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A new type of LED-powered streetlamp could radically reduce light pollution

A new type of LED-powered streetlamp could radically reduce light pollution | Research | Scoop.it

According to the researchers, conventional street lamps - which use high-pressure sodium or mercury vapour - scatter up to 20% of their energy horizontally or vertically because it is difficult to control their beams.

It is easier to direct light from LEDs because it is being emitted from a smaller area.

 

So, while manufacturers controlled the direction of the light rays from older lamps using a reflector typically made out of polished aluminium, they can now take advantage of lenses to be more precise.

 

The researchers say the best LED (light-emitting diode) streetlamps on the market direct about 10% of their energy horizontally or vertically.

 

But they claim their own invention could further reduce the amount to just 2%.Their proposed lamp uses three features to ensure the vast majority of its light is limited to a pre-determined rectangular shape covering the road:

• A special "total internal reflection" lens for each LED designed to focus its light's rays so that they travel parallel to each other in a single direction. This is rather than criss-crossing and diverging from each other causing many to spill beyond the target area.• A reflecting cavity into which the lens-covered LEDs are fitted. This helps "recycle" any light rays which fail to travel the desired path.• A diffuser through which the focused light passes to help tackle unwanted glare.

The researchers suggest that the set-up would also save on electricity costs since it should require between 10 and 50% less power to illuminate a section of road than current LED streetlamps.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
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Bake Your Own Droplet Lens

Bake Your Own Droplet Lens | Research | Scoop.it
Turn your smartphone into a microscope that has 160 times magnifying power with a cheap, do-it-yourself lens.
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सुक्ष्मदर्शक म्हणून काम करण्यासाठी अशा लेन्स फायद्याच्या ठरू शकतात. त्याची निर्मिती आणि उपयोग विषयी अधिक काम होण्याची आवश्यकता आहे.

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Promising solution: Bioplastic made from shrimp shells

Promising solution: Bioplastic made from shrimp shells | Research | Scoop.it

or many people, “plastic” is a one-word analog for environmental disaster. It is made from precious petroleum, after all, and once discarded in landfills and oceans, it takes centuries to degrade.

 

Then came apparent salvation: “bioplastics,” durable substances made from renewable cellulose, a plant-based polysaccharide. But problems remained. For one, the current bioplastics do not fully degrade in the environment. For another, their use is now limited to packaging material or simple containers for food and drink.

 

Now researchers at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have introduced a new bioplastic isolated from shrimp shells. It’s made from chitosan, a form of chitin — the second-most abundant organic material on Earth.

 

Chitin, a tough polysaccharide, is the main ingredient in the hardy shells of crustaceans, the armorlike cuticles of insects, and even the flexible wings of butterflies.

 

The Wyss Institute makes its shrilk from chitin from shrimp shells, most which would otherwise be discarded or used in fertilizer or makeup, and a fibroin protein from silk. Researchers discussed it in a March online study in the journal Macromolecular Materials & Engineering.

 

Shrilk is cheaply and easily fabricated by a novel method that preserves chitosan’s strong mechanical properties. The researchers said that for the first time, this tough, transparent, and renewable material can be used to make large, 3-D objects with complex shapes using traditional casting or injection-molding techniques. That means objects made from shrilk can be mass-manufactured and will be as robust as items made with the everyday plastics used in toys and cell phones.

 

“There is an urgent need in many industries for sustainable materials that can be mass produced,” Wyss Director Donald E. Ingber said in March. “Our scalable manufacturing method shows that chitosan, which is readily available and inexpensive, can serve as a viable bioplastic that could potentially be used instead of conventional plastics for numerous industrial applications.” This environmentally safe alternative to plastic could also be used to make trash bags, packaging, and diapers.


