Importantly, in transgenic plants, Pid3-A4, as compared with Pid3, displays a distinct resistance spectrum to a set of M. oryzae isolates including those that prevail in the rice fields of Sichuan Province.
Although SSRs, InDels, and SNPs are the three major allelic variations discovered so far, a plethora of molecular markers were developed to detect the polymorphisms that resulted from these three types of variation .
Considering implication of diacylglycerol in both metabolism and signaling pathways, maintaining proper levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical to cellular homeostasis and development. Except the PIP2-PLC mediated pathway, metabolic pathways leading to generation of DAG converge on dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid catalyzed by lipid phosphate phosphatases. Here we report the role of such enzymes in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We identified five genes encoding putative lipid phosphate phosphatases (MoLPP1 to MoLPP5). Targeted disruption of four genes (except MoLPP4) showed that MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 are required for normal progression of infection-specific development and proliferation within host plants, whereas MoLPP1 and MoLPP2 are indispensable for fungal pathogenicity. Reintroduction of MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 into individual deletion mutants restored all the defects. Furthermore, exogenous addition of saturated DAG not only restored defect in appressorium formation but also complemented reduced virulence in both mutants. Taken together, our data indicate differential roles of lipid phosphate phosphatase genes and requirement of proper regulation of cellular DAGs for fungal development and pathogenesis.
The AC134922 locus is one of the most rapidly evolving nucleotide binding site–leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) gene family in rice genome. Six rice blast resistance (R) genes have been cloned from this locus and other two resistance candidate genes, Pi34 and Pi47, are also mapped to this complex locus. Therefore, it seems that more functional R genes could be identified from this locus. In this study, we cloned 22 genes from 12 cultivars based on allele-mining strategy at this locus and identified 6 rice blast R genes with 4 of them recognizing more than one isolates. Our result suggests that gene stacking might be the evolutionary strategy for complex gene locus to interact with rapidly evolving pathogens, which might provide a potential way for the cloning of durable resistance genes. Moreover, the mosaic structure and ambiguous ortholog/paralog relationships of these homologous genes, caused by frequent recombination and gene conversion, indicate that multiple alleles of this complex locus may serve as a reservoir for the evolutionary novelty of these R genes.
Functional genomics research in wheat, which though lagged far behind relative to that in other major food crops like maize and rice, has also recently witnessed significant progress. For instance, RNA interference, ....
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