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Cloning and characterization of two rice long-chain base kinase genes and their function in disease resistance and cell death - Springer

Cloning and characterization of two rice long-chain base kinase genes and their function in disease resistance and cell death - Springer | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Sphingolipid metabolites such as long-chain base 1-phosphates (LCBPs) have been shown to play an important role in plants; however, little is known about their function in plant disease resistance and programmed cell death (PCD). In the present study, we cloned and identified two rice long-chain base kinase (LCBK) genes (OsLCBK1 and OsLCBK2), which are involved in biosynthesis of LCBPs, and performed functional analysis in transgenic tobacco.

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Rice Blast
Scientific articles on rice blast and wheat blast 20 new articles each month !
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Limonoid derivatives and its pesticidal activities

Diverse pesticidal activities of anthothecol derived from Khaya anthotheca (Meliaceae) and three limonoids (gedunin, limonin and obacunone) were determined using six phytopathogenic fungi (Pyricularia grisea, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea,. Puccinia recondita, Phytophthora, ... ) and four insect pests (Plutella xylostella).

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Potentialities of associated diazotrophic bacteria in plant growth promotion and biocontrol of Pyricularia oryzae (Sacc.) in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Associated diazotrophic bacteria have been shown to contribute with fixed atmospheric nitrogen to the rice crop making possible to reduce the application of nitrogen fertilizers, limiting with it the growth of Pyricularia oryzae. In addition, the metabolites released by these bacteria in the rhizosphere make the plague concentration and the disease severity decrease leading to the reduction of chemical product applications and a lower incidence of rice blast under field conditions. Cuban autochthonous strains have the ability to control Pyricularia oryzae in vitro, which confirms the fact that associated diazotrophic bacteria stimulate plant growth and mitigate the deleterious effects caused by this disease in rice.

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XVI IS-MPMI 2014, Rhodes, Greece

TYROSINE DEPHOSPHORYLATION OF OSMPK6 IS A NODE OF ABSCISIC-ACID-MEDIATED SUPPRESSION OF SALICYLIC-ACID DEFENSE SIGNALING IN RICE

Phosphorylation/activation of a rice mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), OsMPK6, by dexamethasone-induced expression of constitutively active OsMKK10-2 mimicked the activation of the SA pathway in rice, leading to blast resistance dependent on WRKY45, the central transcription factor in the rice SA pathway. Conversely, ABA treatment dephosphorylated OsMPK6 at its tyrosine residue in rice seedlings. Two protein tyrosine phosphatases, OsPTP1 and -2 were found to dephosphorylate and inactivate OsMPK6 in vitro. In wild-type rice, low temperature, as well as ABA, suppressed the blast resistance induced by a chemical defense inducer, benzothiadiazole. However, simultaneous knockdown of OsPTP1 and -2 by RNA interference abolished the suppression of benzothiadiazole-induced blast resistance by both ABA and low temperature. These results not only show that tyrosine dephosphorylation of OsMPK6 by PTPases is a node of the antagonistic interaction of cold-induced ABA signaling against SA defense signaling in rice, but also provides an effective way to prevent the damages by blast disease under low temperature.

 

RECOGNITION OF THE MAGNAPORTHE ORYZAE EFFECTOR AVRPIZ-T BY MULTIPLE HOST TARGETS IN RICE

In the last few years, we have applied an integrated approach to dissecting the AvrPiz-t and Piz-t interaction and identified several AvrPiz-t-interacting proteins (APIPs). Among them, APIP6, a RING finger E3 ligase, degrades AvrPiz-t and is a positive regulator of PAMP-triggered
immunity (PTI). APIP5 encodes a transcription factor and negatively regulates cell death and disease resistance to M. oryzae. 

 

CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION INVOLVED IN MAGNAPORTHE-RICE INTERACTION DURING INITIATION OF BLAST DISEASE

Recently, we identified a “pathogenicity island” in the vicinity of the ABC3 locus that harbors a Polyketide Synthase and a Cytochrome P450-related locus essential for Magnaporthe pathogenesis. Loss of PKS1 leads to hypermelanized appressoria and defects in septin localization and penetration pore formation. Pks1-GFP is cytosolic and present exclusively in the appressoria. Inhibition of melanin synthesis affects Pks1-GFP expression and localization. Thus, it is likely that a substrate of Pks1 is essential for host penetration and is shared with the melanin biosynthesis pathway.