Via Dr. Stefan Gruenwald
satish's insight:

टिकाऊपण, लवचिकता आणि सक्षमता यामुळे प्लॅस्टिकचा वापर विविध क्षेत्रामध्ये मोठ्या प्रमाणात वाढला आहे. मात्र, त्याच वेळी त्याच्या अविघटनशीलतेमुळे प्लॅस्टिकचे प्रदुषणही वेगाने वाढत आहे. त्यामुळे विघटनशील असे जैवप्लॅस्टिक विकसित करण्यासाठी जगभरामध्ये सातत्याने संशोधन होत आहे. मात्र, सध्या उपलब्ध असलेलेजैव प्लॅस्टिकचा वापर अत्यंत मर्यादीत कारणांसाठी होऊ शकतो. त्यातही खाद्यपदार्थांचे पॅकेजिंग आणि पेयपात्रासाठी सामान्यतः केला जातो. तसेच हे जैव प्लॅस्टिकही अत्यंत कमी वेगाने विघटीत होते. या साऱ्या समस्यावर मात करण्यासाठी हार्वर्ड विद्यापीठातील वायस इन्स्टिट्यूट फॉर बायोलॉजिकल इन्स्पायर्ड येथील संशोधकांनी कोळंबीच्या कवचापासून जैव प्लॅस्टिक वेगळे केले आहे.

 

प्लॅस्टिकच्या अविघटनशीलतेमुळे होणारे प्रदुषण रोखण्यासाठी हे जैव प्लॅस्टिक अत्यंत उपयुक्त ठरेल.

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Marco Bertolini's curator insight, May 6, 2014 11:28 AM

Des plastiques bio fabriqués à partir de la chitine des crevettes...

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Over demanding market affects fisheries more than climate change

Over demanding market affects fisheries more than climate change | Research | Scoop.it
Fisheries that rely on short life species, such as shrimp or sardine, have been more affected by climate change, because this phenomenon affects chlorophyll production, which is vital for phytoplankton, the main food for both species.
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Ethanol blends carry hidden risk

Ethanol blends carry hidden risk | Research | Scoop.it
Blending ethanol into fuel to cut air pollution from vehicles carries a hidden risk that toxic or even explosive gases may find their way into buildings.
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Recycled plastic effective in killing drug-resistant fungi

Recycled plastic effective in killing drug-resistant fungi | Research | Scoop.it
Researchers at Singapore’s Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology
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MPMI: A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain (2013)

MPMI: A novel, sensitive method to evaluate potato germplasm for bacterial wilt resistance using a luminescent Ralstonia solanacearum reporter strain (2013) | Research | Scoop.it

Several breeding programs are under way to introduce resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in solanaceous crops. The lack of screening methods allowing easy measurement of pathogen colonization and the inability to detect latent (i.e. symptomless) infections are major limitations when evaluating resistance to this disease in plant germplasm. We describe a new method to study the interaction between R. solanacearum and potato germplasm that overcomes these restrictions. The R. solanacearum strain UY031 was genetically modified to constitutively generate light from a synthetic luxCDABE operon stably inserted in its chromosome. Colonization of this reporter strain on different potato accessions was followed using life imaging. Bacterial detection in planta by this non-disruptive system correlated with the development of wilting symptoms. In addition, we demonstrated that quantitative detection of the recombinant strain using a luminometer can identify latent infections on symptomless potato plants. We have developed a novel, unsophisticated and accurate method for high-throughput evaluation of pathogen colonization in plant populations. We applied this method to compare the behavior of potato accessions with contrasting resistance to R. solanacearum. This new system will be especially useful to detect latency in symptomless parental lines before their inclusion in long-term breeding programs for disease resistance.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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हंग्री गर्ल सांगणार आता बटाट्याचे महत्त्व

अमेरिकेतील बटाटा बोर्ड बटाट्याचे गैरसमज दूर करण्यासाठी घेणार हंग्री गर्ल ची मदत

 

बटाटा हे अधिक पोषक घटक असलेले पीक आहे. या पिकाबद्दल आरोग्याविषयी जागरूक असलेल्या लोकांमध्येही अनेक गैरसमज असल्याचे दिसून येते. विशेषतः वजन कमी करणाऱ्या किंवा स्थिर ठेवण्यासाठी धडपडणाऱ्या लोकामध्ये बटाटा असलेल्या खाद्यपदार्थाविषयी अनेक गैरसमज आहेत. हे गैरसमज दूर करण्यासाठी अमेरिकेतील बटाटा बोर्ड (युएसपीबी) ने हंग्री गर्ल म्हणून ओळखल्या जाणाऱ्या लिसा लिलियन यांच्यासह भागीदारीमध्ये कार्यक्रमाची आखणी केली आहे. त्या अमेरिकेतील लोकप्रिय लेखिका व खाद्यपदार्थविषयक टेलिव्हिजन कार्यक्रमांच्या प्रस्तूतकर्त्या आहेत.

