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Research Workshop
Advances and breakthroughs in many scientific fields. Applying science to social policy. Understanding evidence. Academic sources and scientists.
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Completely paralyzed man voluntarily moves his legs, UCLA scientists report

Completely paralyzed man voluntarily moves his legs, UCLA scientists report | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Aided by a “robotic exoskeleton” device, the 39-year-old man was able to voluntarily control his leg muscles and take thousands of steps.

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Carlos Garcia Pando's curator insight, September 3, 1:58 PM

“What we are seeing right now in the field of spinal cord research is a surge of momentum with new directions and approaches to remind the spine of its potential even years after an injury,”

video:  https://youtu.be/tPej2l6dVbw


 

One small step for Human Kind, but a big difference for a man!

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Quantum revolution: China set to launch 'hack proof' quantum communications network

Quantum revolution: China set to launch 'hack proof' quantum communications network | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

China is set to complete the installation of the world's longest quantum communication network stretching 2,000km (1,240miles) from Beijing to Shanghai by 2016, say scientists leading the project.


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A Programming Language for DNA Computing

A Programming Language for DNA Computing | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

There has been substantial work on using DNA strands to perform specific computational tasks. This project explores how to define a low-level DNA machine language, which can be used as a target for compiling higher-level programs. The reactions of the language correspond to interactions between physical DNA strands, while the kinetics of the language correspond to the underlying kinetics of DNA.


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Unraveling Comparative Anti-Amyloidogenic Behavior of Pyrazinamide and D-Cycloserine: A Mechanistic Biophysical Insight

Unraveling Comparative Anti-Amyloidogenic Behavior of Pyrazinamide and D-Cycloserine: A Mechanistic Biophysical Insight | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

by Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi, Nida Zaidi, Parvez Alam, Javed Masood Khan, Atiyatul Qadeer, Ibrar Ahmad Siddique, Shamoon Asmat, Yusra Zaidi, Rizwan Hasan Khan 

 

Abstract


Amyloid fibril formation by proteins leads to variety of degenerative disorders called amyloidosis. While these disorders are topic of extensive research, effective treatments are still unavailable. Thus in present study, two anti-tuberculosis drugs, i.e., pyrazinamide (PYZ) and D-cycloserine (DCS), also known for treatment for Alzheimer’s dementia, were checked for the anti-aggregation and anti-amyloidogenic ability on Aβ-42 peptide and hen egg white lysozyme. Results demonstrated that both drugs inhibit the heat induced aggregation; however, PYZ was more potent and decelerated the nucleation phase as observed from various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Furthermore, pre-formed amyloid fibrils incubated with these drugs also increased the PC12/SH-SY5Y cell viability as compare to the amyloid fibrils alone; however, the increase was more pronounced for PYZ as confirmed by MTT assay. Additionally, molecular docking study suggested that the greater inhibitory potential of PYZ as compare to DCS may be due to strong binding affinity and more occupancy of hydrophobic patches of HEWL, which is known to form the core of the protein fibrils.


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Citation: Chaturvedi SK, Zaidi N, Alam P, Khan JM, Qadeer A, Siddique IA, et al. (2015) Unraveling Comparative Anti-Amyloidogenic Behavior of Pyrazinamide and D-Cycloserine: A Mechanistic Biophysical Insight. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136528. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136528

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This Is What The World Would Be Like If Humans Had Never Existed

This Is What The World Would Be Like If Humans Had Never Existed | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
If humans had never existed, the whole world would look strikingly similar to the Serengeti of Africa. There would be lions in America, and elephants and rhinos roaming Europe.

That's the conclusion of a new study that details how human-driven animal extinctions have influenced the distribution and populations of large mammals around the world.

"The study shows that large parts of the world would harbor rich large mammal faunas, as diverse as seen in protected areas of eastern and southern Africa today, if it was not for historic and prehistoric human-driven range losses and extinctions," Dr. Jens-Christian Svenning, a biologist at Aarhus University in Denmark and a co-author of the study, told NBC News.

