMP/PKA and studied the dynamics and organisation of the PKA subunits in the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The RPKA subunit was essential for proper vegetative growth, asexual sporulation and surface hydrophobicity in M. oryzae. A spontaneous suppressor mutation, SMR19, that restored growth and conidiation in the RPKA deletion mutant was isolated and characterised. SMR19 enhanced conidiation and appressorium formation but failed to suppress the pathogenesis defects in rpkAΔ. The PKA activity was undetectable in the mycelial extracts of SMR19, which showed a single mutation (val242leu) in the highly conserved active site of the catalytic subunit (CPKA) of cAMP/PKA. The two subunits of cAMP/PKA showed different subcellular localisation patterns with RpkA being predominantly nucleocytoplasmic in conidia, while CpkA was largely cytosolic and/or vesicular. The CpkA anchored RpkA in cytoplasmic vesicles, and localisation of PKA in the cytoplasm was governed by CpkA in a cAMP-dependant or independent manner. We show that there exists a tight regulation of PKA subunits at the level of transcription, and the cAMP signalling is differentially compartmentalised in a stage-specific manner in rice blast.
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International Congress of Plant Pathology 2018

International Congress of Plant Pathology 2018 | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
International Congress of Plant Pathology (ICPP) 2018: Plant Health in A Global Economy

Leading experts from around the world will present the latest advances and innovations, celebrate progress, and set a vision for assuring plant health in a global economy. The vision of the Congress – An engaged world community of plant health scientists advancing knowledge for a safe, affordable, secure supply of food, feed, and fiber for a growing population – reflects the broad and unique position plant pathology holds within the international community of scientists.
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RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 boosts pattern‐triggered immunity against multiple pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice

RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 boosts pattern‐triggered immunity against multiple pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The Arabidopsis gene RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) confers resistance to virulent fungal and oomycete pathogens that cause powdery mildew and downy mildew, respectively. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of RPW8.1 boosts pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) resulting in enhanced resistance against different pathogens in both Arabidopsis and rice. In Arabidopsis, transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.1-YFP constitutively up-regulates expression of many pathogen-associated molecular pattern-(PAMP-) inducible genes. Consistently, upon PAMP application, the transgenic line expressing RPW8.1-YFP exhibited more pronounced PTI responses such as callose deposition, production of reactive oxygen species, expression of defense-related genes and hypersensitive response-like cell death. Accordingly, the growth of a virulent bacterial pathogen was significantly inhibited in the transgenic lines expressing RPW8.1-YFP. Conversely, impairment of the PTI signaling pathway from PAMP cognition to the immediate downstream relay of phosphorylation abolished or significantly compromised RPW8.1-boosted PTI responses. In rice, heterologous expression of RPW8.1-YFP also led to enhanced resistance to the blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (syn. Magnaporthe oryzae) and the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Taken together, our data suggest a surprising mechanistic connection between RPW8.1 function and PTI, and demonstrate the potential of RPW8.1 as a transgene for engineering disease resistance across wide taxonomic lineages of plants.
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Fungal manipulation of hormone-regulated plant defense

Fungal manipulation of hormone-regulated plant defense | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Fungi have adapted to diverse habitats and ecological niches, including the complex plant systems. Success of the pathogenic or symbiotic fungi in colonizing the plant tissue depends on their ability to modulate the host defense signaling [1]. Strategies that impart such abilities in fungi include the use of effector proteins that directly disrupt phytohormone-based defense signaling pathways and/or the deployment of mimics of specific plant molecules to evade recognition and the subsequent host immune response [1, 2]. Recent exciting findings have provided insight into a novel strategy whereby the fungal pathogens utilize the endogenous phytohormone-mimics and/or relevant metabolic enzymes to suppress host immunity. These studies strongly suggest that fungal metabolites, in addition to effector proteins, can chemically shape and maintain distinct pathogenic or symbiotic interkingdom relationships between plants and fungi.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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Molecular marker-based validation of blast resistance gene Pi54 and identification of potential donors in temperate high altitude rice (Oryza sativa L.)

pathogen races prevailing in a certain area, rate of pathogen evolution, genetic background of a host and few others. Pi54 is a major gene showing resistance to Magnaporthe populations in North-west Himalayas. In search of novel temperate donors suitable to high altitudes, a set of germplasm was screened using gene based markers for Pi54. Eighty three exotic and indigenous germplasm lines were genotyped using gene based markers and also validated for disease reaction using Pi54 gene specific isolate namely, Mo-nwi-kash-32. Nine out of 83 germplasm lines amplified resistance specific alleles with both the markers Pi54 MAS and Pikh-STS. All these lines expressed resistance against the said diagnostic isolate, thereby validating the possible presence of gene in the lines. Further validation using more number of isolates and sequence analysis will help in mining useful alleles for this gene.
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