 

 

असा असेल हा कार्यक्रम
- कार्यक्रमाबाबत माहिती देताना युएसपीबी चे प्रवक्ता मेरेडिथ मेयर्स म्हणाले, की बटाट्यामुळे जाडी वाढते, या प्रकारच्या दंतकथाशी लढा देण्याचा निर्णय बोर्डाने घेतला आहे. अन्न आणि पेय व्यवसायामध्ये लोकामध्ये माहिती असलेली लिलियन ही वजनाबाबत अधिक सजग असणाऱ्या लक्षावधी लोकांपर्यत पोचण्यासाठी उपयुक्त ठरू शकते.

 

- त्याच सोबत अधिक चविष्ट, पोषक आणि तरिही कमी कॅलरीच्या विविध खाद्यपदार्थाच्या रेसिपी प्रति दिन ग्राहकांपर्यंत पोचवल्या जाणार आहेत.

 

- प्रति दिन 1.2 दशलक्ष सदस्य़ांच्या मेलवर ही माहिती पोचवली जाणार आहे.

 

- हंग्री गर्ल लिलीएन यांच्या वेबसाईटला प्रति माह सुमारे एक दशलक्ष लोक भेट देतात. तेथील डायट बुक, रेसिपी किंवा कुकबुक ची सदरे, व्हिडीओ पाहिली जातात.

 

- या साऱ्या माध्यमातून पश्चाताप रहित बटाटा या विषयावर मार्केटिंग मोहिम आखण्यात येत आहे. त्यामध्ये लिलीयन या हजारो खाद्य सजग लोकांशी आपल्या विशिष्ट अशा पद्धतीने संवाद साधणार आहे. या मोहिमेमध्ये 25 ते 54 वयोगटातील महिला आणि 18 वर्षाखालील मुलांवर अधिक लक्ष केंद्रित केले जाणार आहे.

 

कोण आहे ही हंग्री गर्ल

 

- लिसा लिलीयन ही न्युयार्क टाइम्सची वाचकप्रिय लेखिका आहे. त्यांनी हंग्री गर्ल हा ब्रॅंड तयार केला असून, आपल्या वेबसाईटद्वारे मेलवर पोषकतेविषयी माहिती देणारी सेवा त्यांनी तयार केली आहे.

 

- त्यांच्या वेबसाईटवर एक दशलक्ष पेक्षा अधिक लोक भेट देतात. त्यांनी मांडलेल्या रेसिपी व खाद्याची माहिती, खाद्याविषयी विविध क्लुप्त्या, मुद्दे यांची माहिती घेतात.

 

- केवळ मित्र मैत्रिणीपुरता असलेला मेल संवाद आता अमेरिकाभर पोचला आहे.

 

- लिसा यांनी आठ पुस्तके लिहीली असून, त्यातील पाच पुस्तके सर्वाधिक विक्रीच्या न्युयॉर्क टाईम्सच्या यादीमध्ये पहिल्या क्रमांकावर होती. मे 2013 मध्ये प्रकाशित झालेले हंग्री गर्ल 200 अंडर 200 जस्ट डेझर्ट्स नुकतेच या यादीत आले आहे.

 

- फुड नेटवर्क व कुकिंग चॅनेल या वर लिसा हंग्री गर्ल हा टेलिव्हिजन कार्यक्रम प्रसारीत होतो. त्या स्वतःला मॅड सायंटिस्ट असे म्हणवून घेतात.

 

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Are banana farms contaminating Costa Rica's crocs?

Are banana farms contaminating Costa Rica's crocs? | Research | Scoop.it
Shoppers spend over £10 billion on bananas annually and now this demand is being linked to the contamination of Central America's crocodilians.
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Sex chromosome shocker: The 'female' X a key contributor to sperm production

Painstaking new analysis of the genetic sequence of the X chromosome -— long perceived as the “female” counterpart to the male-associated Y chromosome -— reveals that large portions of the X have evolved to play a specialized role in sperm...
satish's insight:

एक्स एक्स हे मादीचे क्रोमोसोम्स आणि पुरषांचे एक्स वाय हे क्रोमोसोम्स मानले जातात. एक्स क्रोमोसोम हेच नरामधील प्रजननासाठीच्या महत्त्वाच्या बाबीसाठी कारणीभूत अशल्याचे या संशोधनातून दिसून आले आहे. 