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How does batf3 determine dendritic cell development? - Nature.com

How does batf3 determine dendritic cell development? - Nature.com | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

Immunology and Cell Biology

 

This satisfying model of how the DC1 lineage is formed and maintained (seeFigure 1) is not the end of this DC differentiation story. The DC1 lineage includes both the lymphoid tissue resident CD8+ DC form and the migratory, CD8− CD103+form,14 and it is not clear when and where this branch occurs and how it is controlled. The newly formed DC1 DCs lack the capacity for cross-presentation of antigens; this characteristic function must be induced as a later step by cytokines or toll-like receptor ligands.15 It is not yet clear whether Batf3 and IRF8 have a direct role in inducing these later developmental events, or whether they just serve to maintain the integrity of the lineage. As the authors of this new study indicate, this will require further study.


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Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, August 27, 2:01 AM

Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication 25 August 2015; doi: 10.1038/icb.2015.69

DC lineage specification and maintenanceHow does batf3 determine dendritic cell development?

Ken Shortman1

1Immunology Division, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute and the Centre for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

Correspondence: Ken Shortman, E-mail: shortman@wehi.edu.au

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The Contained Self-Reactive Peripheral T Cell Repertoire: Size, Diversity, and Cellular Composition

The Contained Self-Reactive Peripheral T Cell Repertoire: Size, Diversity, and Cellular Composition | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Individual self-reactive T cells have been discovered in both humans and mice. It is difficult to assess the entire contained self-reactive peripheral T cell repertoire in healthy individuals because regulatory T cells (Tregs) can render these cells anergic and, therefore, functionally indistinguishable. We addressed this issue by removing regulatory T cells, thereby allowing us to characterize the exposed self-reactive T cells. This resulted in activation of approximately 4% of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Activation and division of these cells was not a bystander product of Ag-independent signals but required TCR stimulation. Analysis of TCR sequences showed that these responding cells were polyclonal and encompassed a broad range of structural TCR diversity. Adoptive transfer of naive and effector/memory T cell populations showed that even the naive T cell pool contained self-reactive T cell precursors.

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Gilbert Faure au nom de l'ASSIM's curator insight, August 26, 9:15 AM

 In addition, transfer of mature thymocytes showed that this response was an intrinsic T cell property rather than a peripheral adaptation. Finally, we found that the unexpectedly strong contribution of the naive CD5low T cell pool showed that the overall self-reactive response has not only a diverse polyclonal TCR repertoire, but also comprises a broad range of affinities for self.

Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, August 27, 2:03 AM
Published online before printJuly 20, 2015, doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1500880The Journal of ImmunologySeptember 1, 2015vol. 195 no. 5 2067-2079

 

 

The Contained Self-Reactive Peripheral T Cell Repertoire: Size, Diversity, and Cellular CompositionDavid M. Richards *, Eliana Ruggiero †, Ann-Cathrin Hofer *, Julian P. Sefrin *,Manfred Schmidt †, Christof von Kalle † and Markus Feuerer *

+Author Affiliations

*Immune Tolerance, Tumor Immunology Program, German Cancer Research Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany; and†Division of Translational Oncology, German Cancer Research Center and National Center for Tumor Diseases, 69120 Heidelberg, GermanyAddress correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Markus Feuerer, Immune Tolerance, Tumor Immunology Program, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. E-mail address: m.feuerer@dkfz-heidelberg.de
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Blood test to transform war on breast cancer

Blood test to transform war on breast cancer | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
The brand new blood test can detect cancer that has not been cured - eight months before the patient feels a lump or a fresh tumour shows up on a scan.