INFECTION ASSOCIATED AUTOPHAGY IS INDEPENDENT OF APOPTOSIS AND SUFFICIENT FOR APPRESSORIUM-MEDIATED PLANT INFECTION BY MAGNAPORTHE ORYZAE

 

Here, we show that ultrastructural and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis occur in a M. oryzae in response to pro-apototic stimuli. We identified a number of apoptosis associated genes in M.oryzae and targeted these gene for deletion to determine whether their lack of function has any physiological consequences for the fungus in terms of its response to stress, and in its capacity to infect. M.oryzae has two metacaspase genes MCP1 and MCP2. We found that the single deletion mutants mcp1 and mcp2 and the double mutant mcp1/mcp2 were not affected in their sensitivity to a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli but did show reduced growth in the presence of agents that disrupt endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and in addition were fully pathogenic. We have also deleted a number of genes associated with caspase independent apoptosis. These mutants all resulted in an altered response to various apoptotic stresses but retained wild-type virulence. We conclude that although apoptosis occurs in M.oryzae the cell death of the conidium which is a pre-requisite for infection is accomplished solely by autophagy.

 

MAGNAPORTHE - RICE INTERACTIONS AS REVEALED BY WHOLE GENOME ANALYSIS

 

Using whole genome information of M. oryzae and rice, we isolated AVR-Pia, AVR-Pii, AVR-Pik and cognate R-genes Pia and Pii. In this talk, I introduce whole genome sequence (WGS)-based gene isolation methodologies including MutMap and report our latest findings on the interaction between AVR-Pik and Pik.

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Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice

The activation of the same 48-kDa MAPK was also
observed as the top band among three bands in rice leaves
that were treated with rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe
grisea

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Enhanced disease resistance caused by BRI1 mutation is conserved between Brachypodium distachyon and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

Enhanced disease resistance caused by BRI1 mutation is conserved between Brachypodium distachyon and barley (Hordeum vulgare). | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Mutation of BdBRI1 and HvBRI1 enhances resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae

 

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Roles of Forkhead-box Transcription Factors in Controlling Development, Pathogenicity, and Stress Response in Magnaporthe oryzae

Deletion of MoFKH1 (ΔMofkh1) resulted in reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination, abnormal septation and stress response, and reduced virulence. Similarly, ΔMohcm1 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and conidial germination. On the other hand, loss of MoFOX1 (ΔMofox1) did not show any noticeable changes in development, pathogenicity, and stress response. Deletion of MoFOX2 was not successful even after repeated attempts. Taken together, these results suggested that MoFKH1 and Mo- HCM1 are important in fungal development and that MoFKH1 is further implicated in pathogenicity and stress response in M. oryzae.

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Plasma membrane localization is essential for OsPti1a-mediated negative regulation of immune signaling in rice

Plasma membrane localization is essential for OsPti1a-mediated negative regulation of immune signaling in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

OsPti1a, an ortholog of tomato SlPti1, functions as a negative regulator of innate immunity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In ospti1a mutants, the activation of immune responses including HR-like cell death is caused by the loss of OsPti1a protein; however, it is as yet unclear how OsPti1a suppresses immune responses. Here, we report that OsPti1a localizes to detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fractions of the plasma membrane through lipid modification of the protein’s N-terminus, which is highly conserved among Pti1 orthologs in several plant species. Importantly, mis-localization of OsPti1a after deletion of its N-terminus reduced its ability to complement the mutant phenotypes including HR-like cell death. Further, complex formation of OsPti1a depends on its N terminus-mediated membrane localization. LC-MS/MS analysis of OsPti1a complex-interacting proteins identified several defense-related proteins. Collectively, these findings indicate that appropriate complex formation by OsPti1a at the plasma membrane is required for negative regulation of plant immune responses in rice.


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Targeted gene disruption of OsCERK1 reveals its indispensable role in chitin perception and involvement in the peptidoglycan response and immunity in rice

Targeted gene disruption of OsCERK1 reveals its indispensable role in chitin perception and involvement in the peptidoglycan response and immunity in rice | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

OsCERK1 is a rice receptor-like kinase that mediates the signal of a fungal cell wall component, chitin, by coordinating with a lysin motif (LysM)-containing protein, CEBiP. To further elucidate the function of OsCERK1 in the defense response, we disrupted OsCERK1. In OsCERK1-disrupted lines, the generation of hydrogen peroxide and the alteration of gene expression in response to a chitin oligomer were completely abolished. The OsCERK1-disrupted lines also showed lowered responsiveness to a bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Yeast two-hybrid analysis indicated that OsCERK1 interacts with the LysM-containing proteins, LYP4 and LYP6, which are known to participate in the peptidoglycan response in rice. Observation of the infection behavior of rice blast fungus (Magnaporthe oryzae) revealed that disruption of OsCERK1 led to increased hyphal growth in leaf sheath cells. GFP-tagged OsCERK1 was localized around the primary infection hyphae. These results demonstrate that OsCERK1 is indispensable for chitin perception and participates in innate immunity in rice, and also mediates the peptidoglycan response. It is also suggested that OsCERK1 mediates the signaling pathways of both fungal and bacterial molecular patterns by interacting with different LysM-containing receptor-like proteins.

