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Genome-wide identification of rice class I metallothionein gene: tissue expression patterns and induction in response to heavy metal stress

Genome-wide identification of rice class I metallothionein gene: tissue expression patterns and induction in response to heavy metal stress | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Here, we present genome-wide identification, structural and expression analyses of rice MT gene family. Our analysis suggests presence of 11 class I MT genes in rice genome (Release 7 of the MSU Rice Genome Annotation Project) which are differentially expressed during growth and development, in various tissues and during biotic and abiotic stresses.

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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
Curated by Elsa Ballini
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Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation provides insights into epigenetic regulation of fungal development in a plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation provides insights into epigenetic regulation of fungal development in a plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that regulates development of plants and mammals. To investigate the roles of DNA methylation in fungal development, we profiled genome-wide methylation patterns at single-nucleotide resolution during vegetative growth, asexual reproduction, and infection-related morphogenesis in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We found that DNA methylation occurs in and around genes as well as transposable elements and undergoes global reprogramming during fungal development. Such reprogramming of DNA methylation suggests that it may have acquired new roles other than controlling the proliferation of TEs. Genetic analysis of DNA methyltransferase deletion mutants also indicated that proper reprogramming in methylomes is required for asexual reproduction in the fungus. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis showed that DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing of transposable elements and transcript abundance of genes in context-dependent manner, reinforcing the role of DNA methylation as a genome defense mechanism. This comprehensive approach suggests that DNA methylation in fungi can be a dynamic epigenetic entity contributing to fungal development and genome defense. Furthermore, our DNA methylomes provide a foundation for future studies exploring this key epigenetic modification in fungal development and pathogenesis.
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Summer School "PLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS" @ The Sainsbury Laboratory, 17-28 August 2015, Norwich, UK

Summer School "PLANT MICROBE INTERACTIONS" @ The Sainsbury Laboratory, 17-28 August 2015, Norwich, UK | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The last 20 years have provided a sophisticated understanding of how plants recognise relatively conserved microbial patterns to activate defence. In recent years DNA sequencing allowed genomes and transcriptomes of eukaryotic rusts and mildew pathogens to be studied and high-throughput imaging permit the study and visualisation of intracellular interactions during pathogenesis and defence.

 

We will present many aspects of plant- microbe interactions including:

- gene discovery
- genome analysis
- intra-cellular interactions with high-throughput imaging technology
- mechanistic understanding of cellular and molecular processes to translational activities

 

The focus on the dynamic and interactive practical sessions will naturally promote strong interactions between lecturers and participants.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL, Nicolas Denancé
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Bharat Employment's curator insight, February 25, 1:58 AM

http://www.bharatemployment.com

Jean-Michel Ané's curator insight, February 25, 11:53 AM

That seems an awesome Summer School.

BTW... I want the same chair as Dan MacLean :-)

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Molecular marker-assisted pyramiding of broad-spectrum disease resistance genes, Pi2 and Xa23, into GZ63-4S, an elite thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile line in rice

The two-line system of hybrid rice seed production based on thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile (TGMS) lines is much more cost-effective, simple and efficient than the three-line system with cytoplasmic male sterility. In this study, we report the introgression of a rice blast resistance gene Pi2 from VE6219 and a bacterial blight (BB) resistance gene Xa23 from HBQ810 into Guangzhan63-4S (GZ63-4S), an elite TGMS rice line, through marker-assisted pyramiding, leading to the development of Hua1015S, a blast- and BB-resistant pyramided line. The newly developed TGMS parental line Hua1015S with Pi2 and Xa23 is currently being utilized for heterosis breeding of broad-spectrum blast- and BB-resistant two-line rice hybrids and as an improved disease donor source for further TGMS parental line improvement.

