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Collaborative Models and Shared Knowledge. Networks, Creativity and Interculturality | HERMAN BASHIRON MENDOLICCHIO « Interartive | Contemporary Art + Thought

The growing interest in the collaborative models, participatory practices, and sociological aspects of networks is linked to and forms part of a broader global process of cultural, social and economic change.

Beyond its participatory, interconnected aesthetics, the collaborative model of networks is also taking hold thanks to the current economic crisis – or reassessment or reformulation – and the resulting systemic restructuring of our lives. Sharing has become a means of saving, of redistribution, of intelligent and sustainable exploration and exploitation of resources, materials, relationships and knowledge.

Although the network-system – and its evolution – is obviously linked to various technological aspects, talking about networks today does not just mean focusing on the technical and communicational elements that form them. Rather, it means talking about people, about individuals and collectives, about building human relationships, and about the economic, political, social and cultural ties that bind us.

We are making social and communicational headway towards an open, plural, shared model thanks to the enormous opportunities for forging relationships and making contacts (professional, personal, etc.), instantly and conveniently, through the Internet and its many online tools.

“Being connected” seems to have become the most essential universal condition on the planet. As the academic Juan Martín Prada argues, “Clearly, in our societies, being almost constantly connected and belonging to social media and platforms is ceasing to be an option and becoming an imperative, a prerequisite for non-exclusion” [1].

The dilemma of whether virtual participation in networks leads to real inclusion, or, on the contrary, to social exclusion; the matter of whether we are actually seeing the rise of plurality or a profound and unfathomable panorama of individualities; the question of the effects of new means of communication on identity and being in the digital era, and other similar issues may still require some time and distance before they can be formulated and analysed correctly. In any event, there are certainly many answers, and we will always encounter both enthusiasts and naysayers, technophiles and technophobes, when these matters are discussed.

The French philosopher and sociologist Gilles Lipovetsky has written that the individual “seems to be more and more opened up and mobile, fluid and socially independent. But this volatility signifies much more a destabilisation of the self than a triumphant affirmation of a subject endowed with self-mastery” [2].

The position of strength and/or weakness of an individual in contemporary society, the specificity of the “connected individual” and his actual or supposed freedom to access or communicate through the Internet, are matters that remain unresolved and must be taken into account in any research process into the links between culture, society, and information and communication technologies.

The sometimes invisible codes that predetermine online communications, and the enormous influence of corporations, multinationals and the devices of capitalism in the construction of new social models are other fundamental aspects to take into account. As Prada says, “although the expansion of connectivity has enormously increased the possibilities for communication and contact, these possibilities are also being conditioned by a handful of models and patterns of intervention designed and managed by an ever-shrinking number of companies. This is why many people argue that the whole thing has shaped a techno-social order defined by the generation of a strong dependence on the new technological systems and devices, and by communication inflation processes expressed through predesigned forms of social and emotional interaction” [3].

Nonetheless, while recognising and bearing in mind the requisite questions and controversies that can help us to understand and challenge the changes affecting identity and the individual in the digital age, it remains clear that ICTs, the Internet and the myriad contemporary digital tools have opened up an enormous world of new possibilities. New forms of creativity, new interests, new cultural knowledge and exchanges, and new collaborative and interactive practices are part of a horizontal, universal landscape linked to cyberculture, which is generating ever greater amounts of new shared knowledge. As the researcher Margarita Rodríguez Ibañez writes, “The emergence of the Web as a space of intercultural synergy is closely linked to the concept of cyberculture, in as far the new cybernetic space does not just offer new cultural interests, but also the capacity to connect users with disciplines that they may not have been actively interested in, but that they can become connected to when new links are formed, thus creating a more extensive and participatory culture. Cyberspace interconnects different types of thought, uniting people whose only ‘binding’ element is some shared interest, building a cumulative force of knowledge for humanity” [4].

As this new arena for action expands, it triggers a radical paradigm shift that affects the forms, practices and essence of knowledge, and also stimulates interculturality, promotes participatory creation – or co-creation – that favours knowledge sharing and dissemination, and promotes new models of collaboration. As Jesús Martín-Barbero writes, “Digital convergence brought about a radical change in the communication model in cultural politics, in as far as we have shifted from the one-way, linear, authoritarian ‘information transmission’ paradigm to the ‘network’ model, in other words, to the model of interaction and connectivity that replaces the mechanical form of remote communication with that of the electronic proximity interface. A new paradigm that generates policies that favour the synergy among many small projects over the complex structure of big, unwieldy technological and management systems” [5].

In the field of culture and contemporary artistic practices, it is interesting to identify and analyse the proliferation of cases and projects that appear to be both innovative and original.

The impact of new technological applications and tools, the curiosity that they have always aroused and unleashed in the imagination of artists, and their potentially infinite scope in the creative process, have driven and continue to drive artists and diverse culture professionals to explore and learn the capacities and functions of these new devices. The use of new media is more a need than a goal: the need to broaden horizons and to release the full force of the creative imagination through all possible tools.

Experimentation at the intersections between new technologies, new media and art – like the radio experiments of members of the futurist avant-garde – have proliferated in recent decades, to the point that artistic creativity has embraced all the typical elements of communication. As the Italian art critic Germano Celant explains, in the 20th Century, “the dominant force of emergent technologies – such as photography and radio, telephone and gramophone, recording devices and television, cinema and the computer – has found its own ‘natural’ tempo, allowing such media to coexist and intertwine without difficulty. In fact, what all the historic avant-gardes, from Futurism to Surrealism, considered the future – that is, the ‘de-codification’ of the imaginary as a result of the collapse of the limits and boundaries between art and technology – has become an established, recognised system. The realm of art, or better still, of creativity, can include all communicative and discursive elements” [6].