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Micro-tentacles for tiny robots can handle delicate objects like blood vessels #medicine #science

Micro-tentacles for tiny robots can handle delicate objects like blood vessels #medicine #science | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
A micro-tentacle developed by Iowa State engineers spirals gently around an ant (credit: Jaeyoun (Jay) Kim/Iowa State University) Iowa State University

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Humans carry more antibiotic-resistant #bacteria than animals they work with #health #medicine #science

Humans carry more antibiotic-resistant #bacteria than animals they work with #health #medicine #science | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a concern for the health and well-being of both humans and farm animals. One of the most common and costly diseases faced by the dairy industry is bovine mastitis, a potentially fatal bacterial inflammation of the mammary gland (IMI). Widespread use of antibiotics to treat the disease is often blamed for generating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, researchers investigating staphylococcal populations responsible for causing mastitis in dairy cows in South Africa found that humans carried more antibiotic-resistant staphylococci than the farm animals with which they worked. The research is published in the Journal of Dairy Science.

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Mayo Clinic researchers find new code that makes differentiation of cancer cells possible

Mayo Clinic researchers find new code that makes differentiation of cancer cells possible | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

Cancer researchers dream of the day they can force tumor cells to morph back to the normal cells they once were. Now, researchers on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus have discovered a way to potentially reprogram cancer cells back to normalcy.


The finding, published in Nature Cell Biology, represents “an unexpected new biology that provides the code, the software for turning off cancer,” says the study’s senior investigator, Panos Anastasiadis, Ph.D., chair of the Department of Cancer Biology on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus.


That code was unraveled by the discovery that adhesion proteins — the glue that keeps cells together — interact with the microprocessor, a key player in the production of molecules called microRNAs (miRNAs). The miRNAs orchestrate whole cellular programs by simultaneously regulating expression of a group of genes. The investigators found that when normal cells come in contact with each other, a specific subset of miRNAs suppresses genes that promote cell growth. However, when adhesion is disrupted in cancer cells, these miRNAs are misregulated and cells grow out of control. The investigators showed, in laboratory experiments, that restoring the normal miRNA levels in cancer cells can reverse that aberrant cell growth.


“The study brings together two so-far unrelated research fields — cell-to-cell adhesion and miRNA biology — to resolve a long-standing problem about the role of adhesion proteins in cell behavior that was baffling scientists,” says the study’s lead author Antonis Kourtidis, Ph.D., a research associate in Dr. Anastasiadis’ lab. “Most significantly, it uncovers a new strategy for cancer therapy,” he adds.


That problem arose from conflicting reports about E-cadherin and p120 catenin — adhesion proteins that are essential for normal epithelial tissues to form, and which have long been considered to be tumor suppressors. “However, we and other researchers had found that this hypothesis didn’t seem to be true, since both E-cadherin and p120 are still present in tumor cells and required for their progression,” Dr. Anastasiadis says. “That led us to believe that these molecules have two faces — a good one, maintaining the normal behavior of the cells, and a bad one that drives tumorigenesis.”


Their theory turned out to be true, but what was regulating this behavior was still unknown. To answer this, the researchers studied a new protein called PLEKHA7, which associates with E-cadherin and p120 only at the top, or the “apical” part of normal polarized epithelial cells. The investigators discovered that PLEKHA7 maintains the normal state of the cells, via a set of miRNAs, by tethering the microprocessor to E-cadherin and p120. In this state, E-cadherin and p120 exert their good tumor suppressor sides.


However, “when this apical adhesion complex was disrupted after loss of PLEKHA7, this set of miRNAs was misregulated, and the E-cadherin and p120 switched sides to become oncogenic,” Dr. Anastasiadis says. “We believe that loss of the apical PLEKHA7-microprocessor complex is an early and somewhat universal event in cancer,” he adds. “In the vast majority of human tumor samples we examined, this apical structure is absent, although E-cadherin and p120 are still present. This produces the equivalent of a speeding car that has a lot of gas (the bad p120) and no brakes (the PLEKHA7-microprocessor complex).