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Changes in Magnaporthe oryzae Transcriptome During Rice Infection at High Temperature - Tropentag 2014

Future predictions indicate that extreme annual daily maximum temperature will increase by about 1–3ºC by mid-twenty-first century and by about 2–5ºC by the late twenty-first century. Such changes are predicted to lead to evolution of new pathogen strains, increase pathogen populations, spread of the diseases to new areas and increase susceptibility of plants. Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most destructive disease of rice worldwide. M. oryzae infects rice by regulating protein secretion, which enables the pathogen to either avoid recognition by the plant resistance proteins or to turn off the plant defenses. It is expected that elevated temperature may affect the biological processes leading to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. However, the direction of high temperature effect on pathogen fitness is not well understood. Here, we analysed the effect of temperature on the transcriptome of M. oryzae during invasive growth in the rice cultivar Nipponbare at 35ºC and 28ºC. We detected a higher number of putative effectors in plants exposed to 35ºC than in plants infected at 28ºC. The same was found for classical cell wall degrading enzymes. The qPCR relative quantification of in planta fungal biomass did not indicate any difference between 28ºC and 35ºC. However, plants grown and inoculated at 28ºC showed delayed symptom development in contrast to 35ºC, indicating that high temperature hastened biological processes geared towards necrotrophy more than normal temperature. Additionally, elevated temperature induced morphological transitions of M. oryzae during growth on the host, which could be related to survival and virulence dynamics.
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Alternatively spliced SMN orthologue in Magnaporthe oryzae is required for stress resistance and disease development

Alternatively spliced SMN orthologue in Magnaporthe oryzae is required for stress resistance and disease development | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Survival motor neuron protein (SMN) plays essential roles in cell viability and stress responses in higher eukaryotes. However, little is known about the orthologs in fungi except for the only studied yeast SMN. Here, we identified an SMN-like gene in Magnaporthe oryzae (MOS). Bioinformatics and Southern blot confirmed that MOS is a single copy located on M. oryzae chromosome. But it was detected to contain three transcript isoforms according to RT-PCR identification. Expression patterns of these transcripts revealed that MOS is associated with stress response and conidiogenesis process in M. oryzae. Disruption mutant and its complemented strain (ΔMOS, ΔMOS/MOS) were genetically created in this study. Through biological comparison, we found that ΔMOS, with no more phenotypic defects except for reduced pigmentation and conidiation, was sensitive to oxidative, osmotic, and nitrogen or carbon-starved stresses, suggesting MOS is required for environmental adaption and basic metabolism. Infection assay further indicated MOS contributed to the development of rice blast. Therefore, we suggest that MOS as a pathogenic gene may be a potential target for reducing disease and implications in crop protection.

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Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Allele Mining Strategies: Principles and Utilisation for Blast Resistance Genes in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

This review studies the actual concepts and potential of mining approaches for the discovery of alleles and their utilisation for blast resistance genes in rice. The details provided here will be important to provide the rice breeder with a worthwhile introduction to allele mining and its methodology for breakthrough discovery of fresh alleles hidden in hereditary diversity, which is vital for crop improvement.

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Tracking the best reference genes for RT-qPCR data normalization in filamentous fungi

A critical step in the RT-qPCR workflow for studying gene expression is data normalization, one of the strategies being on the use of reference genes. This study aimed to identify and validate a selection of reference genes for relative quantification in Talaromyces versatilis, a relevant industrial filamentous fungus. Beyond T. versatilis, this study also aimed to propose reference genes that are applicable more widely for RT-qPCR data normalization in filamentous fungi.
Elsa Ballini's insight:

For Magnaporthe

MGG_04150 AP-2 β
MGG_03041 glkA
MGG_09926 g6pdh
MGG_03982 act
MGG_09574 TAF10
MGG_03188 coxV
MGG_01084 gapdh
MGG_06158 spo7-like
MGG_00604 β-tub
MGG_09249 apsC
MGG_03641 tef1a
MGG_04019 TFC1
MGG_06075 fis1
MGG_06145 DUF500
MGG_12822 pgiA
MGG_07268 icdA
MGG_02653 pfkA
MGG_01766 spt3
MGG_06362 sarA
MGG_03378 psm1
MGG_14835 alg9
MGG_09977 UBC6
MGG_05320 npl1
MGG_01756 ubcB
MGG_08731 DUF221
MGG_10941 Cu-ATPase
MGG_00770 ADA
MGG_06390 sac7

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Steve Marek's curator insight, February 19, 6:10 PM

a most useful paper

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Phytopathogen emergence in the genomics era: Trends in Plant Science

Phytopathogen emergence in the genomics era: Trends in Plant Science | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Highlights•Next-generation sequencing has provided unprecedented insight into how new plant pathogens emerge.•Horizontal gene transfer, genome plasticity, and hybridisation all play a role in phytopathogen emergence.•Publicly-available genome sequences are crucial to rapidly identifying emerging pathogens and the mechanisms by which they emerged.