The production of collective artworks, performances and artistic actions has certainly been reenergized and renewed thanks to the power of digital tools to convene, express and disseminate. The video Pose Nº5 by the artist Yolanda Domínguez is part of this space of creative action, for example. It arises from reflections about the power of collective action, and encompasses the critical and social participation aspects of art as well as its aesthetic dimension. The artist describes the project as a video of a collective action “in which anonymous women from around the world imitate the pose of Chanel’s 2013 campaign to highlight how ridiculous, artificial and contemptuous the image of women too often is in the fashion industry”[7]. As well as its main criticism of the world of fashion and the way it churns out dubious representations, the video also defends collaborative creation as a very appealing and successful model: “I sincerely believe that there is something much more interesting in the success of the connected community than in their individual success, in the scope of a project when it transcends the creator’s proposal” [8].

Art is strengthening its links to information and communication, particularly when it comes to social and political critique; ethics and aesthetics merge, often in the course of an artistic research project. Art has become a hybrid, unlimited field that can interact with many different spheres. As Jesús Martín-Barbero says, “The convergence between traditional and new services that is introduced by virtual networks must be accepted as a challenge that is both about education and citizenship, given that what is at stake is the strategic links between information, creative interaction and social participation” [9].

The collaborative models that form part of so many artistic creations expand into and are reproduced in the most diverse fields of culture and other disciplines of humanistic and scientific knowledge. An interesting research project in the field of curatorial practices is #OpenCurating by the curatorial team Latitudes. Based on a reflection on Web 2.0, on “open journalism” practices, and on the demand for participation and transparency in today’s political, social and cultural spheres, “#OpenCurating investigates how contemporary art projects can function beyond the traditional format of exhibition-and-catalogue in ways which might be more fully knitted into the web of information which exists in the world today. #OpenCurating is concerned with new forms of interaction between publics – whether online followers or physical visitors – with artworks and their production, display and discursive context” [10]. Through a series of conversational strategies (a Twitter discussion, a set of ten interviews and an open event discussion) the Latitudes team set out to examine new behaviours in art and communication, through the model of shared production and flow of knowledge.

Another example from the curatorial field that explores online collaborative models is the “Expanded Exhibition” project [11] organised by a group of cultural bloggers who used their constant presence on social media and their familiarity with the languages of online communication and contemporary art to transform their virtual spaces into an experimental collective curating project. A clear example of a collaborative model that uses digital tools and networks to create and convey shared knowledge.

The allure of networks and the fascination with the smooth flow of knowledge and with new collaborative models, has also had a strong impact on the world of contemporary art fairs. A recent and already quite well known example is the ARCO bloggers project organised by ARCOmadrid from 2013, which will be designed by different industry professionals each year. In 2014, the project will be directed by Martí Manen under the title ARCO(e)ditorial, and will reflect on “what it means to work with text, images and movement from the net in relation to contemporary art” [12].

There are also many projects from the museum, academia and research fields that explore issues such as innovation in culture, new forms of networked knowledge, and the different connections and synergies between disciplines and forms of knowledge. In the context of the city of Barcelona, some of these projects include the CCCB Lab [13]; the “New Frontiers of Science, Art and Thought” seminars that, in their last stage, were coordinated by the former Science department at Arts Santa Mònica, directed by Josep Perelló; and the Open Systems. Artistic Experimentation and Scientific Creativity project co-organised by MACBA, the Institute of Education at Barcelona City Council and the University of Barcelona, which is targeted at teachers, students, artists and scientists and aims to discover and collaborate in activities that entail the hybridisation and convergence of artistic and scientific practices [14].

The examples outlined here reveal a constantly changing scene. The artistic creation and curatorial fields, museums, public institutions, private entities, and so on, are increasingly adopting collaborative and participatory models that are capable of arousing new interests, disseminating new types of shared knowledge, and opening up new doors and new creative and professional opportunities. As Jesús Martín-Barbero says, “Digital networks are not just spaces for the conservation and dissemination of cultural and artistic heritage, but also a space for experimentation and aesthetic creation” [15].

The study of networks and their intercultural and interdisciplinary scope, the exploration of collaborative and participatory models, and the formulation and flow of shared knowledge, are a fascinating challenge that does not just encompass the fields of communication, art and culture, but the composition and structure of knowledge as a whole.

.

NOTES:

.

[1] PRADA, Juan Martín. Prácticas Artísticas e Internet en la Época de las Redes Sociales. Ediciones Akal. Madrid, 2012. P. 25-26.

[2] LIPOVETSKY, Gilles. Los tiempos hipermodernos. Editorial Anagrama. Barcelona, 2006. P. 88.

[3] PRADA, Juan Martín, op. cit., pág. 26.

[4] RODRÍGUEZ IBÁÑEZ, Margarita. Cómo la Red ha cambiado el arte. Ediciones Trea. Gijón, 2012. P. 75.

[5] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús. “Convergencia digital y diversidad cultural”, in: DE MORAES, Dênis (ed.), Mutaciones de lo Visible. Comunicación y procesos culturales en la era digital. Paidós. Buenos Aires, 2010. P. 153-154.