 

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आता रक्तवाहिन्या ठरतील परवलीचा शब्द

उच्च सुरक्षेसाठी अंगठ्याचा ठसा, डोळ्यांची बाहुली किंवा पासवर्ड सारेच पडणार मागे

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पुर्वी आपली ओळख म्हणून सही किंवा अंगठ्याचा ठसा उपयुक्त होता. आता डिजीटल युगामध्ये आपल्या माहितीची सुरक्षा करण्यासाठी पासवर्ड किंवा परवलीचा शब्द वापरला जातो. त्याहीपुढे जात बायोमेट्रीक ओळख म्हणून हाताची बोटे आणि डोळ्यांतील बाहुलीचे मापन केले जाऊ लागले. मात्र येत्या काही दिवसात या साऱ्या कल्पना मागे पडण्याची शक्यता आहे. आपल्या चेहऱ्याच्या त्वचेखालील रक्तवाहिन्यांचा नकाशा स्कॅनिंगद्वारे टिपला जाणार असून, त्याचा वापर चेहऱ्याची ओळख म्हणून वापरण्याची कल्पना पुढे येत आहे. रक्त वाहिन्यांच्या नकाशाची नक्कल कोणत्याही परिस्थितीत करता येणार नसल्याचा दावा कोलकत्ता येथील जादवपूर विद्यापीठातील संशोधकांच्या गटाने केला आहे. त्यांनी आपले हे इंटरनॅशनल जर्नल ऑफ कॉम्प्यूटेशनल इंटेलिजन्स स्टडीज च्या अंकात प्रकाशित होणाऱ्या लेखात केला आहे.

 

कोलकत्ता येथील जादवपूर विद्यापीठातील अयन सील आणि त्यांच्या सहकाऱ्यांनी चेहऱ्यांच्या त्वचेखालील रक्तवाहिन्यांच्या अवरक्त किरणांच्या साह्याने स्कॅनिंग केले आहे. या स्कॅनिंग द्वारे अत्यंत सूक्ष्म अशा रक्तवाहिन्यांचा 97 टक्क्यांपर्यंत अचूक नकाशा मिळवणे शक्य आहे. त्याचे संगणकिय गणिती प्रक्रियेने विश्लेषण केले असून या थर्मोग्राम स्कॅनचा वापर उच्च सुरक्षा अपेक्षित असलेल्या ठिकाणी करणे शक्य आहे.

 

सध्या वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या सुरक्षा पद्धतीमध्ये नक्कल करणे शक्य असते. हाताचे ठसे, डोळ्यांची बाहुली यामध्ये खोटे ठसे किंवा लेन्सच्या वापरातून सुरक्षा भेदणे शक्य असते. मात्र चेहऱ्याच्या त्वचेआतील रक्तवाहिन्यांची नक्कल कोणत्याही प्रकारे करता येणार नसल्याचा दावा संशोधकांनी केला आहे.

 

Journal Reference:
Ayan Seal, Suranjan Ganguly, Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mita Nasipuri, Dipak Kr. Basu. Automated thermal face recognition based on minutiae extraction. International Journal of Computational Intelligence Studies, 2013

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3D printable ‘Drone It Yourself’ kit turns almost anything into an unmanned aerial vehicle

3D printable ‘Drone It Yourself’ kit turns almost anything into an unmanned aerial vehicle | Research | Scoop.it
Drones are met with a great deal of suspicion at the moment, given that no-one can really agree what, if any, regulations should be imposed on their use in public and private spaces.

Jasper ...
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अक्षरशः कोणतीही गोष्ट आता हवेत उडविणे शक्य होणार आहे. अगदी सायकलचे चाकही...

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Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group

Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae : Nature Communications : Nature Publishing Group | Research | Scoop.it
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Vegetable oil is good for you, experts say

Vegetable oil is good for you, experts say | Research | Scoop.it
Since the 1970s, researchers have known that lineolic acid (LA) helps reduce blood cholesterol levels, and for decades, scientists have known that consuming LA can help lower the risk of heart disease.
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Salt Poisoning or Water Deprivation in Pigs - Pig Articles from The Pig Site

Salt Poisoning or Water Deprivation in Pigs - Pig Articles from The Pig Site | Research | Scoop.it
Pigs suffering from salt poisoning or water deprivation can be severely affected and in some cases it can become fatal, according to the Department of Agriculture and Food for Western Australia.
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Fertilizer in small doses yields higher returns for less money

