Recently, the S-layer protein of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius was shown to be N-linked with a tribranched hexasaccharide, composed of Man2Glc1GlcNAc2 and a sulfated sugar called sulfoquinovose. To identify genes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of this glycan, markerless in-frame deletions of genes coding for predicted glycosyltransferases were created. The successful deletion of agl16, coding for a glycosyltransferase, resulted in the S-layer protein and archaellins having reduced molecular weights, as visualized by Coomassie staining or immunoblotting. This analysis indicated a change in the N-glycan composition. Nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses confirmed that the glycan of the S-layer protein from the agl16 deletion mutant was a pentasaccharide, which was missing a terminal hexose residue. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses of the hydrolyzed N-glycan indicated that the missing hexose is a glucose residue. A physiological characterization of the agl16 deletion mutant revealed a significant effect on the growth at elevated salt concentrations. At 300 mM NaCl, the doubling time of the Δagl16 mutant was increased 2-fold compared to that of the background strain. Furthermore, the incomplete glycan structure of the Δagl16 deletion strain affected the assembly and function of the archaellum, as exemplified by semisolid Gelrite plate analysis, in which the motility is decreased according to the N-glycan size.