[6] Free translation into English. Original text in Italian: “La forza dominante di tecniche emergenti, nel corso del ventesimo secolo, come la fotografia e la radio, il telefono e il grammofono, il registratore e la televisione, il cinema e il computer, trova oggi un suo tempo “naturale” che le fa convivere e intrecciarsi senza alcun problema. Di fatto quanto era considerato dalle avanguardie storiche, dal futurismo al surrealismo, il futuro, cioè la “decodificazione” del territorio dell’immaginario, risultato della caduta di tutti i limiti e I confini, tra le arti e le tecniche, è diventato nel ventunesimo secolo un sistema affermato e riconosciuto. Nel “corpo” dell’arte, o meglio della creatività, possono entrare tutti gli elementi comunicativi e discorsivi”. CELANT, Germano. Artmix. Flussi tra arte, architettura, cinema, design, moda, musica e televisione. Feltrinelli. Milano, 2008. P. 6.

[7] Yolanda Domínguez, Pose Nº5, 2013. Available online at: http://www.yolandadominguez.com/es/pose-n-5-2013.html [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[8] Ibidem.

[9] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús, op. cit., p. 159.

[10] Researchers: ‘#OpenCurating’, BCN Producció 2012, Barcelona, June 2012–April 2013. Available online at: http://www.lttds.org/projects/opencurating/ [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[11] Available online at: http://laexposicionexpandida.net [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[12] Available online at: http://arcobloggers.com [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[13] Available online at: http://blogs.cccb.org/lab/es [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[14] Available online at: http://sistemesoberts.wordpress.com [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[15] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús, op. cit., p. 160.

.

*  This article was previously published in: VV.AA. Innovaciones Artísticas y Nuevos Medios: Conservación, Redes y Tecnociencia. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona, 2013. ISBN: 978-84-695-9407-0

.

- See more at: http://interartive.org/2014/09/collaborative-models-hbm/#sthash.mYbEvo2S.dpuf


Via Charles Tiayon
more...
Charles Tiayon's curator insight, September 29, 10:30 PM

The growing interest in the collaborative models, participatory practices, and sociological aspects of networks is linked to and forms part of a broader global process of cultural, social and economic change.

Beyond its participatory, interconnected aesthetics, the collaborative model of networks is also taking hold thanks to the current economic crisis – or reassessment or reformulation – and the resulting systemic restructuring of our lives. Sharing has become a means of saving, of redistribution, of intelligent and sustainable exploration and exploitation of resources, materials, relationships and knowledge.

Although the network-system – and its evolution – is obviously linked to various technological aspects, talking about networks today does not just mean focusing on the technical and communicational elements that form them. Rather, it means talking about people, about individuals and collectives, about building human relationships, and about the economic, political, social and cultural ties that bind us.

We are making social and communicational headway towards an open, plural, shared model thanks to the enormous opportunities for forging relationships and making contacts (professional, personal, etc.), instantly and conveniently, through the Internet and its many online tools.

“Being connected” seems to have become the most essential universal condition on the planet. As the academic Juan Martín Prada argues, “Clearly, in our societies, being almost constantly connected and belonging to social media and platforms is ceasing to be an option and becoming an imperative, a prerequisite for non-exclusion” [1].

The dilemma of whether virtual participation in networks leads to real inclusion, or, on the contrary, to social exclusion; the matter of whether we are actually seeing the rise of plurality or a profound and unfathomable panorama of individualities; the question of the effects of new means of communication on identity and being in the digital era, and other similar issues may still require some time and distance before they can be formulated and analysed correctly. In any event, there are certainly many answers, and we will always encounter both enthusiasts and naysayers, technophiles and technophobes, when these matters are discussed.

The French philosopher and sociologist Gilles Lipovetsky has written that the individual “seems to be more and more opened up and mobile, fluid and socially independent. But this volatility signifies much more a destabilisation of the self than a triumphant affirmation of a subject endowed with self-mastery” [2].

The position of strength and/or weakness of an individual in contemporary society, the specificity of the “connected individual” and his actual or supposed freedom to access or communicate through the Internet, are matters that remain unresolved and must be taken into account in any research process into the links between culture, society, and information and communication technologies.

The sometimes invisible codes that predetermine online communications, and the enormous influence of corporations, multinationals and the devices of capitalism in the construction of new social models are other fundamental aspects to take into account. As Prada says, “although the expansion of connectivity has enormously increased the possibilities for communication and contact, these possibilities are also being conditioned by a handful of models and patterns of intervention designed and managed by an ever-shrinking number of companies. This is why many people argue that the whole thing has shaped a techno-social order defined by the generation of a strong dependence on the new technological systems and devices, and by communication inflation processes expressed through predesigned forms of social and emotional interaction” [3].

Nonetheless, while recognising and bearing in mind the requisite questions and controversies that can help us to understand and challenge the changes affecting identity and the individual in the digital age, it remains clear that ICTs, the Internet and the myriad contemporary digital tools have opened up an enormous world of new possibilities. New forms of creativity, new interests, new cultural knowledge and exchanges, and new collaborative and interactive practices are part of a horizontal, universal landscape linked to cyberculture, which is generating ever greater amounts of new shared knowledge. As the researcher Margarita Rodríguez Ibañez writes, “The emergence of the Web as a space of intercultural synergy is closely linked to the concept of cyberculture, in as far the new cybernetic space does not just offer new cultural interests, but also the capacity to connect users with disciplines that they may not have been actively interested in, but that they can become connected to when new links are formed, thus creating a more extensive and participatory culture. Cyberspace interconnects different types of thought, uniting people whose only ‘binding’ element is some shared interest, building a cumulative force of knowledge for humanity” [4].