Fertilizer in small doses yields higher returns for less money | Research | Scoop.it

 

Crop yields in the fragile semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe have been declining over time due to a decline in soil fertility resulting from mono-cropping, lack of fertilizer, and other factors. Researchers have evaluated the use of a precision farming technique called “microdosing,” its effect on food security, and its ability to improve yield at a low cost to farmers.
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Researchers split water into hydrogen, oxygen using light, nanoparticles

Researchers split water into hydrogen, oxygen using light, nanoparticles | Research | Scoop.it
Researchers have found a catalyst that can quickly generate hydrogen from water using sunlight, potentially creating a clean and renewable source of energy.
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Professor Tommy Koh: The Future Of Water Today

Professor Tommy Koh: The Future Of Water Today | Research | Scoop.it
National University of Singapore's Professor Tommy Koh highlights the importance of treasuring water and discusses solutions to conserve water.
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MPMI: A Bacterial Type III Secretion Assay for Delivery of Fungal Effector Proteins into Wheat (2013)

MPMI: A Bacterial Type III Secretion Assay for Delivery of Fungal Effector Proteins into Wheat (2013) | Research | Scoop.it

Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. AlthoughAgrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here we show that a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens(Pf) engineered to express the T3SS of Pseudomonas syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens (Xt) deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) Avr proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase (Cya) reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with Pf, makes it more suitable than Xt) for detecting hypersensitive cell death (HR) induced by effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localisation to the PM which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminisf. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus the modified AvrRpm1:effector/Pf system is an effective tool for large scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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245732's curator insight, November 19, 2013 11:53 AM

Another cool article I think. I find all walks of life interesting, even microbial plant diseases. I believe that studying these and how they work is always cool.

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Engineering drought tolerant tomato plants over-expressing BcZAT12 gene encoding a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor

Efficient genetic transformation of cotyledonary explants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. H-86, Kashi vishesh) was obtained. Disarmed Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain GV 3101 was used in conjugation with binary vector pBinAR containing a construct consisting of the coding sequence of the BcZAT12 gene under the regulatory control of the stress inducible Bclea1a promoter. ZAT12 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein which confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance to plants. Integration of ZAT12 gene into nuclear genome of individual kanamycin resistant transformed To tomato lines was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization with segregation analysis of T1 plants showing Mendelian inheritance of the transgene. Expression of ZAT12 in drought-stressed transformed tomato lines was verified in T2 generation plants using RT-PCR. Of the six transformed tomato lines (ZT1–ZT6) the transformants ZT1 and ZT5 showed maximum expression ofBcZAT12 gene transcripts when exposed to 7 days drought stress. Analysis of relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll colour index (CCI), H2O2 level and catalase activity suggested that tomato BcZAT12 transformants ZT1 and ZT5 have significantly increased levels of drought tolerance. These results suggest that BcZAT12 transformed tomato cv. H-86 has real potential for molecular breeding programs aimed at augmenting yield of tomato in regions affected with drought stress.

satish's insight:

टोमॅटोतील अवर्षण सहनशील जनुकिय सुधारीत रोपांची निर्मिती करण्यामध्ये यश आले असून, भारतासाठी ही फार महत्त्वाची बाब ठरणर आहे. 

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Frogs that hear with their mouth | e! Science News

Frogs that hear with their mouth | e! Science News | Research | Scoop.it
Gardiner's frogs from the Seychelles islands, one of the smallest frogs in the world, do not possess a middle ear with an eardrum yet can croak themselves, and hear other frogs.
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PHD Comics: The Very Dead Caterpillar - 2 Minute Thesis

PHD Comics: The Very Dead Caterpillar - 2 Minute Thesis | Research | Scoop.it
Link to Piled Higher and Deeper
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आपल्या पी.एचडी च्या थिसीसचा सारांश केवळ दोन मिनीटामध्ये सांगण्याचा हा प्रयत्न खरेच स्तुत्य आहे. सोप्या आणि चित्रांच्या माध्यमातून कितीतरी अवघड गोष्टी कशा सांगता येतात, हेच यावरून दिसून येते. 

 

सर्व तज्ज्ञांनी हे पाहण्यासारखे आहे, कारण ते खुप सोप्या गोष्टी अत्यंत अवघड भाषेत सांगण्याचा प्रयत्न करत असतात. 

