Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry
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Nanoparticle-based photodynamic therapy to effectively kill deep-set cancer cells in vivo

Nanoparticle-based photodynamic therapy to effectively kill deep-set cancer cells in vivo | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
An international group of scientists led by Gang Han, PhD, has combined a new type of nanoparticle with an FDA-approved photodynamic therapy to effectively kill deep-set cancer cells in vivo with m...

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List of Predatory Publishers 2014

List of Predatory Publishers 2014 | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
By Jeffrey Beall Released January 2, 2014 The gold (author pays) open-access model has given rise to a great many new online publishers. Many of these publishers are corrupt and exist only to make ...
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Wiley: Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions: Reference Edition - Ian Fleming

Wiley: Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions: Reference Edition - Ian Fleming | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
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Surface chemistry controls the selective nucleation of crystal polymorphs of a ... - Phys.Org

Surface chemistry controls the selective nucleation of crystal polymorphs of a ... - Phys.Org | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
Reliable batch-to-batch formation is crucial for crystalline, active pharmaceutical ingredients as two different polymorphs of the same drug may function very differently in the body.
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How English became language of science

How English became language of science | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
Two Norwegian scientists have won the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine - for work published in the English language. Historian of science Michael Gordin explains why they wrote in the language of Dickens and Twain rather than Ibsen and Hamsun.

Permafrost, oxygen, hydrogen - it all looks like science to me.

But these terms actually have origins in Russian, Greek and French.

Today, though, if a scientist is going to coin a new term, it's most likely in English. And if they are going to publish a new discovery, it is most definitely in English.

Look no further than the Nobel Prize awarded for physiology and medicine to Norwegian couple May-Britt and Edvard Moser. Their research was written and published in English.

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The story of the 20th Century is not so much the rise of English as the serial collapse of German as the up-and-coming language of scientific communication”

Michael Gordin
Princeton University
This was not always so.

"If you look around the world in 1900, and someone told you, 'Guess what the universal language of science will be in the year 2000', you would first of all laugh at them. It was obvious that no one language would be the language of science, but a mixture of French, German and English would be the right answer," says Princeton University's Rosengarten professor of modern and contemporary history Michael Gordin.

Gordin's upcoming book, Scientific Babel, explores the history of language and science. He says that English was far from the dominant scientific language in 1900. The dominant language was German.

"So the story of the 20th Century is not so much the rise of English as the serial collapse of German as the up-and-coming language of scientific communication," Gordin says.

You may think of Latin as the dominant language of science. And for many, many years it was the universal means of communication in Western Europe - from the late medieval period to the mid-17th Century. Then it began to fracture. Latin became one of many languages in which science was done.

The first person to publish extensively in his native language, according to Gordin, was Galileo. Galileo wrote in Italian and was then translated to Latin so that more scientists might read his work.


Two boys watch a scientist perform an experiment in a Bayer Group laboratory in Germany
Fast forward to the 20th Century. How did English come to dominate German in the realm of science?

"The first major shock to the system of basically having a third of science published in English, a third in French and a third in German - although it fluctuated based on field, and Latin still held out in some places - was World War One, which had two major impacts," Gordin says.

After World War One, Belgian, French and British scientists organised a boycott of scientists from Germany and Austria. They were blocked from conferences and weren't able to publish in Western European journals.

"Increasingly, you have two scientific communities, one German, which functions in the defeated [Central Powers] of Germany and Austria, and another that functions in Western Europe, which is mostly English and French," Gordin explains.

It's that moment in history, he adds, when international organisations to govern science, such as the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, were established. And those newly established organisations begin to function in English and French. German, which was the dominant language of chemistry, was written out.



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List to the original radio broadcast on PRI's The World, a co-production with the BBC.


The second effect of World War One took place in the US. Starting in 1917 when the US entered the war, there was a wave of anti-German hysteria that swept the country.

"At this moment something that's often hard to keep in mind is that large portions of the US still speak German," Gordin says.

In Ohio, Wisconsin and Minnesota there were many, many German speakers. World War One changed all that.

