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CFP: Migrations of Knowledge: Potentials and Limits of Knowledge Production and Critique in Europe and Africa; Ohne thematischen Schwerpunkt

H-Soz-u-Kult: Communication and Information Services for Historians (CFP: Migrations of Knowledge: Potentials and Limits of Knowledge Production and Critique in Europe and Africa http://t.co/KUUJvQzc47)...
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CFP: Migrations of Knowledge: Potentials and Limits of Knowledge Production and Critique in Europe and Africa; Ohne thematischen Schwerpunkt
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In Pursuit Of Truth: A Brand’s Guide To Managing Misinformation Online

In Pursuit Of Truth: A Brand’s Guide To Managing Misinformation Online | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

The Internet has rewritten the rules for what can be viewed as fact versus fiction. From fake online reviews to inaccurate media articles, it’s impossible to truly know what online information is real and what is fabricated. The same holds true for the voices of online audiences, whether it’s a tweet, a comment on an article or a blog post.

In an attempt to eradicate the mystery, it was recently reported that European scientists are developing a “social media lie detector” called PHEME for popular social media channels like Facebook and Twitter. Using technology like natural language processing, PHEME will review and put online rumors into one of four categories – speculation, controversy, misinformation and disinformation.

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German Space Agency Funds Study on Uses of Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser | Parabolic Arc

German Space Agency Funds Study on Uses of Sierra Nevada’s Dream Chaser | Parabolic Arc | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

BREMEN, Germany (OHB System PR) — OHB System AG and the Space Administration of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) signed an agreement providing for the use of funding from the national space program to finance a study to explore possible uses of the U.S. spacecraft Dream Chaser® developed and owned by U.S. company Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC).

 

Named DC4EU (Dream Chaser for European Utilization), the project is to explore ways in which the Dream Chaser®can be used to cover German and European requirements for the transportation of payloads and astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and for deployment as a manned or unmanned space vehicle allowing German and European scientists to conduct research under weightless conditions over extended periods of time.  Given the capability which the Dream Chaser® has for reaching orbits at a substantially greater altitude than the ISS, the study will determine the extent to which it is able to supply satellites or remove decommissioned satellites from their orbits.

 


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Astrochemists Trying To Decipher Mystery Molecules Discovered in Distant Galaxies

Astrochemists Trying To Decipher Mystery Molecules Discovered in Distant Galaxies | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

In late 2011, a team of NASA and European scientists recorded the "fingerprints" of mystery molecules in two distant galaxies, Andromeda and the Triangulum. Astronomers can count on one hand the number of galaxies examined so far for such fingerprints, which are thought to belong to large organic molecules (molecules that have at least 20 atoms or more), said the team's leader, Martin Cordiner of NASA's Goddard Center for Astrobiology. This is quite small compared to, say, a protein, but huge compared to a molecule of carbon monoxide, a very common molecule in space.

 

Figuring out exactly which molecules are leaving these clues, known as "diffuse interstellar bands" (DIBs), is a puzzle that initially seemed straightforward but has gone unsolved for nearly a hundred years. The answer is expected to help explain how stars, planets and life form, so settling the matter is as important to astronomers who specialize in chemistry and biology as determining the nature of dark matter is to the specialists in physics.
The significance of the first DIBs, recorded in 1922 in Mary Lea Heger's Ph.D. thesis, was not immediately recognized. But once astronomers began systematic studies, starting with a 1934 paper by P. W. Merrill, they had every reason to believe the problem could be solved within a decade or two.

More than 400 DIBs have been documented since then. But not one has been identified with enough certainty for astronomers to consider its case closed.

"With this many diffuse bands, you'd think we astronomers would have enough clues to solve this problem," muses Joseph Nuth, a senior scientist with the Goddard Center for Astrobiology who was not involved in this work. "Instead, it's getting more mysterious as more data is gathered." Detailed analyses of the bumps and wiggles of the DIBs, suggest that the molecules which give rise to DIBs—called "carriers"—are probably large.

Recently, more interest has been focused on at least one small molecule, a chain made from three carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms (C3H2). This was tentatively identified with a pattern of DIBs.

On the list of DIB-related suspects, all molecules have one thing in common: they are organic, which means they are built largely from carbon. Carbon is great for building large numbers of molecules because it is available almost  everywhere. In space, only hydrogen, helium and oxygen are more plentiful. Here on Earth, we find carbon in the planet's crust, the oceans, the atmosphere and all forms of life.
Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Mechanical Overlords: AI Robots are Infiltrating Insect, Fish and Bird Communities and Take Control

Mechanical Overlords: AI Robots are Infiltrating Insect, Fish and Bird Communities and Take Control | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

Several years ago, a group of American cockroaches discovered four strangers in their midst. A brief investigation revealed that the interlopers smelled like cockroaches, and so they were welcomed into the cockroach community. The newcomers weren’t content to just sit on the sidelines, however. Instead, they began to actively shape the group’s behavior. Nocturnal creatures, cockroaches normally avoid light. But when the intruders headed for a brighter shelter, the rest of the roaches followed.


