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Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine.

Creating the Market University: How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine. | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
American universities today serve as economic engines, performing the scientific research that will create new industries, drive economic growth, and keep the United States globally competitive. But only a few decades ago, these same universities self-consciously held themselves apart from the world of commerce. Creating the Market University is the first book to systematically examine why academic science made such a dramatic move toward the market. Drawing on extensive historical research, Elizabeth Popp Berman shows how the government--influenced by the argument that innovation drives the economy--brought about this transformation.

Americans have a long tradition of making heroes out of their inventors. But before the 1960s and '70s neither policymakers nor economists paid much attention to the critical economic role played by innovation. However, during the late 1970s, a confluence of events--industry concern with the perceived deterioration of innovation in the United States, a growing body of economic research on innovation's importance, and the stagnation of the larger economy--led to a broad political interest in fostering invention. The policy decisions shaped by this change were diverse, influencing arenas from patents and taxes to pensions and science policy, and encouraged practices that would focus specifically on the economic value of academic science. By the early 1980s, universities were nurturing the rapid growth of areas such as biotech entrepreneurship, patenting, and university-industry research centers.

Contributing to debates about the relationship between universities, government, and industry, Creating the Market University sheds light on how knowledge and politics intersect to structure the economy.

Elizabeth Popp Berman is assistant professor of sociology at the University at Albany, State University of New York.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

 

Chapter 1: Academic Science as an Economic Engine 1
The Changing Nature of Academic Science 4
Studying the Changes in Academic Science 8
Explaining the Rise of Market Logic in Academic Science 12
Overview of the Book 17

Chapter 2: Market Logic in the Era of Pure Science 19
Federal Funding and the Support of Science Logic 21
Using Market Logic in the 1950s and 1960s 23
Limits to the Spread of Market Logic 29
The Pillars of the Postwar System Begin to Crumble 35
The Effects of the Dissolving Federal Consensus 37

Chapter 3: Innovation Drives the Economy-an Old Idea with New Implications 40
Market-Logic Practices of the 1970s and Their Limits 42
The Political Power of an Economic Idea 44
The Innovation Frame and the University 55

Chapter 4: Faculty Entrepreneurship in the Biosciences 58
Before Biotech 60
Early Entrepreneurship 63
1978: A Turning Point 69
Academic Entrepreneurship: Money Changes Everything 76
Why Did Bioscience Entrepreneurship Take Off? 87

Chapter 5: Patenting University Inventions 94
University Patenting during the Science-Logic Era 96
Barriers to the Expansion of University Patenting 104
Innovation, the Economy, and Government Patent Policy 106
University Patenting after 1980 111
Why Did University Patenting Take Off? 114

Chapter 6: Creating University-Industry Research Centers 119
UIRCs versus Biotech Entrepreneurship and University Patenting 119
The Trajectory of University-Industry Research Centers 122
The Emergence of Federal and State Support for UIRCs 131
The Expansion of State and Federal Support for UIRCs in the 1980s 139
Why Did University-Industry Research Centers Spread? 141

Chapter 7: The Spread of Market Logic 146
The Expansion of Biotech Entrepreneurship, Patenting, and UIRCs 147
Market Logic Elsewhere in Academic Science 149
University Administrators and the Rhetoric of Innovation 154
Science Logic and Market Logic: An Uneasy Coexistence 156

Chapter 8: Conclusion 158
How Academic Science Became an Economic Engine:Considering the Evidence 159
Reconsidering Alternative Arguments 162
Speaking to Larger Conversations 167

 

Link to chapter 1 fulltext:

 

http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s9619.pdf


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Further Backing for Open Access Publishing of Research Data ...

Further Backing for Open Access Publishing of Research Data ... | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Open Access Repository The Association of Research Managers (ARMA) has teamed up with knowledge-transfer groups PraxisUnico and the Association for University Research and Industry Links (AURIL) to support ...

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Sequester cut funding to 1,000 researchers - AMERICAblog

Sequester cut funding to 1,000 researchers - AMERICAblog | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Most research funding comes from the federal government, much of it via the National Institutes of Health (NIH). But thanks to the budget sequester, a portion of that money is no longer available. The NIH estimates that, ...
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Who Funded That? The Names and Numbers Behind the Research ...

Who Funded That? The Names and Numbers Behind the Research ... | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
OUTSIDE FUNDING: National Science Foundation Developmental and Learning Sciences grant. NSFDLS grants support research on children and adolescents' development and learning. Funding typically lasts three years ...
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Toward an AIDS-free generation

Toward an AIDS-free generation | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
AIDS researchers and medical ethicists gathered at the Harvard School of Public Health to explore possible ethical issues affecting studies of promising strategies to fight the ailment.
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10 Social Media Tips From the Pros Social Media Examiner

10 Social Media Tips From the Pros Social Media Examiner | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Discover 10 social media tips from the pros advice from the Riding the Waves of Social Media ebook you can use to improve your online marketing in 2014.
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Four reasons why the fight against climate change is likely to fail - Washington Post (blog)