As this new arena for action expands, it triggers a radical paradigm shift that affects the forms, practices and essence of knowledge, and also stimulates interculturality, promotes participatory creation – or co-creation – that favours knowledge sharing and dissemination, and promotes new models of collaboration. As Jesús Martín-Barbero writes, “Digital convergence brought about a radical change in the communication model in cultural politics, in as far as we have shifted from the one-way, linear, authoritarian ‘information transmission’ paradigm to the ‘network’ model, in other words, to the model of interaction and connectivity that replaces the mechanical form of remote communication with that of the electronic proximity interface. A new paradigm that generates policies that favour the synergy among many small projects over the complex structure of big, unwieldy technological and management systems” [5].

In the field of culture and contemporary artistic practices, it is interesting to identify and analyse the proliferation of cases and projects that appear to be both innovative and original.

The impact of new technological applications and tools, the curiosity that they have always aroused and unleashed in the imagination of artists, and their potentially infinite scope in the creative process, have driven and continue to drive artists and diverse culture professionals to explore and learn the capacities and functions of these new devices. The use of new media is more a need than a goal: the need to broaden horizons and to release the full force of the creative imagination through all possible tools.

Experimentation at the intersections between new technologies, new media and art – like the radio experiments of members of the futurist avant-garde – have proliferated in recent decades, to the point that artistic creativity has embraced all the typical elements of communication. As the Italian art critic Germano Celant explains, in the 20th Century, “the dominant force of emergent technologies – such as photography and radio, telephone and gramophone, recording devices and television, cinema and the computer – has found its own ‘natural’ tempo, allowing such media to coexist and intertwine without difficulty. In fact, what all the historic avant-gardes, from Futurism to Surrealism, considered the future – that is, the ‘de-codification’ of the imaginary as a result of the collapse of the limits and boundaries between art and technology – has become an established, recognised system. The realm of art, or better still, of creativity, can include all communicative and discursive elements” [6].

The production of collective artworks, performances and artistic actions has certainly been reenergized and renewed thanks to the power of digital tools to convene, express and disseminate. The video Pose Nº5 by the artist Yolanda Domínguez is part of this space of creative action, for example. It arises from reflections about the power of collective action, and encompasses the critical and social participation aspects of art as well as its aesthetic dimension. The artist describes the project as a video of a collective action “in which anonymous women from around the world imitate the pose of Chanel’s 2013 campaign to highlight how ridiculous, artificial and contemptuous the image of women too often is in the fashion industry”[7]. As well as its main criticism of the world of fashion and the way it churns out dubious representations, the video also defends collaborative creation as a very appealing and successful model: “I sincerely believe that there is something much more interesting in the success of the connected community than in their individual success, in the scope of a project when it transcends the creator’s proposal” [8].

Art is strengthening its links to information and communication, particularly when it comes to social and political critique; ethics and aesthetics merge, often in the course of an artistic research project. Art has become a hybrid, unlimited field that can interact with many different spheres. As Jesús Martín-Barbero says, “The convergence between traditional and new services that is introduced by virtual networks must be accepted as a challenge that is both about education and citizenship, given that what is at stake is the strategic links between information, creative interaction and social participation” [9].

The collaborative models that form part of so many artistic creations expand into and are reproduced in the most diverse fields of culture and other disciplines of humanistic and scientific knowledge. An interesting research project in the field of curatorial practices is #OpenCurating by the curatorial team Latitudes. Based on a reflection on Web 2.0, on “open journalism” practices, and on the demand for participation and transparency in today’s political, social and cultural spheres, “#OpenCurating investigates how contemporary art projects can function beyond the traditional format of exhibition-and-catalogue in ways which might be more fully knitted into the web of information which exists in the world today. #OpenCurating is concerned with new forms of interaction between publics – whether online followers or physical visitors – with artworks and their production, display and discursive context” [10]. Through a series of conversational strategies (a Twitter discussion, a set of ten interviews and an open event discussion) the Latitudes team set out to examine new behaviours in art and communication, through the model of shared production and flow of knowledge.

Another example from the curatorial field that explores online collaborative models is the “Expanded Exhibition” project [11] organised by a group of cultural bloggers who used their constant presence on social media and their familiarity with the languages of online communication and contemporary art to transform their virtual spaces into an experimental collective curating project. A clear example of a collaborative model that uses digital tools and networks to create and convey shared knowledge.

The allure of networks and the fascination with the smooth flow of knowledge and with new collaborative models, has also had a strong impact on the world of contemporary art fairs. A recent and already quite well known example is the ARCO bloggers project organised by ARCOmadrid from 2013, which will be designed by different industry professionals each year. In 2014, the project will be directed by Martí Manen under the title ARCO(e)ditorial, and will reflect on “what it means to work with text, images and movement from the net in relation to contemporary art” [12].