Phytopathogens are a global threat to plant agriculture and biodiversity. The genomics era has lead to an exponential rise in comparative gene and genome studies of both economically significant and insignificant microorganisms. In this review we highlight some recent comparisons and discuss how they identify shared genes or genomic regions associated with host virulence. The two major mechanisms of rapid genome adaptation – horizontal gene transfer and hybridisation – are reviewed and we consider how intra-specific pan-genome sequences encode alternative host specificity. We also discuss the power that access to expansive gene databases provides in aiding the study of phytopathogen emergence. These databases can rapidly enable the identification of an unknown pathogen and its origin, as well as genomic adaptations required for emergence.


Via Christophe Jacquet
Elsa Ballini's insight:

See Box 2: The emergence of wheat blast by Magnaporthe oryzae would be improved by access to a wheat blast isolate genome

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Tailor-made TALEN system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus

Tailor-made TALEN system for highly efficient targeted gene replacement in the rice blast fungus | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Genetic manipulation is key to unraveling gene functions and creating genetically modified strains of microbial organisms. Recently, engineered nucleases that can generate DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a specific site in the desired locus within genome are utilized in a rapidly developing genome editing technology via DSBs repair. However, the use of engineered nucleases in filamentous fungi has not been validated. In this study, we demonstrated that tailor-made transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) system, Platinum-Fungal TALENs (PtFg TALENs), could improve the efficiency of homologous recombination-mediated targeted gene replacement by up to 100% in the rice blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae. This high-efficiency PtFg TALEN has great potential for basic and applied biological applications in filamentous fungi. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Pseudo-backcrossing design for rapidly pyramiding multiple traits into a preferential rice variety

Pseudo-backcrossing design for rapidly pyramiding multiple traits into a preferential rice variety | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Results show that our new pyramiding platform, which is based on marker-assisted pseudo-backcrossing, can fix five target genes and three QTLs into a high-yielding pseudo-recurrent background within seven breeding cycles in four years. This multiple pseudo-backcrossing platform decreases the time required to generate new rice varieties exhibiting complex, durable resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in backgrounds with desirable qualities.

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Effect of azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl on rice blast and rice grain yield in China

Effect of azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl on rice blast and rice grain yield in China | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Sensitivity to azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl of 80 single-spore isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae was determined. The EC50 values for azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl in inhibiting mycelial growth of the 80 M. oryzae isolates were 0.006–0.056 and 0.024–0.287 µg mL−1, respectively. The EC50 values for azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl in inhibiting conidial germination of the M. oryzae populations were 0.004–0.051 and 0.012–0.105 µg mL−1, respectively. There was significant difference in sensitivity to azoxystrobin or kresoxim-methyl between the tested isolates representing differential sensitivity to carbendazim (MBC) and kitazin P (IBP); however, there was no correlation between this difference in sensitivity to azoxystrobin or kresoxim-methyl and sensitivity to MBC or IBP, indicating that there was no cross-resistance between azoxystrobin or kresoxim-methyl and MBC or IBP. In the protective and curative experiments, kresoxim-methyl exhibited higher protective and curative activity than azoxystrobin when applied at 150 and 250 µg mL−1 accordingly, while azoxystrobin exhibited stronger inhibitory activity against M. oryzae isolates than that of kresoxim-methyl in the in vitro test. The results of field experiments also suggested that both azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl at 187.5 g.a.i. ha−1 gave over 73% control efficacy in both sites, exhibiting excellent activity against rice blast. Taken together, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl could be a good substitute for MBC or IBP for controlling rice blast in China, but should be carefully used as they were both at-risk.
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Nature methods : Statistics for Biologists

Nature methods : Statistics for Biologists | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

There is no disputing the importance of statistical analysis in biological research, but too often it is considered only after an experiment is completed, when it may be too late.

 

This collection highlights important statistical issues that biologists should be aware of and provides practical advice to help them improve the rigor of their work.