धन्यवाद. 

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प्लॅस्टीक प्लॅस्टर जुळवेल वेदनारहित पद्धतीने हाड

प्लॅस्टीक प्लॅस्टर जुळवेल वेदनारहित पद्धतीने हाड | Research | Scoop.it
satish's insight:

प्लॅस्टीक प्लॅस्टर जुळवेल वेदनारहित पद्धतीने हाड

 

थ्री डी तंत्रज्ञानाने पुनर्वापर योग्य हवा खेळती ठेवणारे प्लॅस्टर विकसित

 

न्युझीलॅंड येथील व्हिक्टोरिया विद्यापीठातील विद्यार्थी संशोधक जेक एव्हिले यांनी थ्रीडी प्रिंटींगच्या साह्याने मोडलेल्या हाडांना जुळवणारे सहज सोपे, हवा खेळती राहणारे आणि पुनर्वापर योग्य असे प्लॅस्टिक प्लॅस्टरचे प्रारुप तयार केले आहे.

 

लहानपणी हात मोडलेले नाही, अशी माणसे विरळाच. मोठेपणी विशेषतः म्हातारपणी हाडातील कॅल्शिअम कमी झाल्याने हाडे मोडण्याचे प्रमाण प्रचंड असते. मोडलेली हाडे जुळवण्यासाठी प्लॅस्टर घातले जाते. हे प्लॅस्टर अनेक दिवसासाठी वापरावे लागत असल्याने वेदना, हवा खेळती न राहिल्याने दुर्गंध यांचा सामना करावा लागतो. तसेच हे प्लॅस्टर पुर्ण दिवस झाल्यानंतर हे कापून फेकून द्यावे लागते. यावर न्युझीलॅंड येथील व्हिक्टोरिया विद्यापीठातील विद्यार्थी जेक एव्हिले यांनी थ्री डी प्रिंटींगच्या साह्याने हवा खेळती राहणारे कॉर्टेक्स कास्ट हे धुणे शक्य असलेले प्लॅस्टर तयार केले आहे.

 

त्यामध्ये हाडांच्या जुळणीसाठी मधमाश्यांच्या पोळ्यांच्या रचनेसारखी रचना केली आहे. यामध्ये हवा खेळती राहत असल्याने दुर्गंधी येत नाही, तसेच अन्य वेदनाही होत नाहीत. तसेच त्याचा पुनर्वापर करणे शक्य असल्याने पर्यावरणाच्या दृष्टीने फायदेशील राहणार आहे.


या प्रकारचे प्लॅस्टर हे नेहमीच्या पद्धतीने क्ष किरण चाचणी करून हाडाचे फ्रॅक्चर शोधले जाते. त्याचवेळी त्रिमितीय स्कॅनिंगद्वारे एव्हिले यांचे प्रोटोटाईप जोडले जाते. त्या आकाराचे प्लॅस्टर थ्रीडी प्रिंटीग तंत्रज्ञानाने तयार केले जाते.

 

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Highly digestible protein sources for piglet feeding

Highly digestible protein sources for piglet feeding | Research | Scoop.it
In the post-weaning period, piglets go through a transition of diets from milk to other feedstuffs. As it can cause diarrhoea symptoms, feeding highly digestible components is key.
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Nature Communications: Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (2013)

Nature Communications: Two distinct secretion systems facilitate tissue invasion by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (2013) | Research | Scoop.it

To cause plant diseases, pathogenic micro-organisms secrete effector proteins into host tissue to suppress immunity and support pathogen growth. Bacterial pathogens have evolved several distinct secretion systems to target effector proteins, but whether fungi, which cause the major diseases of most crop species, also require different secretory mechanisms is not known. Here we report that the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae possesses two distinct secretion systems to target effectors during plant infection. Cytoplasmic effectors, which are delivered into host cells, preferentially accumulate in the biotrophic interfacial complex, a novel plant membrane-rich structure associated with invasive hyphae. We show that the biotrophic interfacial complex is associated with a novel form of secretion involving exocyst components and the Sso1 t-SNARE. By contrast, effectors that are secreted from invasive hyphae into the extracellular compartment follow the conventional secretory pathway. We conclude that the blast fungus has evolved distinct secretion systems to facilitate tissue invasion.


Via Kamoun Lab @ TSL
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