There are also many projects from the museum, academia and research fields that explore issues such as innovation in culture, new forms of networked knowledge, and the different connections and synergies between disciplines and forms of knowledge. In the context of the city of Barcelona, some of these projects include the CCCB Lab [13]; the “New Frontiers of Science, Art and Thought” seminars that, in their last stage, were coordinated by the former Science department at Arts Santa Mònica, directed by Josep Perelló; and the Open Systems. Artistic Experimentation and Scientific Creativity project co-organised by MACBA, the Institute of Education at Barcelona City Council and the University of Barcelona, which is targeted at teachers, students, artists and scientists and aims to discover and collaborate in activities that entail the hybridisation and convergence of artistic and scientific practices [14].

The examples outlined here reveal a constantly changing scene. The artistic creation and curatorial fields, museums, public institutions, private entities, and so on, are increasingly adopting collaborative and participatory models that are capable of arousing new interests, disseminating new types of shared knowledge, and opening up new doors and new creative and professional opportunities. As Jesús Martín-Barbero says, “Digital networks are not just spaces for the conservation and dissemination of cultural and artistic heritage, but also a space for experimentation and aesthetic creation” [15].

The study of networks and their intercultural and interdisciplinary scope, the exploration of collaborative and participatory models, and the formulation and flow of shared knowledge, are a fascinating challenge that does not just encompass the fields of communication, art and culture, but the composition and structure of knowledge as a whole.

.

NOTES:

.

[1] PRADA, Juan Martín. Prácticas Artísticas e Internet en la Época de las Redes Sociales. Ediciones Akal. Madrid, 2012. P. 25-26.

[2] LIPOVETSKY, Gilles. Los tiempos hipermodernos. Editorial Anagrama. Barcelona, 2006. P. 88.

[3] PRADA, Juan Martín, op. cit., pág. 26.

[4] RODRÍGUEZ IBÁÑEZ, Margarita. Cómo la Red ha cambiado el arte. Ediciones Trea. Gijón, 2012. P. 75.

[5] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús. “Convergencia digital y diversidad cultural”, in: DE MORAES, Dênis (ed.), Mutaciones de lo Visible. Comunicación y procesos culturales en la era digital. Paidós. Buenos Aires, 2010. P. 153-154.

[6] Free translation into English. Original text in Italian: “La forza dominante di tecniche emergenti, nel corso del ventesimo secolo, come la fotografia e la radio, il telefono e il grammofono, il registratore e la televisione, il cinema e il computer, trova oggi un suo tempo “naturale” che le fa convivere e intrecciarsi senza alcun problema. Di fatto quanto era considerato dalle avanguardie storiche, dal futurismo al surrealismo, il futuro, cioè la “decodificazione” del territorio dell’immaginario, risultato della caduta di tutti i limiti e I confini, tra le arti e le tecniche, è diventato nel ventunesimo secolo un sistema affermato e riconosciuto. Nel “corpo” dell’arte, o meglio della creatività, possono entrare tutti gli elementi comunicativi e discorsivi”. CELANT, Germano. Artmix. Flussi tra arte, architettura, cinema, design, moda, musica e televisione. Feltrinelli. Milano, 2008. P. 6.

[7] Yolanda Domínguez, Pose Nº5, 2013. Available online at: http://www.yolandadominguez.com/es/pose-n-5-2013.html [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[8] Ibidem.

[9] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús, op. cit., p. 159.

[10] Researchers: ‘#OpenCurating’, BCN Producció 2012, Barcelona, June 2012–April 2013. Available online at: http://www.lttds.org/projects/opencurating/ [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[11] Available online at: http://laexposicionexpandida.net [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[12] Available online at: http://arcobloggers.com [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[13] Available online at: http://blogs.cccb.org/lab/es [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[14] Available online at: http://sistemesoberts.wordpress.com [Retrieved: 30 October 2013].

[15] MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús, op. cit., p. 160.

.

*  This article was previously published in: VV.AA. Innovaciones Artísticas y Nuevos Medios: Conservación, Redes y Tecnociencia. Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona, 2013. ISBN: 978-84-695-9407-0

.

- See more at: http://interartive.org/2014/09/collaborative-models-hbm/#sthash.mYbEvo2S.dpuf

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Social Network Analysis Shows Direct Evidence for Social Transmission of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees

Social Network Analysis Shows Direct Evidence for Social Transmission of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition—that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, “moss-sponging” and “leaf-sponge re-use,” in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most “cultural” of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

 


Via Ashish Umre
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Listen, act, and demonstrated learning for organizations

Listen, act, and demonstrated learning for organizations | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
In 2014 GlobalGiving made significant upgrades to their tools and training. Most of these improvements came directly out of the feedback organizations gave in their annual survey. They added web an...
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Listen, act, and demonstrated learning for organizations

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Skills Commission raises four 'alerts' on skills provision for UK workforce - Training Journal

Skills Commission raises four 'alerts' on skills provision for UK workforce - Training Journal | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Skills Commission raises four 'alerts' on skills provision for UK workforce
Training Journal
The Commission has warned that current policies and systems of skills provision are failing to meet the needs of the UK's changing workplace.
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5 Characteristics of an Innovative Organization | Connected Principals

5 Characteristics of an Innovative Organization | Connected Principals | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
We are a “learning organization” which, by the nature of the term alone, means that we are focused on continuous growth as a district. It is not only that we have leaders that model themselves as learners, but it is done as at ...
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Citation Machine: Format & Generate Citations – APA, MLA, & Chicago