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Genotyping and development of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with blast resistance genes in rice using GoldenGate assay

Genotyping and development of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with blast resistance genes in rice using GoldenGate assay | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

In the present study, Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to validate and genotype SNPs in a set of six major rice blast resistance genes: Pi-ta, Piz(t), Pi54, Pi9, Pi5(1)and Pib. All the selected SNPs loci (96) were genotyped successfully in 92 rice lines with an overall genotype call rate of 92.0 % and minimum GenTrain cutoff score of ≥0.448. Minor allele frequency ranged from 0.01 to 0.49 and has good differentiating power for distinguishing different rice accessions. SNPs markers were validated in a set of 92 rice lines and converted into CAPS markers which can be used in blast resistance breeding programme.

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Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story

Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
The action of chitin and chitin derivatives on plants has become a very interesting story of late.  It has been proposed that Nod factor perception might have evolved from the more ancient AM symbiosis. Increasing evidence now suggests that LCO perception might have evolved from plant innate immunity signaling. In this review, we will discuss the evolutionary origin of symbiotic LCO recognition.
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Plant pattern-recognition receptors

Plant pattern-recognition receptors | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Plant PRRs are surface-localized receptor kinases or receptor-like proteins.

Plant PRRs recognize a wide range of microbe- or plant-derived molecules.

Known plant PAMP/PRR pairs illustrate distinct molecular-recognition mechanisms.

PRRs can be used to engineer broad-spectrum disease resistance in crop plants. 

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Rice OsPAD4 functions differently from Arabidopsis AtPAD4 in host-pathogen interactions

Rice OsPAD4 functions differently from Arabidopsis AtPAD4 in host-pathogen interactions | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

The extensively studied Arabidopsis phytoalexin deficient 4 (AtPAD4) gene plays an important role in Arabidopsis disease resistance. However, the function of its sequence ortholog in rice is unknown. Here, we show that rice OsPAD4 appears not to be the functional ortholog of AtPAD4 in host–pathogen interactions, and that the former (OsPAD4) encodes a plasma membrane protein but the latter (AtPAD4) encodes a cytoplasmic and nuclear protein. Suppression of OsPAD4 by RNA interference (RNAi) increased rice susceptibility to biotrophic pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacteria blight disease in local tissue. OsPAD4–RNAi plants also show compromised wound-induced systemic resistance to Xoo. The increased susceptibility to Xoo was associated with reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and phytoalexin momilactone A (MOA). Exogenous application of JA complemented the phenotype of OsPAD4–RNAi plants in response to Xoo. The following results suggest that OsPAD4 functions differently than AtPAD4 in response to pathogen infection. First, OsPAD4 plays an important role in wound-induced systemic resistance, whereas AtPAD4 mediates systemic acquired resistance. Second, OsPAD4-involved defense signaling against Xoo is JA-dependent, but AtPAD4-involved defense signaling against biotrophic pathogens is salicylic acid–dependent. Finally, OsPAD4 is required for the accumulation of terpenoid-type phytoalexin MOA in rice–bacterium interactions, but AtPAD4-mediated resistance is associated with the accumulation of indole-type phytoalexin camalexin.

 

 


Via Christophe Jacquet
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NTPDase Specific Inhibitors Suppress Rice Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae

NTPDase Specific Inhibitors Suppress Rice Infection by Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Evolutionarily conserved ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (referred to ‘NTPDases’ below) are important ecto-nucleotidases that are able to hydrolyse NTPs and NDPs in the environment to the monophosphate form. Here, we demonstrate that conidial germination, appressorium formation and pathogenicity of rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that had been pretreated with NTPDase-specific inhibitors were significantly reduced, suggesting that NTPDases of M. oryzae play an important role in its infection.

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Development and Characterization of Rice Mutants for Functional Genomics Studies and Breeding

Development and Characterization of Rice Mutants for Functional Genomics Studies and Breeding | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Approximately 100 000 putative mutants of rice (Oryza sativa L.) have been generated by mutagens. Mutant genes involved in plant architecture, grain quality and disease resistance have been isolated and characterized. In this review, we described the ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), irradiation, and fast neutron methods used to create rice mutants; methods for the analysis of rice genes that are responsible for mutations; the use of new mutants for rice breeding and functional genomics; and the molecular mechanisms of blast resistance gene-mediated defence responses.

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Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops

Characteristics and safety assessment of intractable proteins in genetically modified crops | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

“Intractable proteins” in GM crops cannot be isolated or studied by existing methods.

Intractability results from low expression, membrane association, or other factors.

The established tiered weight-of-evidence approach can be used for safety assessment.

No protein is needed for history of safe use (HOSU) and bioinformatics analyses.