What the cockroaches didn’t seem to realize was that their new, light-loving leaders weren’t fellow insects at all. They were tiny mobile robots, doused in cockroach pheromones and programmed to trick the living critters into following their lead. The demonstration, dubbed the LEURRE project and conducted by a team of European researchers, validated a radical idea—that robots and animals could be merged into a “biohybrid” society, with biological and technological organisms forming a cohesive unit.


A handful of scientists have now built robots that can socially integrate into animal communities. Their goal is to create machines that not only infiltrate animal groups but also influence them, changing how fish swim, birds fly, and bees care for their young. If the research reaches the real world, we may one day use robots to manage livestock, control pests, and protect and preserve wildlife. So, dear furry and feathered friends, creepy and crawly creatures of the world: Prepare for a robo-takeover.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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New search engine in development

New search engine in development | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

A new type of search engine is being developed by a team of European researchers. What is different about this Internet search tool is that it draws its results from sensors such as cameras and microphones distributed around the world.
The new search engine is to be called SMART, which is an acronym for “Search engine for MultimediA Environment geneRated content”. The idea, according to Cordis, is that Internet users will be able to search and analyze data from sensors distributed around the planet.
The way the system will work is that will answer search queries by identifying cameras, microphones and other sensors that can contribute to the query. This information will then be matched to data from other social networks. The idea is that if a user was to type in, for example, “how busy is the city center?”, then the search engine will be able to draw upon sensors located in the city center to provide the answers.

Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/article/332287#ixzz25veHBAtz


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The network of the future, beyond theory | EU Info Society News

The network of the future, beyond theory | EU Info Society News | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

Nearly a decade ago, as the internet began to morph from a web of information into a web of connected people and things, European researchers saw not only theoretical possibilities but a chance to reinvent the network of the future. The results of this 'big thinking' can now be seen, as European designs and ideas are shaping networking environments, making them more efficient, robust and dare it be said … 'future proof'. Experts predict the future networked society will be the result of a merger of the physical and digital worlds, thanks to the explosive growth of wireless sensor networks in everything from vehicles to raincoats.

Objects will be able to identify and locate each other, and 'chat amongst themselves', through advanced radio interfaces. Self-organised 'edge networks' - providing enhanced data rates for mobile and smart telephones - will become more common. People will be able to borrow bandwidth or piggyback on 'sharer' networks if they find themselves out of coverage.

The fixed networking environments and relationships that define today's infrastructure will evolve into ad-hoc relationships with greater flexibility and autonomy to meet the needs and budgets of users on the go.

Much of this fancy-sounding functionality is already available, or in the pipeline, thanks to developments in late-generation smart phones and networks. But technologists are not resting on their laurels.

This fast-evolving networking environment requires forward-looking research and governance policies, and may involve whole new principles and methods to design, develop, control and manage future multi-technology architectures. Dealing with the diversity of these scientific and socio-economic challenges calls for an integrated, end-to-end approach. This is where the EU-funded project 'Anticipating the network of the future - from theory to design' (EURO-NF) stepped in.

 

Click headline to read more--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
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Top scientists criticise move to axe scientific adviser to European Commission

Top scientists criticise move to axe scientific adviser to European Commission | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
From BioPortfolio: Leading scientists are opposing a controversial call to scrap the top scientific advisory post of the European Commission, warning of an attempt to undermine it...
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European scientists call for measures to control drug resistance

A group of European scientists have warned against under-estimating the growing resistance to antibiotics, saying it poses a great health hazard to humans. T...
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The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines.

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Traditional medicine offers a “revolution” in Tanzanian healthcare

Traditional medicine offers a “revolution” in Tanzanian healthcare | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

While other semi-industrialised countries, like India or Brazil, are pinning considerable hope for their economic futures on their booming generic (unbranded) pharmaceutical industries, a different option is about to be explored in one part of Africa. Tanzania’s National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR) recently announced that several unique remedies based on traditional herbal medicines are about to enter the approvals system – and could be in mass production within 6 months.

The Tanzanian programme superficially appears most similar to the ‘phytopharmaceutical’ method of herbal medicine production, which emerged from Germany 50 or more years ago. At this stage, we do not know whether the new Tanzanian herbal remedies are based on purified extracts of herbs, as is the case with phytopharmaceuticals, or on whole-herb material. What we do know is that 11 years of research by NIMR, beginning in 2000, has resulted in a range of ‘modernised’ traditional medicines, all based on indigenous Tanzanian herbs and available in various formulations: from Persican for control of diabetes and cholesterol, to Warburgistat for opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients and TMS 2001 for malaria and fever. (Names may change before the products come to market.)