Citation Machine: Format & Generate Citations – APA, MLA, & Chicago | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Citation Machine helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. Cite sources in APA, MLA, Chicago, or Turabian for free.
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APA, MLA, & Chicago

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Espionage Threatened the Manhattan Project, Declassified Report Says - New York Times

Espionage Threatened the Manhattan Project, Declassified Report Says - New York Times | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
New York Times
Espionage Threatened the Manhattan Project, Declassified Report Says
New York Times
A suspect was fatally shot when he sped past a roadblock at a covert military base.
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Evidence of plagiarism by Susan Dench: Here's why it matters - Bangor Daily News

Evidence of plagiarism by Susan Dench: Here's why it matters - Bangor Daily News | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Evidence of plagiarism by Susan Dench: Here's why it matters
Bangor Daily News
I found at least six plagiarized passages in her eight-paragraph essay, all from the same nine-paragraph source on FreeRepublic.com.
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Evidence of plagiarism by Susan Dench: Here's why it matters - Bangor Daily News

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Journalism Professor: 'Complete Confidence' Fareed Zakaria Is a Plagiarist - Breitbart News

Journalism Professor: 'Complete Confidence' Fareed Zakaria Is a Plagiarist - Breitbart News | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
TheWrap Journalism Professor: 'Complete Confidence' Fareed Zakaria Is a Plagiarist Breitbart News After CNN chief Jeff Zucker said he had "complete confidence" in CNN's Fareed Zakaria even after at least 24 instances of plagiarism on his Fareed...
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African development: The need for new approaches to economic growth - The Southern Times

African development: The need for new approaches to economic growth - The Southern Times | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
African development: The need for new approaches to economic growth
The Southern Times
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African development: The need for new approaches to economic growth - The Southern Times
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The Editor at Large > What is the future of library interiors?

The Editor at Large > What is the future of library interiors? | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

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How School Libraries Are Staying Relevant | Livability

How School Libraries Are Staying Relevant | Livability | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

“ Forget the Shhhhhhh. School libraries are making noise these days, inspiring lifelong learning with innovative programs, high technology – and fun. In the process, they are re-establishing themselves as vital centers for schools and ...”


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Value of School Libraries

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L2_S2S's curator insight, April 29, 7:19 AM
School Libraries are like Cheers - everybody knows your name!
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Designing Libraries - Designing a library for changing needs

Designing Libraries - Designing a library for changing needs | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

DeFacing declining visitors, the new town of Almere in the Netherlands redesigned its libraries based on the changing needs and desires of library users.


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Library Technology

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L2_S2S's comment, September 10, 12:47 AM
You're welcome Dean, It was too good to not share!
gwynethjones's curator insight, September 28, 1:09 PM

Cool beans.

Debra Evans's curator insight, September 28, 5:40 PM

This is excellent- and our iCentre has done the same type of thing. Libraries must be  designed for  this century of learners and learning.

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Tutorials on citation etc. | Information Literacy Weblog

Tutorials on citation etc. | Information Literacy Weblog | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it

As the new semester starts people have been sharing links to information literacy and citation guides.


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Skills Gap Remains A Concern Among Private Companies As Employment Outlook Creeps Up

Skills Gap Remains A Concern Among Private Companies As Employment Outlook Creeps Up | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Employers are definitely looking to hire, but their hiring will be restrained in two ways.
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Advancing Workplace Learning Summit Celebrates the 5th Annual Essential ... - Marketwired (press release)

Advancing Workplace Learning Summit Celebrates the 5th Annual Essential ... - Marketwired (press release) | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Advancing Workplace Learning Summit Celebrates the 5th Annual Essential ...
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THE ROLE OF EVALUATION IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION | KSTF

THE ROLE OF EVALUATION IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION | KSTF | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
This post highlights how ongoing evaluation plays a vital role in furthering the work of learning organizations, such as KSTF.
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THE ROLE OF EVALUATION IN A LEARNING ORGANIZATION | KSTF

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Academic journals should adopt nonprofit publishing model, expert says - Phys.Org

Academic journals should adopt nonprofit publishing model, expert says - Phys.Org | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Phys.Org
Academic journals should adopt nonprofit publishing model, expert says
Phys.Org
According to Don Fullerton, a finance professor and former deputy assistant secretary of the U.S.
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Academic journals should adopt nonprofit publishing model, expert says - Phys.Org

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Australian Book Industry Concerned At Proposed Shake-up - Booktrade.info

Australian Book Industry Concerned At Proposed Shake-up Booktrade.info The Australian publishing industry has pushed back against a proposal to remove restrictions that have long shielded local manufacturers and distributors yet limited access to...
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Paying police for information can be in public interest, Sun reporter tells jury - The Guardian

Paying police for information can be in public interest, Sun reporter tells jury - The Guardian | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
The Guardian
Paying police for information can be in public interest, Sun reporter tells jury
The Guardian
A Sun reporter has told a jury at the Old Bailey that there can be public interest in a public official selling information to journalists.
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U. of Arizona Reprimands Professor in Wake of Plagiarism Inquiry - Chronicle of Higher Education (subscription) (blog)

U. of Arizona Reprimands Professor in Wake of Plagiarism Inquiry - Chronicle of Higher Education (subscription) (blog) | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
U. of Arizona Reprimands Professor in Wake of Plagiarism Inquiry Chronicle of Higher Education (subscription) (blog) He wrote that the university had found that the professor's conduct had risen to the level of misconduct in the form of plagiarism...
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U. of Arizona Reprimands Professor in Wake of Plagiarism Inquiry - Chronicle of Higher Education (subscription) (blog)

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Video Production

Video Production | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
Do you enjoy video production? We have a spot just for you! Sign-up to help & be blessed! Click: http://t.co/nYwldIA26g
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Project-Based Learning vs. Problem-Based Learning vs. X-BL

Project-Based Learning vs. Problem-Based Learning vs. X-BL | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
In the first of two parts, guest blogger John Larmer of the Buck Institute for Education clears up any confusion on the difference between project-based learning, problem-based learning, and whatever-else-based learning.

