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Apparent Reflectance Raster Function | ArcGIS Resource Center

Apparent Reflectance Raster Function | ArcGIS Resource Center | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it

The Apparent Reflectance raster function calibrates image brightness values (DN) for some satellite sensors. The main advantage of apparent reflectance function is to adjust the images to a theoretically common illumination condition, so there should be less variation between scenes from different dates and from different sensors. This can be useful for image classification, color balancing, and mosaicking.

 

The function performs two calibrations. The first calibration is to convert the DN value to the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance based on the sensor properties (i.e. gain/bias or LMAX/LMIN). The second calibration is to convert the TOA radiance to apparent reflectance, based on sun elevation and acquisition date. The formulas used in the two conversions can be found in section 11.3.1 and 11.3.2 of the Landsat 7 Science Data User Handbook.

 

Apparent reflectance is a ratio and its native output range is 0-1. For display purposes, in this function, the ratio is multiplied by 255, and the output is therefore stretched from 0-1 to 0-255. When using default 8-bit unsigned integer output data type, the value is rounded down to integers.

 

Some scientific research (e.g. serving as input of atmospheric model to achieve surface reflectance) requires the original ratio. This can be achieved by 1) selecting apparent reflectance raster function output type to be 32 Bit float, and 2) adding an arithmetic raster function immediately after this function to divide the value by 255.

 

This function can only be used with specific imagery and may be automatically applied when adding data to a mosaic dataset using the appropriate raster type. The applicable sensors are Landsat, IKONOS, and QuickBird. If this function is applied to a dataset that is invalid it will slow the function chain but make no adjustments.

 

This function modifies the image values, so previous statistics and histograms are no longer valid. This function should be applied early in the function chain, after band extraction (reordering) and prior to any stretching or other radiometric function.

Written by: Hua Wei

 

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Forest Cover Database Updates Using Multi-Seasonal RapidEye Data—Storm Event Assessment in the Bavarian Forest National Park

Forest Cover Database Updates Using Multi-Seasonal  RapidEye Data—Storm Event Assessment in the Bavarian Forest National Park | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
This study is a part of a research program that investigates the potential of RapidEye (RE) satellite data for timely updates of forest cover databases to reflect both regular management activities and sudden changes due to bark beetle and storms. Applied here in the Bavarian Forest National Park (BFNP) in southeastern Germany, this approach detected even small changes between two data takes, thus, facilitating documentation of regular management activities. In the case of a sudden event, forest cover databases also serve as a baseline for damage assessment. A storm event, which occurred on 13 July, 2011, provided the opportunity to assess the effectiveness of multi-seasonal RE data for rapid damage assessment. Images of sufficient quality (<20% cloud cover) acquired one day before the storm event were used as a baseline. Persistent cloud cover meant that the first “after event” image of sufficient quality was acquired six weeks later, on 22 August, 2011. Aerial images (AI) for the official damage assessment done by the BFNP administration were acquired on that same day. The RE analysis for damage assessment was completed two weeks after the post-event data take with an overall accuracy of 96% and a kappa coefficient of 0.86. In contrast, the official aerial image survey from the BFNP was first released in late November, eleven weeks later. Comparison of the results from the two analyses showed a difference in the detected amount of forest cover loss of only 3%. The estimated cost of the RE approach was four times less than that of the standard digital AI procedure employed by the BFNP.
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How Does LiDAR Remote Sensing Work? Light Detection and Ranging

This NEON Science video overviews what lidar or light detection and ranging is, how it works and what types of information it can provide. The video was prod...
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Landsat Seen as Stunning Return on Public Investment | Science Features

Landsat Seen as Stunning Return on Public Investment | Science Features | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Landsat pays off in societal and commercial benefits. Read more
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GIS & Remote Sensing

GIS & Remote Sensing | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
“GIS & Remote Sensing, by Zy Sisal: updated automatically with a curated selection of articles, blog posts, videos and photos.”
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Know your Landsat: Understanding and Accessing Landsat Data

Interested in Landsat Data Discovery and Access? Landsat satellites have been observing Earth's land surfaces consistently for over 40 years, providing the l...
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Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality

Spectral Slope as an Indicator of Pasture Quality | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
In this study, we develop a spectral method for assessment of pasture quality based only on the spectral information obtained with a small number of wavelengths.
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Surface Freshwater Storage Variations in the Orinoco Floodplains Using Multi-Satellite Observations

Surface Freshwater Storage Variations in the Orinoco Floodplains Using Multi-Satellite Observations | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Variations in surface water extent and storage are poorly characterized from regional to global scales.
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Downloading Landsat GeoTiff Images and Viewing Them in Quantum GIS - YouTube

This video tutorial demonstrates how to download Landsat GeoTiff images from the USGS's Glovis website and composite them in Quantum GIS (QGIS). This tutoria...
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Downloading LandSat Imagery from USGS Glovis and Importing it into ERDAS Imagine -- Part 2 - YouTube

Downloading LandSat Imagery from USGS Glovis and Importing it into ERDAS Imagine -- Part 2
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10 Open Source Remote Sensing Software Packages...