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Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing: Trends in Plant Science

Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing: Trends in Plant Science | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
We examine the current development of major crops modified by genome-editing.
•We propose a regulatory concept for plant breeding by genome-editing.
•Four potential regulatory guidelines are presented for worldwide discussion.
•Right-to-know may be necessary for social acceptance of genome-edited crops.
Elsa Ballini's insight:

In rice gene examples are OsSWEET14, OsPDS-SP1, OsBADH2, OsMPK2, OsSWEET11, OsCKX2, OsBEL, OsPDS

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Annu. Rev. Plant Biol.: Effector-Triggered Immunity: From Pathogen Perception to Robust Defense (2015)

Annu. Rev. Plant Biol.: Effector-Triggered Immunity: From Pathogen Perception to Robust Defense (2015) | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-richrepeat (NLR) receptors that detect effector interference in different parts of the cell. Effector-activated NLRs connect, in various ways, to a conserved basal resistance network in order to transcriptionally boost defense programs. Effector-triggered immunity displays remarkable robustness against pathogen disturbance, in part by employing compensatory mechanisms within the defense network. Also, the mobility of some NLRs and coordination of resistance pathways across cell compartments provides flexibility to fine-tune immune outputs. Furthermore, a number of NLRs function close to the nuclear chromatin by balancing actions of defense-repressing and defense-activating transcription factors to program cells dynamically for effective disease resistance.

 

Haitao Cui, Kenichi Tsuda, Jane E. Parker


Via Nicolas Denancé, Christophe Jacquet, Jennifer Mach, CP
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Histone chaperones in Arabidopsis and rice: genome-wide identification, phylogeny, architecture and transcriptional regulation

Histone chaperones in Arabidopsis and rice: genome-wide identification, phylogeny, architecture and transcriptional regulation | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Background Histone chaperones modulate chromatin architecture and hence play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In contrast to their animal and yeast counterparts, not much is known about plant histone chaperones. To gain insights into their functions in plants, we sought to identify histone chaperones from two model plant species and investigated their phylogeny, domain architecture and transcriptional profiles to establish correlation between their expression patterns and potential role in stress physiology and plant development. Results Through comprehensive whole genome analyses of Arabidopsis and rice, we identified twenty-two and twenty-five genes encoding histone chaperones in these plants, respectively. These could be classified into seven different families, namely NAP, CAF1, SPT6, ASF1, HIRA, NASP, and FACT. Phylogenetic analyses of histone chaperones from diverse organisms including representative species from each of the major plant groups, yeast and human indicated functional divergence in NAP and CAF1C in plants. For the largest histone chaperone family, NAP, phylogenetic reconstruction suggested the presence of two distinct groups in plants, possibly with differing histone preferences. Further, to comment upon their physiological roles in plants, we analyzed their expression at different developmental stages, across various plant tissues, and under biotic and abiotic stress conditions using pre-existing microarray and qRT-PCR. We found tight transcriptional regulation of some histone chaperone genes during development in both Arabidopsis and rice, suggesting that they may play a role in genetic reprogramming associated with the developmental process. Besides, we found significant differential expression of a few histone chaperones under various biotic and abiotic stresses pointing towards their potential function in stress response. Conclusions Taken together, our findings shed light onto the possible evolutionary trajectory of plant histone chaperones and present novel prospects about their physiological roles. Considering that the developmental process and stress response require altered expression of a large array of genes, our results suggest that some plant histone chaperones may serve a regulatory role by controlling the expression of genes associated with these vital processes, possibly via modulating chromatin dynamics at the corresponding genetic loci.

Elsa Ballini's insight:

OsSPT16L2, OsNAPL5, OsCAF1CL4, and OsCAF1CL5 were all found to be upregulated in Magnaporthe oryzae

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Identification and mapping of a novel blast resistance gene Pi57(t) in Oryza longistaminata