"German is criminalised in 23 states. You're not allowed to speak it in public, you're not allowed to use it in the radio, you're not allowed to teach it to a child under the age of 10," Gordin explains.

The Supreme Court overturned those anti-German laws in 1923, but for years they were the law of the land. What that effectively did, according to Gordin, was decimate foreign language learning in the US.


German-born physicist Albert Einstein taught and researched in the US
"In 1915 Americans were teaching foreign languages and learning foreign languages about the same level as Europeans were," Gordin says. "After these laws go into effect, foreign language education drops massively. Isolationism kicks in in the 1920s, even after the laws are overturned, and that means people don't think they need to pay attention to what happens in French or in German."

This results in a generation of future scientists who come of age with limited exposure to foreign languages.

That was also the moment, according to Gordin, when the American scientific establishment started to take over dominance in the world.

"And you have a set of people who don't speak foreign languages," said Gordin, "They're comfortable in English, they read English, they can get by in English because the most exciting stuff in their mind is happening in English. So you end up with a very American-centric, and therefore very English-centric, community of science after World War Two."

You can see evidence of this world history embedded into scientific terms themselves, Gordin says.

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Introduction to Frontier Molecular Orbital Theory (4.2) - YouTube

Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental observations for one of the original applications of FMO theory.
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GREAT short lectures, check the whole channel, not only on Frontier Molecular Orbital (FMO) theory, but also on several other Chemistry topics. Brief, condensed, visual, yet THOROUGH,... awesome

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Langmuir's talk on Pathological Science

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Mother f*cker Irving Langmuir (Nobel prize in Chemistry) talking about the fallacies in logical-research!! This is my FAVORITE during the last 10 years!! ENJOY FOLKS! (PLEASE! backup! and reproduce! this is gold!)

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Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis - Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry: Reverse-Engineering Nature - Hoffmann - Wiley Online Library

Biomimicry in Organic Synthesis - Bioinspiration and Biomimicry in Chemistry: Reverse-Engineering Nature - Hoffmann - Wiley Online Library | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
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Home Page | Chemistry | Meta-Synthesis

Home Page | Chemistry | Meta-Synthesis | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
Meta-Synthesis is a chemistry web publisher and consultancy company. We offer a number of free web resources.
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Optimizing Organic Reactions with Design of Experiments and Principal Component Analysis | Metamolecular

Optimizing Organic Reactions with Design of Experiments and Principal Component Analysis | Metamolecular | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
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The Biochemistry Of Autumn Colors - World Science Festival

The Biochemistry Of Autumn Colors - World Science Festival | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
Whether you make a point of going on leaf-peeping excursions or just enjoy the turning leaves shading your street, you probably wonder what the story is behind the autumn palette of maples, oaks, birches and other deciduous trees.
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Our Small Grants make a big impact - Royal Society of Chemistry

Our Small Grants make a big impact - Royal Society of Chemistry | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
Our Small Grants make a big impact Royal Society of Chemistry Each application we receive for a Small Grant is assessed by members of our Division Councils – people like Jeremy Frey, Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Southampton...
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The Chemistry Behind the Smell of Old Books: Explained with a Free Infographic

The Chemistry Behind the Smell of Old Books: Explained with a Free Infographic | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
What gives old books that ever-so-distinctive smell? Andy Brunning, a chemistry teacher in the UK, gives us all a quick primer with this infographic posted on his web site, Compound Interest. The visual comes accompanied by this textual explanation.
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Lec 1 | MIT 3.091 Introduction to Solid State Chemistry - YouTube

View the complete course at: http://ocw.mit.edu/3-091F04 Vision Statement, Administrative Details Introduction Taxonomy of Chemical Species Origins of Modern...
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BEAUTIFUL Chemistry (not just solid-state Chemistry) course, please distribute this!!

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DAN HALLETT'S BLOG: 'Jean in the Jar' illustration from 'Five Wounds: An Illuminated Novel'. Jean en el frasco

DAN HALLETT'S BLOG: 'Jean in the Jar' illustration from 'Five Wounds: An Illuminated Novel'. Jean en el frasco | Ancient & Current Pure & Applied Chemistry | Scoop.it
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