Enriched or substitute proteins may offer alternatives to pure protein dose testing.

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Heterotrimeric g proteins in plant defense against pathogens and aba signaling

Heterotrimeric g proteins in plant defense against pathogens and aba signaling | Rice Blast | Scoop.it
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Developing Maganporthe oryzae conidia

These spores were suspended on a growth medium supplemented with 1,16-hexadecanediol (HDD). HDD is an inducer of appressorium formation. Appressorium is an important structure in Magnaporthe,...
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Genome-Wide Analysis of the NADK Gene Family in Plants

Genome-Wide Analysis of the NADK Gene Family in Plants | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 74 NADK gene homologs from 24 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and eudicots. OsNADK genes is induced to varying degrees by abiotic stress such as cold, heat, drought (PEG), salt (NaCl) and oxidative (methyl viologen, MV), as well as by biotic stress such as the pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae.

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Identification of antagonist molds against Pyricularia oryzae using internal transcribed spacers (ITS)

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Transgenic cereals: Current status and future prospects

Related results from rice include resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) in lines expressing a chimeric receptor consisting of the rice chitin oligosaccharides binding protein (CEBiP) and the intracellular protein kinase region of Xa21. Similarly lines expressing the WRKY30 gene or inducible ethylene production showed improved resistance to rice blast and rice sheath blast (Rhizoctonia solani), and lines expressing a bacterial α-1,3-glucanase (AGL-rice) showed strong resistance not only to the two blast pathogens but also to the phylogenetically distant ascomycete Cochlioborus miyabeanus.

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Design, Synthesis and Bioactivity of Novel Glycosylthiadiazole Derivatives

A series of novel glycosylthiadiazole derivatives, namely 2-phenylamino-5-glycosyl-1,3,4-thiadiazoles, were designed and synthesized by condensation between sugar aldehydes A/B and substituted thiosemicarbazide C followed by oxidative cyclization by treating with manganese dioxide. The original fungicidal activities results showed that some title compounds exhibited excellent fungicidal activities against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary and Pyricularia oryzae Cav.

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Regulation of Cellular Diacylglycerol through Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases Is Required for Pathogenesis of the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae

Regulation of Cellular Diacylglycerol through Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases Is Required for Pathogenesis of the Rice Blast Fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Considering implication of diacylglycerol in both metabolism and signaling pathways, maintaining proper levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical to cellular homeostasis and development. Except the PIP2-PLC mediated pathway, metabolic pathways leading to generation of DAG converge on dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid catalyzed by lipid phosphate phosphatases. Here we report the role of such enzymes in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We identified five genes encoding putative lipid phosphate phosphatases (MoLPP1 to MoLPP5). Targeted disruption of four genes (except MoLPP4) showed that MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 are required for normal progression of infection-specific development and proliferation within host plants, whereas MoLPP1 and MoLPP2 are indispensable for fungal pathogenicity. Reintroduction of MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 into individual deletion mutants restored all the defects. Furthermore, exogenous addition of saturated DAG not only restored defect in appressorium formation but also complemented reduced virulence in both mutants. Taken together, our data indicate differential roles of lipid phosphate phosphatase genes and requirement of proper regulation of cellular DAGs for fungal development and pathogenesis.

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Preillumination of rice blast conidia induces tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress

Preillumination of rice blast conidia induces tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

M. grisea spore diffusate detoxifies exogenous H2O2 and O2- or rice leaf diffusates.

1-hour light stimulates delayed discharge of O2- from spores.

The illuminated spores acquire tolerance to the aforementioned toxic agents and .OH.

They are also more aggressive to rice then non-illuminated ones in a dilute inoculum.

Light-caused oxidative stress may mobilize spore antioxidants favoring pathogenicity.

 

 

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FAR1 and FAR2 Regulate the Expression of Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

FAR1 and FAR2 Regulate the Expression of Genes Associated with Lipid Metabolism in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae | Rice Blast | Scoop.it

Previous studies have shown that mobilisation of lipid bodies and subsequent lipid metabolism are essential pre-requisites for successful appressorium-mediated plant infection, which requires autophagic recycling of the contents of germinated spores and germ tubes to the developing appressorium. Here, we report the identification of FAR1 and FAR2, which encode highly conserved members of the Zn2-Cys6 family of transcriptional regulators.  Interestingly, Δfar1, Δfar2 and Δfar1Δfar2 mutants show no observable delay or reduction in lipid body mobilisation during plant infection, suggesting that these transcriptional regulators control lipid substrate utilization by the fungus but not the mobilisation of intracellular lipid reserves during infection-related morphogenesis


Via Christophe Jacquet
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Effect of Nitrogen, Silicon, Rice By-product and Fungicide for Management of Rice Blast Disease in Mwea Irrigation Scheme of Kenya Catherine

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