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'The worst case of scientific censorship since the Catholic Church banned the works of Galileo': Scientists call for drugs to be legalised to allow proper study of their properties

'The worst case of scientific censorship since the Catholic Church banned the works of Galileo': Scientists call for drugs to be legalised to allow proper study of their properties | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The outlawing of drugs such as cannabis, MDMA and LSD amounts to the “the worst case of scientific censorship since the Catholic Church banned the works of Copernicus and Galileo”, the former Government drugs advisor Professor David Nutt has claimed.

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Restrictive drug laws censor science and hamper research, scientists say

Restrictive drug laws censor science and hamper research, scientists say | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
By Kate Kelland LONDON (Reuters) – The outlawing of drugs such as cannabis, magic mushrooms and other psychoactive substances amounts to scientific censorship and is hampering research into potentially important medicinal uses, leading scientists...
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Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research Comments on the Approval of the TPD

Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research Comments on the Approval of the TPD | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
After the TPD was approved SIRUS and their head of research, Karl Erik Lund, received a lot of requests for comments on this. Not very surprising as SIRUS has been one of the biggest supporters and advocates for e-cigarettes here in Norway. Due to the amount of requests, Karl Erik Lund and SIRUS chose to write a public response on the Norwegian Union of Vapers' (Norsk Dampselskap) Facebook page.

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EU Commission "Deliberately" Misunderstands Scientists - ECF InfoZone

EU Commission "Deliberately" Misunderstands Scientists - ECF InfoZone | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

The reply that scientists received from the EU Commission, in response to their critique of the proposed Tobacco Products Directive (TPD), did not address the concerns they had raised, and included factual errors and unsupported assertions. In no way was it an adequate reply to the important questions facing the regulatory authorities of the European Union. The scientists have replied to the letter with another critique, not only reasserting their claims, but also responding to the incorrect implication that they are in the pay of e-cig companies.

 

On January 17, a group of 15 scientists, from several EU and non-EU countries, whose work is in the field of electronic cigarettes, sent a letter jointly to the EU commission (later published in the journal New Scientist, pointing out the mistakes in the impending legislation described in the proposed TPD.


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Social Media Lie Detector Sorts Fact from Rumor : DNews

Social Media Lie Detector Sorts Fact from Rumor : DNews | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
European scientists are developing a system that can debunk online rumors and weed out misinformation. Continue reading →

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15 Scientists See E-Cig Advantages & Question Bans!

15 Scientists See E-Cig Advantages & Question Bans! | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

Fifteen scientists have claimed in an open letter to the European Parliament, European Commission and Council of Ministers that the members who drafted the regulations have misinterpreted the scientific findings of their research into electronic cigarettes.

 

The scientists blasted the proposed regulations which they claim could have disastrous ramifications for the industry and vapers throughout the continent. The letter reads: “If wisely regulated, e-cigarettes have the potential to make cigarettes obsolete and save millions of lives worldwide. Excessive regulation, on the contrary, will [perpetuate] the existing levels of smoking related disease, death and health care costs.”


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Researchers create cloud-based brain for robots

Researchers create cloud-based brain for robots | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

A group of European researchers has released the first version of a cloud computing platform for robots that will help them take advantage of powerful virtual resources. Essentially, they’re treating robots like any other device — desktop, tablet or mobile phone — running web applications, only robots can learn from each other and can do a lot more than just update screen displays.
The project, carried out by a team at ETH Zurich, is called RoboEarth and its linchpin is a cloud software platform called Rapyuta. The way it works is pretty simple at a high level: robots communicate with a cloud-based application platform that carries out computation tasks and connects to a cloud database full of information such as maps, images, language, as well as to other web services. The robots themselves are pretty much hardware terminals equipped with sensors and moving parts but limited on-board processing power or data storage.


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Shaun Dewar's curator insight, March 21, 2013 1:46 AM

Robots have been speculated to be the furure for many years now, this artcle informs us that a cloud has been created for robots. The robots are planned to be treated just like any device we use today eg. mobile phones. Robots will certainly be part of the future just a matter of when.

Filocity's curator insight, April 6, 2013 7:50 PM

Nothing to do with document scanning but interesting

 

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Breakthrough imaging technique depicts breast tumors in 3D with great clarity and reduced radiation

Breakthrough imaging technique depicts breast tumors in 3D with great clarity and reduced radiation | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Like cleaning the lenses of a foggy pair of glasses, scientists are now able to use a technique developed by UCLA researchers and their European colleagues to produce three-dimensional images of breast tissue that are two to three times sharper than those made using current CT scanners at hospitals. The technique also uses a lower dose of X-ray radiation than a mammogram.