10 Open Source Remote Sensing Software Packages... | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
There is an abundance of choice for open source remote sensing software. This list of 10 free applications describes what each one brings to the table.
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Russia Declassifies Satellite Earth-Sensing Data

Russia Declassifies Satellite Earth-Sensing Data | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Moscow, Russia (Sputnik) Dec 26, 2014 -
The Russian government said Friday it will provide public access to previously classified Earth-sensing data received from domestic and foreign satellites.
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Remote Sensing Basics - YouTube

Are you looking to get up to speed with the basics of remote sensing? This webinar by Russ Congalton of UNH and NHView will provide an introduction to remote...

Via Rich Schultz, Fernando Gil
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Rich Schultz's curator insight, January 9, 2015 2:45 PM

Remote Sensing in 45 minutes!

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Short Announcement: “Quality Check” on SRTM1

Short Announcement: “Quality Check” on SRTM1 | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
“Well, I was expecting this. Damn, those new SRTM1 raster files provided via EarthExplorer by the USGS are sweet.”
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Using Remote Sensing to Measure Land Deformatio...

Using Remote Sensing to Measure Land Deformatio... | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Using a remote sensing technique called ‘persistent scatterer interferometry’, Wide Area Processor (WAP) is able to measure changes in height over time
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Image Registration for Remote Sensing - gekoo.co - Search, Find, Compare and Buy it Now

Image Registration for Remote Sensing - gekoo.co - Search, Find, Compare and Buy it Now | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Image Registration for Remote Sensing in gekoo.co - Search, Find, Compare and Buy it Now - Deals and Offers Online - Discounts and Promotions
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Modeling in layers: Using remote sensing, GIS expertise to improve disaster responses | SSEC News

Modeling in layers: Using remote sensing, GIS expertise to improve disaster responses | SSEC News | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Remote sensing, GIS expertise intersect at CIMSS
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RS 2015 - International Workshop on Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Modeling, Interpretation and Applications: from a global view to a local analysis (RS 2015)

RS 2015 - International Workshop on Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Modeling, Interpretation and Applications: from a global view to a local analysis (RS 2015) | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
RS 2015 - International Workshop on Remote Sensing Data Analysis, Modeling, Interpretation and Applications: from a global view to a local analysis (RS 2015)
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Coloring the Sea Around the Pribilof Islands

Coloring the Sea Around the Pribilof Islands | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
.@NASA_Landsat 8 captured this look at the coloring of the sea around the Pribilof Islands: http://t.co/UUxIdCNaZV http://t.co/1z0BisMB6f
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Mapping Permafrost in the Alaskan Yukon River Basin | LP DAAC :: NASA Land Data Products and Services

Mapping Permafrost in the Alaskan Yukon River Basin | LP DAAC :: NASA Land Data Products and Services | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
Web-Enabled #Landsat data used to map permafrost in Alaska Yukon River Basin. http://t.co/z75hT2l8rP , @NASA_Landsat http://t.co/3cAvZcYPkb
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How Satellite Technology Is Predicting Crop Yields: Q&A with Thomson Reuters | OpenMarkets

How Satellite Technology Is Predicting Crop Yields: Q&A with Thomson Reuters | OpenMarkets | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
A good read on Remote Sensing & Yield Forecasting at @lanworth @thomsonreuters via @Open_Markets http://t.co/8tE13cOzaw
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Downloading LandSat Imagery from USGS GLOVIS and Importing it into ERDAS Imagine -- Part 1 - YouTube

Downloading LandSat Imagery from USGS GLOVIS and Importing it into ERDAS Imagine -- Part 1
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Downloading Landsat GeoTiff Images and Viewing them in ArcMap 10 - YouTube

This brief video, produced by Village Earth with support from the Indian Land Tenure Foundation, was developed to help Native land owners and Tribal programs...
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Spatial Analysis and Introduction to Remote Sensing by Nancy Thomas - YouTube

Spatial Analysis and Introduction to Remote Sensing by Nancy Thomas
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Social Media and Remote Sensing

Social Media and Remote Sensing | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
King Fire, Forest Fire, California. (Source, NASA, 2014) At the start of the course I immersed myself in all things revolving Remote Sensing, and found that there were some interesting Instagram ac...
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SRTM-1 (1 Arc second) now available with large global coverage

SRTM-1 (1 Arc second) now available with large global coverage | Remote Sensing News | Scoop.it
“With this post I would like to come back on a topic from September 2014. In this blog post on Digital-Geography I announced that from September 2014 until September 2015 high-resultion SRTM-data will be provided for free by the USGS.”
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