 

Learn more:

 

http://www.scoop.it/t/21st-century-learning-and-teaching/?tag=PBL

 


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Mohmed Ali's curator insight, September 26, 2:53 AM
SOLUTIONS FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE AND COMMON GOOD ALLOVER THE WORLD. Kind attention to all Jewish,Christians,Muslims and all other communities in the world Holy Quran is containing of 6666 verses which are dedicated  to angles by God. Out of it 87% of verses are related to Histories of Prophets and Wars , Earthquakes, Floods and Famine which affected the people who were residing at the time of Prophets . Muslims in the world are reciting whole Quran verses  frequently in all the Muslim countries and countries wherein muslims  are residing . they are affecting by  wars , Disasters , Tsunami , Earthquakes , Climate changes , loss of business , terrorism and also creating other problems with other communities  on the reasons that 6666 Quranic verses are handled  by angles in the world in accordance with Quranic Verses 42:51,52 According to Quranic verses 39:17, 18  and 55 , It is revealed  that  whole quran verses cannot be recited except very important verses can be recited towards social justice and common good for the purpose of peace , unity , health , wealth , faith , inter-faith , climate changes , improving business and stopping off disasters and terrorism and accordingly we have posted messages of God and also our research paper at www.goldenduas.com for the same purpose in accordance with all the international laws as follows: Now, the people of Jewish and Christians are saying that Quran is False, which itself established enimity between Muslims and these two communities not to attain peace in the world that Muslim is the second largest population in the world and they are following Quran Versus in the world.                                             The above communities shall find out the Quran Versus 5:8, 5:33, 5:49, 5:72 and also Isaiah verse 27:6. In the Quran Versus 7:138 as follows:[7:138] And We caused the people who were considered weak to inherit the eastern parts of the land and the western parts thereof, which we blessed. And the gracious word of thy Lord was fulfilled for the children of Israel because they were steadfast; and We destroyed all that Pharaoh and his people had built and all that they had erected. Quran Verse- 7:168 - as follows:[7:168] And remember the time when thy Lord proclaimed that He would truly raise against them, till the Day of Resurrection, those who would afflict them with grievous torment. Surely, thy Lord is quick in retribution, and surely He is also Most Forgiving, Merciful. Zechariah Versus - 14.2 & 14.3 - as follows14:2                 For I will get all the nations together to make war against Jerusalem; and the town will be overcome, and the goods taken from the houses, and the women taken by force: and half the town will go away as prisoners, and the rest of the people will not be cut off from the town.14:3                 Then the Lord will go out and make war against those nations, as he did in the day of the fight. In the Quran Versus - 17:4 to 17:8 - as follows: [17:4] ‘O ye the progeny of those whom We carried in the Ark with Noah.’ He was indeed a grateful servant. [17:5] And We revealed to the children of Israel in the Book, saying, ‘You will surely do mischief in the land twice, and you will surely become excessively overbearing.’ [17:6] So when the time for the first of the two warnings came, We sent against you some servants of Ours possessed of great might in war, and they penetrated the innermost parts of your houses, and it was a warning that was bound to be carried out. [17:7] Then We gave you back the power against them, and aided you with wealth and children, and made you larger in numbers. [17:8] Now, if you do well, you will do well for your own souls; and if you do evil, it will only go against them. So when the time for the latter warning came, We raised a people against you to cover your faces with grief, and to enter the Mosque as they entered it the first time, and to destroy all that they conquered with utter destruction. In the above, versus of Zechariah and also Quran Versus which are similar in nature to solve social justice and common good between these communities. Please visit and view the messages and research paper posted at http://www.goldenduas.com in the interest of social justice and common good in the world and spread the same to each and every corner of the world for discussion and to attain peace and unity in the world.  Nowdays, all the governments in the world or collecting huge taxes from tax payers and the same are utilizing for the purpose of peace in the world, but no result. The tax payers are suffering to improve their business and life. The following points may be taken in account to solve all the world challenges and disbute.Proposal to the United Nations relating to International Peace and Security to authorize Under Article 96(2) of the Charter of the United Nations. Hello,Our research report  is in conformity with Under Article 1(1) and 7 of the Charter of United Nations and the same maybe authorized by the General Assembly of the United Nations  in accordance with U/A 96(2) of the present Charter and U/A 2(2), 5(1),6(2),11(2),13(1), 15(1) (a) (c), 16(2) (a),(b),& 18 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights on the basis of U/A 33(1), 55(c), 70, 71,73(a) of the present Charter and accordingly  the research paper ought to have been debated with Vatican, World Churches Council, Commission of Churches on International Affairs, Jewish Foundation, Islamic Supreme Councils , researchers of UN and all the International bodies for the following reasons:“Reporting of world peace solutions between Christians,Jews and Muslims in the worldWe are here with attached our research report towards international peace and security for perusal and considerationsSince we are the independent and voluntary  researchers with out dependency of finance either from the government or any other agency, on the reasons that we are following Social Justice and Common Goods - Policy Paper of World Council of Churches and also By-laws of the Commission of the Churches on international affairs. Our researchers mainly follow the principles and rules laid down by the above important policy and rules.Under Articles 2.4, 3.6, 3.10&11, 8.1(b) of the By-laws of the Commission of the Churches on international affairs, we have posted our research report in United Nations Global Compact which containing of solving of problems between Christians, Jews, Muslims and Hindus in the world. In accordance