Upstream sequences of 206 entire NBS-LRR genes of Arabidopsis and 120 genes of rice were analyzed with three highly reliable motif prediction tools for enhanced accuracy of prediction and characterization of potential transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs). The analysis revealed that rice sequences have many unique TFBMs and are more evolved in gene expression mechanisms.
Four new polyketides have been identified in culture filtrates of the fungal strain Penicillium sp. IBWF104-06 isolated from a soil sample. They are structurally based on the same trans-decalinpentanoic acid skeleton as tanzawaic acids A–H. One of the new compounds was found to inhibit the conidial germination in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae at concentrations of 25 μg/mL.
This dissertation describes developed analysis pipelines of NGS data in the field of fungal phytopathogens using four different projects as examples.
In Chapter 4, seven field isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae were sequenced and their genome content compared. Over 10,000 SNP and Indel locations were identified as well as genes under strong positive selection, which are considered potential virulence related genes. While in a RNA-Seq analysis pipeline, sequence reads are first assembled de novo or mapped to a reference genome, and the expression level for individual genes in each sequencing library is calculated to identify differentially expressed genes.
Chapter 5 describes the identifications of the binding sites and motifs of the M. oryzae transcription factor MoCRZ1 using a combination of ChIP-chip and microarray data, and then the prediction accuracy is improved by a novel approach utilizing the spatial distribution pattern
Field trials were conducted under irrigated conditions during rabi season of 2008 and 2009 on two rice varieties NLR-34242 and BPT-5204 to compare the incidence of rice blast disease with the interaction of nitrogen levels at different doses (0 kg, 120 kg, 160 kg, 200 kg and 240 kg per hectare). The incidence of blast increased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0 kg to 240 kg. However the maximum grain yield was observed in the plots treated with 120 kg and 160 kg nitrogen per hectare
Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils ofC. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea,Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.
Based on a growing demand on renewable energy, fast growing perennial grasses have been identified as energy crops with a high capacity in sustainable biomass production. Among these grasses, the giant reed Miscanthus x giganteus delivers one of the highest biomass yields. Despite its potential for an extended cultivation, only little is known about putative fungal pathogens that might cause biomass losses. Therefore, our study was aimed to evaluate a method to compare the penetration process of fungal plant pathogens in the model grass Brachypodium distachyonand M. giganteus.
In a screening with 13 different fungal species on detached leaves, we identified four filamentous fungi that infected both B. distachyon and M. giganteus and have not been previously described as M. giganteus pathogens.
In a descending order of necrotic lesion formation, we identified B. sorokiniana, P. chartarum, M. grisea, S. tainanensis, and S. nodorum as the top five fungi at an incubation temperature of 22 °C.
Apart from those fungi with a disease incidence on M. giganteus, we detected major differences between the infection of B. distachyon and M. giganteus leaves, which were most prominent for the pathogen M. grisea with relatively strong disease symptoms on B. distachyon but without disease symptoms on M. giganteus leaves.
Nuquí producers usually establish their rice fields among vegetable species such as weeds, shrubbery, and trees and preserved a very particular structure of landscape, allowing them to maintain their crops free of diseases.
Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens.
In this study, we conducted whole-genome sequencings of 6 cultivars, including 5 temperate japonica cultivars and 1 tropical japonica cultivar (Moroberekan), by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) with Nipponbare genome as a reference. The temperate japonica cultivars contained 2 sake brewing (Yamadanishiki and Gohyakumangoku), 1 landrace (Kameji), and 2 modern cultivars (Koshihikari and Norin 8). These approaches facilitated the identification of new genes in coding DNA sequences and the increase of mapping efficiency in different regions. The DNA polymorphism information between the 7 cultivars and Nipponbare are available at NGRC_Rices_Build1.0 (http://www.nodai-genome.org/oryza_sativa_en.html).