Four reasons why the fight against climate change is likely to fail - Washington Post (blog) | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Four reasons why the fight against climate change is likely to fail Washington Post (blog) The Global Energy Initiative, a non-profit group devoted to promoting clean energy and slowing climate change, asked a handful of economists – liberal and...
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New Rowan University Foundation venture fund to aid research, technology - NJ.com

New Rowan University Foundation venture fund to aid research, technology - NJ.com | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
New Rowan University Foundation venture fund to aid research, technology NJ.com According to Shreekanth Mandayam, the vice president for Rowan's research department, the foundation would retain ownership over any intellectual properties or...
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Confusion reigns as hunt for missing jet flounders - Springfield News-Leader

Confusion reigns as hunt for missing jet flounders - Springfield News-Leader | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
AFP Confusion reigns as hunt for missing jet flounders Springfield News-Leader On several occasions now, government officials have later made denials or given remarks that contradict earlier statements and information from colleagues in other...
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Baboon Personality Predicts Social Learning - Wired

Baboon Personality Predicts Social Learning - Wired | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
University Herald Baboon Personality Predicts Social Learning Wired Carter thinks that bold baboons may show more social learning not because they are smarter or better at learning this type of information, but because they are more willing to...
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Research reveals surprising results about kids' capacity for scientific literacy

Research reveals surprising results about kids' capacity for scientific literacy | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
(Medical Xpress)—It turns out kids can understand complex scientific concepts – like natural selection – far beyond what anyone would have expected.
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Promotion and information actions for agricultural products

Promotion and information actions for agricultural products | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The European Commission policy on promotion and information actions for agricultural products in the internal market and in third countries has been evolving since the 1980s. Starting with a specif...
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The Core Principles of Media Literacy Education...

The Core Principles of Media Literacy Education... | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
As the field of media literacy education has matured over the past 25 years, its focus has evolved from WHAT is taught to HOW we teach.The Core Principles of Media Literacy Education is a NAMLE project to expand the boundaries of the field and...
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Industry-University Partnerships: 2 Research Center Directors Speak

Industry and government partner with Northeastern for basic and applied research. The reason is simple: they know that at Northeastern, our two guiding princ...
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MediaX grants support Stanford researchers as they study how content is ... - Stanford University News

MediaX grants support Stanford researchers as they study how content is ...Stanford University NewsMediaX, an industry affiliate program at Stanford University, has awarded 10 research grants to Stanford scholars to study the future of content...

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Research Funding Opportunities Newsletter | MMU Research and ...

Research Funding Opportunities Newsletter | MMU Research and ... | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
THE Research and Knowledge Exchange Office is flagging opportunities for research funding via monthly newsletters. Every school/department has its own tailored bulletin and the second edition has just been published.
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New ways to research childhood: Research ethics and critical realism

Please join us for the final seminar in the series: Childhood, rights, research ethics and critical realism: New ways to research childhood with Priscilla Alderson, Professor Emerita of Childhood Studies, Institute of Education:.
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Spotting ethical misconduct in scholarly research: The STAP case

Spotting ethical misconduct in scholarly research: The STAP case | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The STAP stem cells situation, as I write this down, represents a can of worms whose lid has been pried open by scores of scholarly commentators, most of them active researchers in the field, on social media over the last few weeks.
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Research suggests traumatic brain injury recovery may be influenced by gene - Daily Illini

Research suggests traumatic brain injury recovery may be influenced by gene - Daily Illini | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Research suggests traumatic brain injury recovery may be influenced by gene Daily Illini “There is definitely growing interest on our campus in doing (traumatic brain injury) research,” said Rachael Rubin, postdoctoral research associate at Beckman...
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The WeChat revolution: China's 'killer app' for mass communication - NDTV

The WeChat revolution: China's 'killer app' for mass communication - NDTV | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
NDTV The WeChat revolution: China's 'killer app' for mass communication NDTV WeChat is now the country's second most popular instant messaging tool on mobile devices, according to consultancy Analysys International behind the venerable QQ platform,...
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Rawlings condemns double standards of developed countries - GhanaWeb

Rawlings condemns double standards of developed countries - GhanaWeb | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Rawlings condemns double standards of developed countries GhanaWeb According to him, while the developed countries have kept their morals and value systems intact within their nations, those countries adopted different morals towards developing...
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How Africa tweets: New study reveals continent's leading tweeting cities - CNN International

How Africa tweets: New study reveals continent's leading tweeting cities - CNN International | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
CNN International How Africa tweets: New study reveals continent's leading tweeting cities CNN International Thanks largely to the incredible rate of adoption of mobile phones, the way people speak to each other, share opinions and access...
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Nursing education and research funding remains stagnant in President's 2015 ... - ModernMedicine

Nursing education and research funding remains stagnant in President's 2015 ...
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6 Key Findings From Pew's New Research On Millennials

We're a lot different than our elders. (Millenials=>Most diverse American generation ever. In debt, but optimistic. Distrust institutions.
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The 9/11 Attacks, “Keeping the Lid on the Lie”: Media Response to the Growing ... - Center for Research on Globalization

The 9/11 Attacks, “Keeping the Lid on the Lie”: Media Response to the Growing ... - Center for Research on Globalization | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The 9/11 Attacks, “Keeping the Lid on the Lie”: Media Response to the Growing ...
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