Identification and mapping of a novel blast resistance gene Pi57(t) in Oryza longistaminata | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Oryza longistaminata with strong resistance to biotic and abiotic stress was regarded as an excellent gene pool for Asian cultivated rice improvement. Thus, mining and utilization of favorable genes/alleles from O. longistaminata would be important in breeding for Oryza sativa by broadening its genetic basis. To explore blast resistance genes from O. longistaminata, RD23, an indica cultivar from Thailand, was crossed with an accession of O. longistaminata and a set of BC3F7 introgression lines (ILs) was raised. The ILs were screened for blast resistance in natural blast nursery, and three ILs exhibiting high level of resistance to blast disease were obtained. Using a BC4F2 population of IL-E1454/RD23, a novel dominant blast resistant gene, designated as Pi57(t), was mapped on rice chromosome 12 flanked by SSR markers RM27892 and RM28093 within 1.0 cM. Pi57(t) conferred a broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae isolates collected from Yunnan, P. R. China, and the resistant spectrum was distinguished from five known blast R genes located on chromosome 12. Our results suggest that Pi57(t) would be a promising gene for rice improvement in Yunnan, P. R. China.
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Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi

The group of filamentous fungi contains important species used in industrial biotechnology for acid, antibiotics and enzyme production. Their unique lifestyle turns these organisms into a valuable genetic reservoir of new natural products and biomass degrading enzymes that has not been used to full capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi.
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MoMyb1 is required for asexual development and tissue-specific infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

MoMyb1 is required for asexual development and tissue-specific infection in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
We identified the Saccharomyces cerevisiae BAS1 homolog MYB1 in M. oryzae, named MoMyb1. MoMyb1 encodes a protein of 322 amino acids and has two SANT domains and is well conserved in various organisms. Targeted gene deletion of MoMYB1 resulted in a significant reduction in vegetative growth and showed defects in conidiation and conidiophore development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcription levels of several conidiophore-related genes were apparently decreased in the ΔMomyb1 mutant. Inoculation with mycelia mats displayed that the virulence of the ΔMomyb1 mutant was not changed on rice leaves but was non-pathogenic on rice roots in comparison to the wild type Guy11. In addition, ∆Momyb1 mutants showed increased resistance to osmotic stresses but more sensitive to cell wall stressor calcofluor white (CFW). Further analysis revealed that MoMyb1 has an important role in the cell wall biosynthesis pathway.
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First report of virulence and effects of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates causing wheat blast in Argentina

WB was first detected in Argentina during 2007 in a limited area in the northern region of the country (Cabrera y Gutierrez, 2007). During the 2012 growing season, M. grisea was found in wheat plants belonging to an experimental assay at IFSC, Lavallol, Lomas de Zamora, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (Perelló et al. 2013). No additional instances of the disease were found in neighboring fields. Examination of diseased plants showed the presence of elliptical, grayish to tan necrotic lesions with dark borders on the leaf. On spikes, blackening of the rachis and partial bleaching was observed. Magnaporthe oryzae was also successfully isolated during 2013 from native weeds and grasses (Stenotaphrum secundatum, Setaria sp., Eleusine sp., Bromus unioloides, Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli, Avena fatua and Cynodon dactylon) growing adjacent to wheat and rice fields belonging to the Experimental Station Julio Hirschhorn, Los Hornos-FCAyF,UNLP. Leaf infection ranged from 2.7 to 64.3 % and different phenotypic reactions were observed such as pinhead-sized spots; small or enlarged brown lesions with no distinguishable center and the typical blast lesions, elliptical or roughly diamond-shaped with grey centers and a thin, brown border.  A culture specimen was deposited in the IFSC herbarium (No.PGW0812). Our results indicate that M. oryzae has established itself in the principle wheat agroecological region of Buenos Aires, Argentina and may pose a significant threat to wheat production, and therefore poses a significant threat to wheat production in Argentina.  

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The E3 ligase OsPUB15 interacts with the receptor-like kinase PID2 and regulates plant cell death and innate immunity

The E3 ligase OsPUB15 interacts with the receptor-like kinase PID2 and regulates plant cell death and innate immunity | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Background

Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive diseases of rice worldwide. We previously cloned the rice blast resistance gene Pid2, which encodes a transmembrane receptor-like kinase containing an extracellular B-lectin domain and an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain. However, little is known about Pid2-mediated signaling.
Results