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are indispensable regulators for development and defense in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species have not been explored for rice (Oryza sativa) immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the most devastating fungal pathogen in rice production worldwide. Here, by deep sequencing small RNA libraries from susceptible and resistant lines in normal conditions and upon M. oryzae infection, we identified a group of known rice miRNAs that were differentially expressed upon M. oryzae infection. They were further classified into three classes based on their expression patterns in the susceptible japonica line Lijiangxin Tuan Hegu and in the resistant line International Rice Blast Line Pyricularia-Kanto51-m-Tsuyuake that contains a single resistance gene locus, Pyricularia-Kanto 51-m (Pikm), within the Lijiangxin Tuan Hegu background. RNA-blot assay of nine of them confirmed sequencing results. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay showed that the expression of some target genes was negatively correlated with the expression of miRNAs. Moreover, transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR160a and miR398b displayed enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, as demonstrated by decreased fungal growth, increased hydrogen peroxide accumulation at the infection site, and up-regulated expression of defense-related genes. Taken together, our data indicate that miRNAs are involved in rice immunity against M. oryzae and that overexpression of miR160a or miR398b can enhance rice resistance to the disease.
This fourth edition of the Rice Almanac continues the tradition of the first three editions by showcasing rice as the most important staple food in the world and all that is involved in maintaining rice production. It also breaks new ground in its coverage of issues related to rice production, both environmental--including climate change--and its importance for food security and the global economy. It also further expands coverage of the world’s rice production area by featuring 80 rice-producing countries around the world.
In the present study, one major quantitative trait locus, qPi93-3, was fine mapped using a recombinant inbred line (RIL), F8 RIL171, derived from the cross between Nipponbare and 93-11. The existence of Pi61(t) in 136 rice germplasm lines from the USDA rice core collection was evaluated using Pi61(t) specific InDel markers.
This review is dedicated to the research on the functions of melanin pigments in fungi. The participation of melanin pigments in protection from environmental factors is considered. Data on the biosynthetic pathways and types of melanin pigments in fungi are presented.
Finger millet blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (Magnaporthe grisea) causes significant yield loss in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to isolate, identify and characterize the pathogen (using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods).
: Basic data on finger millet blast pathogen diversity and characterization using morphological, physiological and biochemical methods has been conducted. The results of this study help to understand the physiological and biochemical requirements for the growth and development of the pathogen, which could serve as an input in disease management to minimize the effect of blast disease on finger millet and its wild relatives
The objective of our study was to know the differences in expression of total protein, total phenol, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities in self-defense in plant tissues against rice blast diseases.
The conference will be held in Poland's premier mountain resort of Zakopane, the beautiful and picturesque capital of the Polish High Tatra Mountains. Zakopane is a town in the south of Poland, approximately 110km south of Krakow and close to the border with Slovakia.
Crude extract of S. oryzae suppressed 63% of rice blast disease in greenhouse conditions. The results indicate that a product based on cerulenin and/or S. oryzae has a great potential to be used in biological control of rice blast.
by Benjamin Petre, Sophien Kamoun Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization.
Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis is a promising tool to examine the genetic diversity of rice populations and genetic traits of scientific and economic importance. Here, we constructed an SNP haplotype database, which allows visualization of the allele frequency of all SNPs in the genome browser. We calculated the allele frequencies of 3,334 SNPs in 76 accessions from the world rice collection and 3,252 SNPs in 177 Japanese rice accessions. We also developed web tools for finding polymorphic SNPs between any two rice accessions and for the primer design to develop cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers at any SNP. The ‘HapRice’ database and the web tools can be accessed athttp://qtaro.abr.affrc.go.jp/index.html. In addition, we established a core SNP set consisting of 768 SNPs uniformly distributed in the rice genome; this set is of a practically appropriate size for use in rice genetic analysis
The NS3 protein of rice stripe virus (RSV), encoded by the virion strand of RNA3, is a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR). Rice expressing NS3 had a normal phenotype, was initially sensitive to RSV but recovered at the later stages of infection. Transgenic rice expressing NS3 also showed enhanced resistance to the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Meanwhile, expressional levels of genes related to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways were not significantly altered, indicating that the defense to M. oryzae was independent of the SA and JA pathways. We propose that NS3 may have dual functions, facilitating viral infection as a VSR and inhibiting pathogenic development as an inducer of host defense.