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGYTLOGZ40U 


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Cutting-edge 3D printer prints in 10 materials simultaneously

Cutting-edge 3D printer prints in 10 materials simultaneously | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
MIT engineers have built a 3D printer that can print in 10 different materials at once, streamlining the manufacturing process.
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Another milestone in hybrid artificial photosynthesis

Researchers using a bioinorganic hybrid approach to artificial photosynthesis have combined semiconducting nanowires with select microbes to create a system that produces renewable molecular hydrogen and uses it to synthesize carbon dioxide into...
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Making Nanowires from Protein and DNA

Making Nanowires from Protein and DNA | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

Using computational and experimental methods, researchers at Caltech have developed a technique for creating so-called protein–DNA nanowires—a hybrid biomaterial that could have important applications.


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How does Usain Bolt run so fast? - BBC News

How does Usain Bolt run so fast? - BBC News | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Usain Bolt showed his dominance of men's sprinting at the World Athletics Championship in Beijing this week with wins in the 100m and 200m. What's his secret?
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The DNA damage response goes viral: A way in for new cancer treatments - EurekAlert (press release)

The DNA damage response goes viral: A way in for new cancer treatments - EurekAlert (press release) | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Salk researchers show how DNA repair proteins sound the alarm to threats, pointing to a novel cancer therapy.

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Enzyme-Free Detection of Mutations in Cancer DNA Using Synthetic Oligonucleotide Probes and Fluorescence Microscopy

Enzyme-Free Detection of Mutations in Cancer DNA Using Synthetic Oligonucleotide Probes and Fluorescence Microscopy | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

by Laura Miotke, Arindam Maity, Hanlee Ji, Jonathan Brewer, Kira Astakhova

AbstractBackground

 

Rapid reliable diagnostics of DNA mutations are highly desirable in research and clinical assays. Current development in this field goes simultaneously in two directions: 1) high-throughput methods, and 2) portable assays. Non-enzymatic approaches are attractive for both types of methods since they would allow rapid and relatively inexpensive detection of nucleic acids. Modern fluorescence microscopy is having a huge impact on detection of biomolecules at previously unachievable resolution. However, no straightforward methods to detect DNA in a non-enzymatic way using fluorescence microscopy and nucleic acid analogues have been proposed so far.

Methods and Results

 

Here we report a novel enzyme-free approach to efficiently detect cancer mutations. This assay includes gene-specific target enrichment followed by annealing to oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids (LNAs) and finally, detection by fluorescence microscopy. The LNA containing probes display high binding affinity and specificity to DNA containing mutations, which allows for the detection of mutation abundance with an intercalating EvaGreen dye. We used a second probe, which increases the overall number of base pairs in order to produce a higher fluorescence signal by incorporating more dye molecules. Indeed we show here that using EvaGreen dye and LNA probes, genomic DNA containing BRAF V600E mutation could be detected by fluorescence microscopy at low femtomolar concentrations. Notably, this was at least 1000-fold above the potential detection limit.

Conclusion

 

Overall, the novel assay we describe could become a new approach to rapid, reliable and enzyme-free diagnostics of cancer or other associated DNA targets. Importantly, stoichiometry of wild type and mutant targets is conserved in our assay, which allows for an accurate estimation of mutant abundance when the detection limit requirement is met. Using fluorescence microscopy, this approach presents the opportunity to detect DNA at single-molecule resolution and directly in the biological sample of choice.


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Citation: Miotke L, Maity A, Ji H, Brewer J, Astakhova K (2015) Enzyme-Free Detection of Mutations in Cancer DNA Using Synthetic Oligonucleotide Probes and Fluorescence Microscopy. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136720. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136720

Krishan Maggon 's curator insight, August 28, 5:13 PM

Citation: Miotke L, Maity A, Ji H, Brewer J, Astakhova K (2015) Enzyme-Free Detection of Mutations in Cancer DNA Using Synthetic Oligonucleotide Probes and Fluorescence Microscopy. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0136720. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0136720

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Breakthrough in cancer research: Off switch on cancer cells may have been found

Breakthrough in cancer research: Off switch on cancer cells may have been found | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Lung cancer will kill about 160,000 Americans this year.