Here we report the functional characterization of the U-box/ARM repeat protein OsPUB15 as one of the PID2-binding proteins. We found that OsPUB15 physically interacted with the kinase domain of PID2 (PID2K) in vitro and in vivo and the ARM repeat domain of OsPUB15 was essential for the interaction. In vitro biochemical assays indicated that PID2K possessed kinase activity and was able to phosphorylate OsPUB15. We also found that the phosphorylated form of OsPUB15 possessed E3 ligase activity. Expression pattern analyses revealed that OsPUB15 was constitutively expressed and its encoded protein OsPUB15 was localized in cytosol. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsPUB15 at early stage displayed cell death lesions spontaneously in association with a constitutive activation of plant basal defense responses, including excessive accumulation of hydrogen peroxide, up-regulated expression of pathogenesis-related genes and enhanced resistance to blast strains. We also observed that, along with plant growth, the cell death lesions kept spreading over the whole seedlings quickly resulting in a seedling lethal phenotype.
Conclusions

These results reveal that the E3 ligase OsPUB15 interacts directly with the receptor-like kinase PID2 and regulates plant cell death and blast disease resistance.

Via Christophe Jacquet
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FUNGAL CUTINASE FROM MAGNAPORTHE GRISEA - Patent

Described are compositions and methods relating to a fungal cutinase cloned from Magnaporthe grisea, polynucleotides encoding the cutinase, and methods of use thereof. The compositions and methods have particular application in detergent cleaning compositions and synthesis reactions.
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Over-expression of a glutamate dehydrogenase gene, MgGDH, from Magnaporthe grisea confers tolerance to dehydration stress in transgenic rice

Over-expression of a glutamate dehydrogenase gene, MgGDH, from Magnaporthe grisea confers tolerance to dehydration stress in transgenic rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Heterologous expression of a fungal NADP(H)-GDH gene ( MgGDH ) from Magnaporthe griseacan improve dehydration stress tolerance in rice by preventing toxic accumulation of ammonium.

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A new versatile microarray-based method for high-throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes

A new versatile microarray-based method for high-throughput screening of carbohydrate-active enzymes | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
Carbohydrate-active enzymes have multiple biological roles and industrial applications. Advances in genome and transcriptome sequencing, together with associated bioinformatic tools have identified vast numbers of putative carbohydrate degrading and modifying enzymes including glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. However, there is a paucity of methods for rapidly screening the activities of these enzymes. By combining the multiplexing capacity of carbohydrate microarrays with the specificity of molecular probes, we have developed a sensitive, high-throughput and versatile semi-quantitative enzyme-screening technique which requires low amounts of enzyme and substrate. The method can be used to assess the activities of single enzymes, enzyme cocktails and crude culture broths against single substrates, substrate mixtures and biomass samples. Moreover, we show that the technique can be used to analyse both endo-acting and exo-acting glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. We demonstrate the potential of the technique by identifying the substrate specificities of purified un-characterised enzymes and by screening enzyme activities from fungal culture broths.
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Comparative genomics identifies the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence effector AvrPi9 that triggers Pi9-mediated blast resistance in rice

Comparative genomics identifies the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence effector AvrPi9 that triggers Pi9-mediated blast resistance in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We identified the Magnaporthe oryzae avirulence effector AvrPi9 cognate to rice blast resistance gene Pi9 by comparative genomics of requisite strains derived from a sequential planting method.AvrPi9 encodes a small secreted protein that appears to localize in the biotrophic interfacial complex and is translocated to the host cell during rice infection. AvrPi9 forms a tandem gene array with its paralogue proximal to centromeric region of chromosome 7.AvrPi9 is expressed highly at early stages during initiation of blast disease.Virulent isolate strains contain Mg-SINE within the AvrPi9 coding sequence. Loss of AvrPi9 did not lead to any discernible defects during growth or pathogenesis in M. oryzae. This study reiterates the role of diverse transposable elements as off-switch agents in acquisition of gain-of-virulence in the rice blast fungus.The prevalence of AvrPi9 correlates well with the avirulence pathotype in diverse blast isolates from the Philippines and China, thus supporting the broad-spectrum resistance conferred by Pi9 in different rice growing areas. Our results revealed that Pi9 and Piz-t at the Pi2/9 locus activate race specific resistance by recognizing sequence-unrelated AvrPi9 and AvrPiz-t genes, respectively.


Via Pierre-Marc Delaux, Sridhar Ranganathan
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