 

These higher-quality images could allow breast tumors to be detected earlier and with much greater accuracy. One in eight women in the United States will be diagnosed with breast cancer during her lifetime. The most common breast cancer screening method used today is called dual-view digital mammography, but it isn't always successful in identifying tumors, said Jianwei (John) Miao, a UCLA professor of physics and astronomy and researcher with the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA.

 

Recognizing these limitations, the scientists went in a new direction. In collaboration with the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France and Germany's Ludwig Maximilians University, Miao's international colleagues used a special detection method known as phase contrast tomography to X-ray a human breast from multiple angles. They then applied equally sloped tomography, or EST — a breakthrough computing algorithm developed by Miao's UCLA team that enables high-quality image-reconstruction — to 512 of these images to produce 3D images of the breast at a higher resolution than ever before. The process required less radiation than a mammogram.

 

http://tinyurl.com/8e55vpt


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How you and I could become nodes in the internet of things | GigaOM Tech News

How you and I could become nodes in the internet of things | GigaOM Tech News | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

 

Ever wonder what the network infrastructure of the future will be? Try looking in the mirror.

 

Some day our bodies — or at least the clothing or accessories that adorn them — could become key network nodes in the internet of things. European researchers think that sensors and transmitters on our bodies can be used to form cooperative ad hoc networks that could be used for group indoor navigation, crowd-motion capture, health monitoring on a massive scale and especially collaborative communications. Last week, French institute CEA-Leti and three French universities have launched the Cormoran project, which aims to explore the use of such cooperative interpersonal networks.

 

The concept of wireless body area networks (WBANs) isn’t a new one. WBANs could be used to sever the cord between patients and their monitoring equipment. Companies like Apple and Heapslylon are exploring the possibility of connected clothes with embedded sensors. We’ve already begun embracing a new era of wearables, such as Google Glass to Fitbit (see disclosure), designed to become extensions of our senses and movements.

 

All of these devices will become key end-points in the internet of things, but what Cormoran proposes to make them pull double duty. Rather than just remain terminuses, they could route bits to and relay data from each other, becoming a distributed ad hoc network that constantly morphs as we move through physical space.

 

Click headline to read more--


Via Chuck Sherwood, Senior Associate, TeleDimensions, Inc
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Drones Could Be Used to Find Missing Persons After Natural Disasters

Drones Could Be Used to Find Missing Persons After Natural Disasters | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Researchers at a European university are testing a new way to find victims who may be buried underneath thousands of pounds of rubble. They employed drones to sniff out the data packets emitted by mobile phones.
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Indigenous peoples at forefront of climate change offer lessons on plant biodiversity

Indigenous peoples at forefront of climate change offer lessons on plant biodiversity | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

Humans are frequently blamed for deforestation and the destruction of environments, yet there are also examples of peoples and cultures around the world that have learned to manage and conserve the precious resources around them. The Yanesha of the upper Peruvian Amazon and the Tibetans of the Himalayas are two groups of indigenous peoples carrying on traditional ways of life, even in the face of rapid environmental changes. Over the last 40 years, Dr. Jan Salick, senior curator and ethnobotanist with the William L. Brown Center of the Missouri Botanical Garden has worked with these two cultures.

 

She explains how their traditional knowledge and practices hold the key to conserving, managing and even creating new biodiversity in a paper released in the new text, "Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability," published by Cambridge University Press.

 

The Yanesha and Tibetans are dramatically different peoples living in radically dissimilar environments, but both cultures utilize and highly value plant biodiversity for their food, shelters, clothing and medicines.

 

"Both cultures use traditional knowledge to create, manage and conserve this biodiversity, and both are learning to adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change," said Salick. "They have much to teach and to offer the world if we can successfully learn to integrate science and traditional knowledge.


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Environment change threatens indigenous traditional knowledge

Environment change threatens indigenous traditional knowledge | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The way indigenous cultures around the globe use traditional medicines and pass on knowledge developed over centuries is directly linked to the natural environment, new research has found.

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Australian News - Traditional Indian medicines seized in Australia

Australian News - Traditional Indian medicines seized in Australia | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Australian health authorities raided Indian grocery stores in Sydney, seizing traditional medicines they fear may cause lead poisoning.
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Scientists decry ‘the worst case of scientific censorship since the church banned Copernicus’

Scientists decry ‘the worst case of scientific censorship since the church banned Copernicus’ | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
By Kate Kelland LONDON (Reuters) – The outlawing of drugs such as cannabis, magic mushrooms and other psychoactive substances amounts to scientific censorship and is hampering research into potentially important medicinal uses, leading scientists...

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Outlawing drugs like marijuana censors science, researchers say - Fox News

The Guardian Outlawing drugs like marijuana censors science, researchers say Fox News The outlawing of drugs such as cannabis, magic mushrooms and other psychoactive substances amounts to scientific censorship and is hampering research into...

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