with Articles 3.12 of the above By-Laws, it is a duty of commission of Churches to maintain and provide for the maintenance of contacts with International bodies such as the United Nations and its agencies include regional bodies and other non governmental Organisations, which will assist in the attainment of the aims of the Commission. The matter has being brought it to the notice of the World Churches Council and the Commission of the Churches asked its notice on the matter to the United Nations for your appropriate decisions. ?The World Churches Council Policy Paper on Social Justice and Common Goods is the best policy to the World peace and unity solutions, which has been published on 22 March 2011 and the same is in accordance with Psalm 85. The Church cannot succeed if it, isolates itself, Not only must Christians reach out to Muslims and other faiths in the spirit of ecumenism, but there is a need to embrace other people of different philosophical convictions. This requires ideological tolerance, maturity and self assurance in what one believes in. Such coalition building is made easier by choosing issues that unite organizations and movements and which have less potential causing divisions. At the same time we need an honest and inventive method of dealing with differences. The global movement for economic justice relies considerably on policy analysis and research conducted by hundreds if not thousands of academics researchers and scholars. ?Our consequences of the changing power relations in today's world is that there is more room in the public sphere for the affirmation of collective values and principles, experience proves that an informed public opinion can be powerful today, and can change governments public and international agendas. Again Churches are challenged to make use of this opportunity. They need to read the signs of time and to make their voices heard by responding to peoples cries for justice and dignity, and by speaking truth to the powers- whoever and wherever their may be. ?Christians do not have ready made answers and solutions to propose. The Bible offers guidelines (love, sharing, justice for the poor) but does not defined one "Christian" economy or "Christian" politics. ?Churches and Church related organizations can initiate public debates and largely use media means to reach a broader constituency, furthermore, regional thematic discussions can be facilitated with the ecumenical family. WCC should develop specific analysis depending on the context. ?What are theological implications for commodification common goods? ?How shall we ensure the participation all people in managing common goods in the world? ?How do we deal with power imbalances in the world? ?How can the ecumenical family engage itself effectively and in a coherent and convincing way in addressing global power imbalance? ?How can WCC lead a climate change campaign with social justice as a focus? ?What kind of collective values can be draw for the Churches to guide them in addressing the problem of commodification of common goods? ?The above questions have been answered in our research materials available at http://www.goldenduas.com and alsohttp://www.facebook.com/research of international development solutions and the same are to be discussed by the Churches, public and all its organizations in the interest of public safety, peace, unity, health, wealth, faith, interfaith ?                 Under this circumstances, it is just and necessary that UK, USA, Cambridge, Churches on the International Affairs are requested to accept our research paper and also our research organization as an organization under other faith category to assist the commission to achieve its goal of International Peace and climate changes solutions for the benefit of world community especially Christians, Jewish and Muslims, under the by-law 3.11 of CCIA. In view of the aforementioned submissions in the interest of maintenance of International Peace and Security, UN may be pleased to authorize our organization in the name and style of` Research on International Development Solutions `and also our research report in confirmatory with U/A 96 of the present Charter read with U/A 23 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and thus render Justice.  Now, Palestine Muslims are fighting with Israel , both countries are affected and innocent people are killed frequently which is against the Quranic verses 7:137 & 5:33 that no one can claim Israel Government areas which is a place of Israel People but not Muslim or Christian and they can only Allow worship in the Holy Places of Israel . These facts has not been Discussed for amicable solutions of social justice and common good by United Nations to respect Gods word . It is pertinent to note that why the jewish people are affecting the Muslims is mention the Quran 7:167 ? And the same should be taken into consideration by jewish people in the world in the interest of social justice and common good on the light of the research paper posted  at our website www.goldenduas.com and render justice.  Your successU. Ibrahim Ali,Researcher International Development Solutions
Alfredo Corell's curator insight, September 28, 8:34 AM

Problem-Based Learning vs. Project-Based Learning

Because they have the same acronym, we get a lot of questions about the similarities and differences between the two PBLs.

Raquel Oliveira's curator insight, September 29, 2:48 PM

Excelente comparativo de PBL's para serem analisados diante de cada desafio de resultados de aprendizagem. #avancee

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Envisioning New Library Spaces | American Association of School Librarians (AASL)


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L2_S2S's curator insight, August 31, 11:47 PM

A great webinar, from the American Association of School Librarians, that focuses on important things to consider in school library design and redesign.

Strong connections to Ideo and d.School user centred design thinking, where the viewer is  encouraged "to move beyond imitation towards innovation, while using what we have".

 

 

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School library futures | Services to Schools

School library futures | Services to Schools | Research Capacity-Building in Africa | Scoop.it
School libraries support the learning and literacy outcomes of the students. School library services are totally integrated into the teaching and learning programme, aligned with the school’s goals for learners and delivered onsite and online.

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Libraries

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