Transfer of DNA has been shown to be involved in genome evolution. In particular with respect to the adaptation of bacterial species to high temperatures, DNA transfer between the domains of bacteria and archaea seems to have played a major role. In addition, DNA exchange between similar species likely plays a role in repair of DNA via homologous recombination, a process that is crucial under DNA damaging conditions such as high temperatures. Several mechanisms for the transfer of DNA have been described in prokaryotes, emphasizing its general importance. However, until recently, not much was known about this process in prokaryotes growing in highly thermophilic environments. This review describes the different mechanisms of DNA transfer in hyperthermophiles, and how this may contribute to the survival and adaptation of hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria to extreme environments.