Researchers at the Mayo Clinic in Florida say that they have found and been able to successfully use a trigger in cancer cells to stop ...
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The libraries of Timbuktu

The libraries of Timbuktu | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

The libraries of Timbuktu (by the 1300s) in Mali contain over 400,000 manuscripts, mostly from the city’s glory days from the 1300s to the 1500s. The manuscripts range from contracts and sales receipts to books of religion, law, poetry, astronomy and history. Thanks to Timbuktu’s hot, dry weather (it stands at the edge of the Sahara), its deep love of books and its history as a seat of high learning, it has preserved an amazing treasure from Africa’s past.


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Kent College History's curator insight, August 27, 4:16 PM

'The libraries of Timbuktu in Mali contain over 400,000 manuscripts, mostly from the city’s glory days from the 1300s to the 1500s. The manuscripts range from contracts and sales receipts to books of religion, law, poetry, astronomy and history. Thanks to Timbuktu’s hot, dry weather (it stands at the edge of the Sahara), its deep love of books and its history as a seat of high learning, it has preserved an amazing treasure from Africa’s past.'

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International Workshop on Nonlinearity, Nonequilibrium and Complexity: Questions and perspectives in Statistical Physics.

International Workshop on Nonlinearity, Nonequilibrium and Complexity: Questions and perspectives in Statistical Physics. | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

The workshop is aimed at discussing a few chosen contemporary developments in statistical physics. Topics include problems in condensed matter and dynamical systems (pattern structures, granular matter, glass formation, turbulence, marginal chaos, etc.); and also current applications outside of traditional fields in physics (in biology, ecology, sociology, economy, seismology and other geophysical, astrophysical phenomena, complexity in urban developments, complexity in linguistics, literature and arts, etc.). There would be an examination of equilibrium and nonequilibrium theories, and of the current efforts in generalizing statistical mechanical structures and methods. We would like to emphasize that our aim is to make the meeting the occasion for a memorable scientific discussion that can be carried out comfortably in an intimate environment.


International Workshop on Nonlinearity, Nonequilibrium and Complexity: Questions and perspectives in Statistical Physics. This is an event in honor of Prof. Alberto Robledo's 70th birthday.

Mexico City, Mexico

2015-11-29:12-04

https://sites.google.com/site/robledo70b/ 


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The DNA of a nation

The DNA of a nation | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

The United Kingdom aims to sequence 100,000 human genomes by 2017. But screening them for disease-causing variants will require innovative software.


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How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease

How Mutant Viral Swarms Spread Disease | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

Viruses exist as “mutant clouds” of closely-related individuals. A new understanding of these swarms is helping researchers predict how viruses will evolve and where disease is likely to spread.


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The origami of life

The origami of life | Research Workshop | Scoop.it

Imagine designing and mass-producing nano-sized objects that can interact with molecules and human cells with incredible precision. The structures would be precisely engineered to deliver drug therapies custom-fitted to each patient, or even bind to cancer cells to keep them from reproducing. Imagine being able to deploy a tiny device made of DNA that can detect the presence of a molecule that indicates a major health problem and release a drug.


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How colliding satellites created Saturn's craziest ring

How colliding satellites created Saturn's craziest ring | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
Saturn's outermost ring is the most active ring in the solar system. New models reveal how it came into being.
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New study sheds light on end of Snowball Earth period

New study sheds light on end of Snowball Earth period | Research Workshop | Scoop.it
The second ice age during the Cryogenian period was not followed by the sudden and chaotic melting-back of the ice as previously thought, but ended with regular advances and retreats of the ice, according to research published by scientists from the University of Birmingham in the journal Nature Geoscience today.

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