Attachment of microorganisms to surfaces is a prerequisite for colonization and biofilm formation. The hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus was able to attach to a variety of surfaces, such as glass, mica, pyrite, and carbon-coated gold grids. Deletion mutant analysis showed that for initial attachment the presence of flagella and pili is essential. Attached cells produced extracellular polysaccharides containing mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Genes possibly involved in the production of the extracellular polysaccharides were identified.